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Eidws 114 metoc

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  • 1. SECTION 114 METOC
  • 2. References:
    • [a] OPNAV INST 5300.12, The Information Corp, OCT 09
    • [b] Navy Oceanography Portal (NOP) www.usno.navy.mil
    • [c] AG3 METOC Training Manual
    • [d] NAVEDTRA 12853 Aerographers Mate 1 and C
    • [e] Joint Pub 2-01.3, Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment.
    • [f] Joint Pub 2-03, geospatial intelligence support to Joint Operations
    • [g] NTRP 3-59.5 Tactical METOC Considerations for ASW aircraft (Dec 05)
    • [h] NTTP 3-07.11.1 Surface Ships in support of Naval special warfare, (Feb 07)
    • [i] USSOCOM Manual 525-6, Meteorological and Oceanographic Thresholds for Special Operations Forces
    • [j] NWP 3-56 Rev A, Composite Warfare Commander’s Manual
    • [k] NTTP 3-01.11, Air Defense Planning Guide, DEC 04
    • [l] NTTP 1-10.1.1 Tactical Action Officer Manual
    • [m] Joint Pub 3-03, Joint Interdiction
  • 3. References: (cont)
    • [n] TM3-07.6.06, Navy Warfare Development Command TACMEMO, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Operations Planning
    • [o] Joint Pub 3-41, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High Yield Explosives Consequences Management
    • [p] RP-1 Environmental Effects on Weapon Systems and Naval Warfare
    • [q] METOC 50-1T-0202, Atmospheric Refraction
    • [r] OPNAVINST 3140.24E, Warning and Conditions of Readiness Concerning Hazardous or Destructive Weather Phenomena
    • [s] CJCINST 6130.01D CJCS Master Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Plan (May 08)
    • [t] NAVMETOCCOMINST 3140.1L United States Navy Meteorological & Oceanographic Support Manual
  • 4. 114.1 State how Naval Oceanography supports the Information Dominance mission. [ref a]
    • They are a corps of professionals who will develop and deliver dominant information capabilities in support of U.S. Navy, Joint and National war fighting requirements. This will be covered further in this section.
  • 5. 114.2 Discuss the various types of METOC products available through the Navy Oceanography portal (NOP) – Oceanography webpage. [ref. b]
    • The U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) provides a wide range of astronomical data and products and serves as the official source of time for the DOD and a standard time for the entire U.S.
    • Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is the DOD agency responsible for issuing tropical cyclone warnings for the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
    • Naval Oceanography Operations Command (NOOC) advises Navy operations on the impact of ocean and atmospheric conditions in every theater and for every operation.
    • Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) provides the highest quality, most relevant and timely worldwide meteorology and oceanography support to U.S and coalition forces.
  • 6. 114.2 Discuss the various types of METOC products available through the Navy Oceanography portal (NOP) – Oceanography webpage. [ref. b] (cont)
    • Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) maximizes sea power by applying relevant oceanographic knowledge in support of National Security.
  • 7. 114.3 Discuss the capabilities of the following environmental satellites. [ref. c]
    • Geostationary Environmental Satellites (GOES): The backbone to short term forecasting. Aids in providing warning of thunderstorms, winter storms, flash floods and other sever weather which help save lives and preserve property.
    • Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) are able to collect global data on a daily basis for a variety of land, ocean and atmospheric applications via the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer imager (AVHRR).
    • Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) see’s clouds, bodies of water, snow, fire and pollution in the visual and infrared spectra. Helps to determine cloud type and height, land and surface temperatures, water currents and ocean surface features. The info is used in planning and conducting military operations world wide.
  • 8. 114.3 Discuss the capabilities of the following environmental satellites. [ref. c] (cont)
    • National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is the next generation of Low Earth Orbiting satellites circling the earth approximately once every 100 minutes providing global coverage, monitoring environmental conditions. It will collect, disseminate and process data about the earth’s weather, atmosphere, oceans, land and near space environment.
    • Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRIMM) is a research satellite designed to help understand the water cycle of the atmosphere covering the tropical and semi-tropical regions.
  • 9. 114.4 Discuss the following meteorological terms and elements: [ref. c, d]
    • Wind direction/speed: Wind speed is the measured motion of air with the respect to the surface of the earth covering a unit distance over a unit time. Wind direction is an indicator of the direction the wind is coming from.
    • Temperature:
      • Ambient air: The temperature of the surrounding air, such as the outdoor air temperature.
      • Wind chill: the apparent temperature felt on exposed skid due to wind. The degree depends on both air temperature and wind speed.
      • Heat stress: A variety of problems associated with very warm temperatures and high humidity.
    • Precipitation: Any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is pulled down by gravity and deposited on the earth’s surface.
    • Relative humidity: The ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the air compared to the greatest amount possible at the same temperature.
  • 10. 114.4 Discuss the following meteorological terms and elements: [ref. c, d] (cont)
    • Sky condition: The state of the sky when it is covered by clouds. Observations usually report the types, amounts and height of the clouds observed.
    • Atmospheric pressure: The pressure exerted by the atmosphere at a given point. It’s measurement can be expressed in sever ways including milibars and inches of mercury (Hg).
    • Air Mass: A large volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content. Can cover many hundreds or thousands of square miles and adopt the characteristics of the surface below them.
    • Cold/warm/occluded front: A cold front is defined as the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing (at ground level) a warmer mass of air. An occluded front is formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front. When this occurs, the warm air is separated (occluded) from the low pressure center at the Earth's surface
  • 11. 114.4 Discuss the following meteorological terms and elements: [ref. c, d] (cont)
    • Restricted visibility: Any condition in which visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms or any other similar causes. Vessels shall be deemed to be in sight of one another only when one can be observed visually from the other.
    • Fog: Droplets of water vapor suspended in the air near the ground, reducing visibility.
    • Sunrise/sunset: The time of day or night when the sun begins to rise/fall over the horizon.
    • Moonrise/Moonset: The time of day or night when the moon begins to rise/fall over the horizon.
    • Lunar illumination: The amount of light illuminated by the moon. Usually reported in a percentage.
  • 12. 114.4 Discuss the following meteorological terms and elements: [ref. c, d] (cont)
    • Tropical cyclones:
      • Tropical depression: a closed circulation of low atmospheric pressure, originating over tropical waters, which blows counter-clockwise around a center at speeds less than 34-knots. It can lead to a tropical storm
      • Tropical Storm: a closed circulation of low atmospheric pressure, originating over tropical waters, which blows counter-clockwise around a center at speeds 34-63-knots. It can lead to a hurricane/typhoon.
      • Hurricane/typhoon: a closed circulation of low atmospheric pressure with numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Originates over tropical waters, which blows counter-clockwise around a center at speeds greater than 63-knots.
    • Thunderstorms: A storm from warm humid air rising in an unstable environment, usually because of unequal surface heating, consisting of thunder and lightning produced by a cumulonimbus, usually accompanied with rain or hail.
  • 13. 114.4 Discuss the following meteorological terms and elements: [ref. c, d] (cont)
    • Tornado/Waterspout: A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud. A waterspout is normally referred to as a small, relatively weak rotating column of air over water.
    • Funnel Cloud: A funnel cloud is a funnel-shaped cloud of condensed water droplets, associated with a rotating column of wind and extending from the base of a cloud (usually a cumulonimbus or towering cumulus cloud) but not reaching the ground or a water surface.
  • 14. 114.5 Discuss the following effect of weather on military operations: [ref. e]
    • Visibility: On offense, low visibility can conceal the concentration and movement of military forces thus enhancing the element of surprise. On defense it can hinder reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition. Does not affect missions that are not dependent on visual reference.
    • Precipitation: Affects visibility and the functioning of many infrared and electro-optical sensors, radar, and communication systems.
    • Winds: Wind blown sand, dust, rain or snow can reduce the effectiveness of radars and communication systems and also hamper the efficiency of directional antenna systems by inducing antenna wobble.
    • Cloud Cover: Degrades the effectiveness of many target acquisition and surveillance systems by concealing military forces and reducing the solar heating of some targets.
  • 15. 114.5 Discuss the following effect of weather on military operations: [ref. e]
    • Temperature and humidity: Extremes of temperature and humidity have debilitating effects on personnel and reduce equipment capabilities and the effectiveness of chemical and biological weapons. Variations in the vertical dimension through the lowest thousand feet of atmosphere affect electromagnetic propagation and can degrade radar signals, creating gaps in the vertical coverage.
  • 16. 114.6 Discuss the following oceanographic terms and elements: [ref. c, d]
    • Ocean Eddies
      • Cold: Occurs when a pocket of cold water breaks off from a cold current and travels counter-clockwise into warmer ocean waters.
      • Warm: Occurs when a pocket of warm water breaks off from a warm current and travels clockwise into the colder ocean waters.
    • The measurement and recording of subsurface water temperature at various depths is called a bathythermograph observation . Bathythermograph observations are normally conducted only in ocean depths of 100 fathoms (600 feet) or greater.
    • Bioluminescence: The light emitted by a bioluminescent organism is produced by energy released from chemical reactions occurring inside (or ejected by) the organism. Can be used to detect submarines and other vessels.
  • 17. 114.6 Discuss the following oceanographic terms and elements: [ref. c, d]
    • Seas
      • Sea wave: Also known as wind waves, are waves generated by the wind in the local area. Light winds usually produce seas with small wave heights, small wave lengths, and short periods. Higher winds usually produce waves with higher heights, longer wave lengths, and longer periods.
      • Wave height: The vertical distance, usually measured in feet, from the crest of a wave (the highest portion of a wave) to the trough of the wave (the lowest portion of the wave).
      • Wave period: The time, usually measured in seconds, that it takes for a complete wave cycle (crest to crest or trough to trough) to pass a given fixed point.
      • Swell wave: Are seas that have moved out and away from the area in which they were formed. Because of their different wave lengths and wave speeds, waves move outward from the windy areas where they formed, and separate into groups of waves with distinct wave periods. Since the winds are no longer pushing on the waves, they take on a more typical sine wave pattern with generally equally rounded crests and troughs and appear smooth and regular in appearance.
  • 18. 114.6 Discuss the following oceanographic terms and elements: [ref. c, d]
    • SST: Sea Surface Temperature - water temperature close to the surface.
    • Tides:
      • Ebb: currents that flow away from the shore.
      • Flood: currents that flow toward the shore.
      • High: When the sea level is at its highest point.
      • Low: When the sea level is at its lowest point.
    • Currents
      • Open Ocean: Refers to the motion of the water driven by tides, winds or differences in density. They profoundly affect the weather, marine transportation and the cycling of nutrients. Knowledge of ocean currents is essential to the shipping and fishing industries and is helpful for search-and-rescue operations, hazardous material cleanups and recreational swimming and boating.
  • 19. 114.6 Discuss the following oceanographic terms and elements: [ref. c, d]
    • Currents (cont)
      • Littoral: The littoral current, also called the longshore current, is the current produced by the transport of the water caused by the breaking action of the waves. As the waves approach the shore at an angle, water is pushed up onto the beach at the same angle, and generates a net flow of water or a current. This current runs parallel to the beach and may be amplified by the presence of a longshore sandbar.
      • Rip: Formed when opposing offshore currents bend sections of a littoral current seaward, creating rip currents (popularly but erroneously called riptides). Rip currents are caused by water piling up along the shore. The water flows parallel to the shore for a short distance until it meets an opposing current or is deflected by bottom irregularities. Rip currents consist of three parts, the feeder current or currents which flow parallel to the beach inside the breaker zone, the neck where the feeder current or currents converge and flow through the breakers in a narrow band or rip.
    • Surf Zone: Is the area from the water uprush outward to the point at which waves first show any indication of breaking.
  • 20. 114.6 Discuss the following oceanographic terms and elements: [ref. c, d]
    • Breaker Type
      • Spilling: Occur with gentle and flat beach slopes. As a wave moves toward the beach, steepness increases gradually and the peak of the crest gently slips down the face of the wave. The water at the crest of a wave may create foam as it spills over.
      • Plunging: Occurs with a moderate to steep beach slope. In this type of breaker, a large quantity of water at the crest of a wave curls out ahead of the wave crest, temporarily forming a tube of water on the wave face, before the water plunges down the face of the wave in a violent tumbling action.
      • Surging: Normally seen only with a very steep beach slope. This type of breaker is often described as creating the appearance that the water level at the beach is suddenly rising and falling. The entire face of the wave usually displays churning water and produces foam, but an actual curl never develops. The water depth decreases so rapidly that the waves do not reach critical steepness until they are right on the beach. The entire wave surges up the beach and most of the energy is reflected back seaward. These waves can be very dangerous for landing craft.
  • 21. 114.6 Discuss the following oceanographic terms and elements: [ref. c, d]
    • Ocean fronts: are narrow areas separating large differences in water temperature, salinity, density and velocity. They delineate the boundary between different water masses.
    • Ocean bottom
      • Topography: Ocean topography studies the configuration of the seafloor and of the ocean surface
      • Composition: What the ocean floor is made up of (rock, sand, etc.)
  • 22. 114.7 Discuss how the ocean’s surface, subsurface, and littoral impacts the environment to operations. [ref. e]
    • Ocean Surface: Relative seat state is a major factor in determining the feasibility of naval operations and the functionality of maritime weapons platforms.
    • Ocean subsurface: Crucial to the conduct of submarine, antisubmarine and mining operations. Depth, saline content and water temperatures at different depths significantly affect sonar operations. Shallow waters are ideal for ocean bottom mines, but impact undersea sensors and weapons systems. Deep water allows for better maneuvering for submarines and has less impact on undersea sensors and weapons systems.
    • Littoral: Characteristics such as littoral gradient and composition, coastal terrain features and transportation infrastructure, tides and currents are critical factors in planning and conducting naval operations.
  • 23. 114.8 Describe the following thermal layers within the ocean: [ref. c]
    • Mixed layer: The upper layer of the ocean consisting of relatively warmer temperatures and depths to a maximum of 450 meters or 1500 feet. Get’s its name from two mixing process classified as mechanical and convective which brings its fairly constant warm temperatures.
    • Thermocline: Found at the base of the mixed layer and marked by a rapid decrease of water temperature with depth. At mid-latitudes, a seasonal thermocline is developed from the gradual warming of the surface waters in the upper few hundred feet. The summer thermocline is more pronounced then the spring or autumn. In mid latitudes it extends to approximately 1,200 meters.
    • Deep layer: The bottom layer of water, which in the middle latitudes exists below 1,200 meters. Fairly constant cold temperatures generally less then 4 degrees C.
  • 24. 114.9 Discuss the significance of the following parameters on the transmission of sound in seawater: [ref. c]
    • Temperature: Primary controller of sound speed and direction in the upper 300 meters of seawater. An increase in water temperature increases the speed of sound through water and vice versa.
    • Pressure: Dominant sound speed controller below 300 meters. Increase in pressure = increase in speed.
    • Salinity: Salinity values in the open sea are nearly constant. Increase in salinity = increase in speed.
  • 25. 114.10 Discuss basic relationship of METOC to Geospatial Intel
    • METOC is considered an intelligence layer of the GEOINT information base. A detailed understanding of the operational environment is critical to joint operations during both the planning process and the ongoing operations.
  • 26. 114.11 Describe the impacts of environmental conditions to the following warfare areas:
    • Could not find any of the references but some of these are covered in previous sections of this chapter.
  • 27. 114.12 Discuss the effects that the following atmospheric conditions can have on the electromagnetic propagation of a radar beam: [ref. q ch.7]
    • Standard/Normal refraction: Under normal atmospheric conditions, when there is a gradual decrease of pressure, temperature, and humidity with height, a radar beam’s curvature is slightly less than the earth’s curvature. This causes it to gradually climb higher with distance
    • Super-refraction: Temperature increases with height (inversion) and/or the water vapor content decreases rapidly with height, the refractivity gradient will decrease from the standard. Causes the signal to deflect earthward below its normal path.
    • Sub refraction: When density contrast in the atmosphere is weak, such as when water vapor content increases and/or temperature decreases rapidly with height. The signal will bend less than normal and climb excessively skyward.
  • 28. 114.12 Discuss the effects that the following atmospheric conditions can have on the electromagnetic propagation: [ref. q ch.7]
    • Trapping: A very rapid decrease in the N-gradient will cause radar waves to become trapped in a layer of the atmosphere and travel abnormally long distances. It is a frequent occurrence when strong inversions are present. When ducting occurs, a returning pulse may display low targets from hundreds of miles away-targets that are not normally detected. Keep in mind that ducting is also dependent upon the wavelength of the radar. The larger the wavelength, the deeper the layer has to be before ducting can occur.
  • 29. 114.13 Describe the criteria and weather conditions associated with each of the following warnings and how they will impact operations: [ref. d, r]
    • Small craft: Harbor and inland waters warning for winds (33 knots or less) of concern to small craft. The lower threshold for issuing such warnings is set by local area authority.
    • Gale: Harbor and inland waters warning for sustained winds of 34 to 47 knots are expected or occurring, and are not directly associated with tropical cyclones.
    • Storm: Warning for harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds 48 knots or greater, and are not directly associated with tropical cyclones.
  • 30. 114.13 Describe the criteria and weather conditions associated with each of the following warnings and how they will impact operations: [ref. d, r]
    • Local Advisory:
    • High seas: These warnings are issued every 12 hours whenever actual or forecast significant wave heights in an ocean area of the Northern Hemisphere equal or exceed 12 feet.
    • Severe thunderstorm/tornado: Severe Thunderstorm Warning - severe thunderstorms (with wind gusts to 50 knots or greater and/or hail of 3/4 inch diameter or greater) are forecast to impact the warning area. Tornado Warning - tornadoes have been sighted or detected by RADAR in or adjacent to the warning area, or have a strong potential to develop in the warning area.
  • 31. 114.13 Describe the criteria and weather conditions associated with each of the following warnings and how they will impact operations: [ref. d, r] (cont)
    • Thunderstorm: Thunderstorms are forecast to impact the warning area.
    • Hurricane/Typhoon: Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds 64 knots or greater. (Refer to Conditions of Readiness)
    • Extreme temperature: When conditions warrant, Heat Index and Wind-Chill are reflected in all forecasts/travel advisories until the likelihood ceases.
    • Heavy snow: Warning may be issued for snow, mixed or freezing precipitation, wind chill, or anything that could impact operations. The parameters under which a winter storm warning will be issued are determine by local area commanders.
    • Flash flood: Heavy rainfall may result in, or has produced, flash flooding.
  • 32. 114.13 Describe the criteria and weather conditions associated with each of the following warnings and how they will impact operations: [ref. d, r] (cont)
    • Hazardous surf:
    • Tsunami:
    • Earthquake:
  • 33. 114.14 Discuss the following Tropical Cyclone Conditions of Readiness and who sets them: [ref. r]
    • Local area commanders may set a higher Conditions Of Readiness but may not lower any condition below that established by the regional Planning Agent for Natural Disasters or their delegated representative.
    • COR 5: Possible threat of destructive winds of the force indicated within 96 hours. Usually set at the beginning of the tropical season or in some areas, such as Guam, it is set year round.
    • COR 4: Possible threat of destructive winds of the force indicated within 72 hours. Review hazardous and destructive weather implementation plans as established by local regulations.
    • COR 3: Destructive winds of the force indicated are possible within 48 hours. Take preliminary precautions.
  • 34. 114.14 Discuss the following Tropical Cyclone Conditions of Readiness and who sets them: [ref. r] (cont)
    • COR 2: Destructive winds of the force indicated are anticipated within 24 hours. Take precautions that will permit establishment of an appropriate state of readiness on short notice.
    • COR 1: Destructive winds of the force indicated are occurring or anticipated within 12 hours. Take final precautions as prescribed.
  • 35. 114.15 Discuss the following astronomical data types: [ref. b]
    • Nautical Almanac: Provides the US Navy with a convenient form of the astronomical data used for celestial navigation. It contains the Greenwich hour angle and declination of the sun, moon and navigational planets; positions of the navigational stars; rise and set times of the sun and moon for a range of latitudes and other data.
    • Astronomical Almanac: Contains a wide variety of both technical and general astronomical information. The book is a worldwide resource for fundamental astronomical data.