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Eidws 109 communications

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  • 1. SECTION 109 COMMUNICATIONS
  • 2. 109.1 Discuss the purpose of a Red Cross message.
    • - Family members can use the Red Cross emergency communication system to notify service members of an emergency or other important event. Red Cross messages are delivered 24x7x365 to military personnel at any duty station.  American Red Cross communication services keep military personnel in touch with their families following the death or serious illness of a family member or other important events, such as the birth of a child.  The Red Cross sends messages quickly, anywhere in the world, including ships at sea, embassies and to isolated military units.  The information or verification in a message assists the service member's commanding officer in making a decision regarding emergency leave.
  • 3. 109.2 Describe the following systems and state their function:  
    • A. ADNS (Automated Digital Networking System) - The primary function of the ADNS is to connect Navy shipboard networks to other ship and shore networks for transferring Internet Protocol (IP) data of various classification levels. B. CUDIXS (Common User Digital Information Exchange Subsystem) – CUDIXS provides a 2400 baud full duplex interface, over a satellite link with mobile platforms, for the receipt and transmission of narrative message traffic between FMX and mobile platforms equipped with afloat automated systems. C. VERDIN (VLF Digital Information Network) - Broadcast system provides a highly reliable and secure system for worldwide delivery of operational, tactical, and administrative messages from the Fleet Submarine Broadcast System and Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network.
  • 4. 109.2 Describe the following systems and state their function: (cont)
    • E. NOVA (Automated Message Store and Forward ) - UNIX based, base-level Mode 1 store and forward terminal to relay messages to other commands outside the immediate area of responsibility, services and agencies. For message accountability purposes, the system assigns a unique Processing Sequence Number (PSN) to each message received. NOVA provides duplicate checking and First-In First-Out (FIFO) by precedence processing. Received messages are sorted by routing indicator and delivered to the DTH and backside terminals, using Mode 1 protocol. NOVA performs validation of format lines 2 through 4, 12a, 12b, 15 and 16 of ACP 128 messages. F. IBS (Integrated Broadcast System ) - IBS has integrated several existing intelligence and information dissemination systems into a single system of broadcasts that will allow for the receipt of data via a single receiver (the joint tactical terminal). IBS will disseminate threat avoidance, targeting, maneuvers, force protection, target tracking, and target/situation awareness information, and will be continuously refined by data from national, theater, and tactical sensors. G. INMARSAT (International Maritime Satellite) - Multipurpose commercial SATCOM system providing both simultaneous voice and IP data up to 128 Kbps.
  • 5. 109.2 Describe the following systems and state their function: (cont)
    • H. DMS/NREMS/AMHS (Defense Messaging System/ Navy Regional Enterprise Message System/ Automatic Message Handling System) - 1) DMS employs the messaging and directory services using internationally recognized COTS-based X.400 and X.500 messaging and directory products. 2) NREMS provides web-based messaging capability that allows users (with accounts) to send and receive DMS messages using a web browser or via SMTP. 3) AMHS provides simplified message drafting, coordination, and release of outgoing messages and a message internal distribution and delivery function for incoming messages. I. VTC (Video Teleconferencing) - An extension of traditional telephony technologies with the added feature of being able to see the person or persons with whom one is talking. J. DCO (Defense Connect Online) - DCO provides all of the benefits of the world’s best of breed collaboration capabilities in Adobe Connect and an XMPP chat service to the DoD.
  • 6. 109.3 Discuss GINGERBREAD and explain the procedures involved.
    • Ref. APP-7(B)/MPP-7(A) Joint Brevity Words Publication Edition 2004 and BASIC COMBAT SKILLS LEVEL II S-710-0941 TRAINEE GUIDE - (wwwa.nko.navy.mil/gear/library/download?document_id=1092700010 ) Gingerbread Procedures: (a) Warning sent over the net to alert operators that hostile forces are attempting to intrude on the net by Imitative Communications Deceptions (ICD) (b) When an operator recognizes or suspects that net is being subject to ICD, they will: • Announce GINGERBREAD on the net • Give the call sign of the suspected deception station • Authenticate the stations on the net • Notify the radio supervisor and make an entry on the circuit log • Notify the Communications Officer and request further instructions (c) Secure voice nets are normally exempt from GINGERBREAD, however, GINGERBREAD may be used if necessary
  • 7. 109.4 Discuss types of disclosures afforded protection by the EEFI list.
    • ( Essential Elements of Friendly Information ) Standardized EEFI are established to identify specific items of information which, if acquired by an adversary, would degrade the security of military operations, special projects, etc. As a means to rapidly identify an EEFI violation on an uncovered radio telephone circuit, the BEADWINDOW code was developed to provide a means for immediate notification of insecure practices. The following standardized EEFI listing and associated BEADWINDOW code is promulgated for Navy wide implementation. The EEFI list will be posted in clear sight of operators at all insecure voice positions for rapid reference. BEADWINDOW CODE EEFI POSITION 01 Friendly or enemy position, movement or intended movement: position; course; speed; altitude; or destination of any air, sea or ground element unit or force.
  • 8. 109.4 Discuss types of disclosures afforded protection by the EEFI list. (cont)
    • BEADWINDOW CODE EEFI
    • CAPABILITIES 02 Friendly or enemy capabilities or limitations: force composition or identity; capabilities, limitations or significant casualties to special equipment, weapon systems, sensors, units or personnel; percentages of fuels or ammunition remaining.
    • OPERATIONS 03 Friendly or enemy operations, intentions, progress or results: operational or logistic intentions; assault objectives; mission participants; flying programs; mission situation reports; results of friendly or enemy operations.
    • ELECTRONIC WARFARE 04 Friendly or enemy EW/EMCON intentions, progress or results: intention to employ EMC; results of friendly or enemy ECM objectives of ECM; results of friendly or enemy ECCM; results of ESM; present or intended EMCON policy; equipment effected by EMCON policy.
    • PERSONNEL 05 Friendly or enemy key personnel: movement or identity of friendly or enemy flag officers; distinguished visitors; unit commanders; movements of key maintenance personnel indicating equipment limitations.
  • 9. 109.4 Discuss types of disclosures afforded protection by the EEFI list. (cont)
    • BEADWINDOW CODE EEFI
    • COMSEC 06 Friendly or enemy COMSEC breaches: linkage of codes or code words with plain language; compromise of changing frequencies or linkage with line numbers/circuit designators; linkage of changing call signs with previous call signs or units; compromise of encrypted/classified call signs; incorrect authentication procedure.
    • WRONG CIRCUIT 07 Inappropriate transmission: information requested, transmitted or about to be transmitted which should not be passed on the subject circuit because it either requires greater security protection or is not appropriate to the purpose for which the circuit is provided. 08 For NATO assignment as required. 09 For NATO assignment as required. 10 For NATO assignment as required. 11-29 Reserved for COMUSNAVEUR. 30-49 Reserved for COMUSFLTFORCOM. 50-69 Reserved for COMPACFLT.
  • 10. 109.5 Discuss BEADWINDOW and explain the procedures involved.
    • BEADWINDOW is a real-time procedure which brings to the immediate attention of circuit operators the fact that an EEFI (Essential Elements of Friendly Information) disclosure has (or may have) occurred. The BEADWINDOW technique uses a code word and a number combination which is transmitted immediately by any net member to the unit disclosing the EEFI. At no time will the validity of the BEADWINDOW be discussed on the net. Proper response for a net member receiving a BEADWINDOW will be "ROGER OUT" using proper net call signs.
  • 11. 109.6 Define RIVER CITY and state when it is utilized.
    • An OPSEC tool that limits communications is River City. River City conditions provide procedures to control outgoing paths from ships and shore systems (e-mail, web browsing, POTS, cell phones) for the purpose of OPSEC and force protection. Prior to commencing sensitive planning or operations that could be compromised by inadvertent communications/information release, a River City condition should be considered with the following guidance. River City is an OPSEC countermeasure. Implementation of River City requires commands to develop a prioritized information systems users list that identifies users by their need to access systems to perform mission essential duties. The list should not be solely based on rank or pay grade, but based on function, and placed into an appropriate user group to support mission accomplishment. Those users who do not require access to systems to support mission planning or accomplishment should be grouped accordingly.
  • 12. 109.7 Discuss JSIR (Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution) to include the following:
    • The JSIR program was designed as a replacement for the Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference (MIJI) program, disestablished 30 June 1992.
    • A. Meaconing - The intentional transmission of signals designed to deceive users of navigational aids (tactical air navigation, GPS, nondirectional beacon, instrument landing system, etc.). Example: Attempting to draw aircraft across an international border by transmitting false VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range signals.
    • B. Intrusion - The intentional insertion of EM energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or causing confusion.
    • C. Jamming - The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of EM energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy’s effective use of the EM spectrum and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability.
    • D. Spectrum management - Develop and maintain the JSIR database, interference resolution tools (e.g., SPECTRUM XXI), and direction finding and spectrum monitoring equipment. The JSC will maintain an automated database of interference incidents, resolutions, and lessons learned from the historical interference reports addressed to the JSC. This database will provide status tracking, support trend analysis, and facilitate interference analysis and will be accessible to DOD components.
  • 13. 109.8 Define and state the purpose of the following:
    • A. PLA - Plain Language Address . The only designators authorized for use in Naval message addressing by Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard activities. Spelling and format accuracy when using a PLA in the action and information address format lines (format lines 7 and 8 respectively) is paramount. Non-conformance will result in message rejection and delay delivery of message traffic. B. DTG - Date-Time-Groups . Designed to prevent using duplicate DTG’S on messages from the same originator. C. UTC (ZULU) - Coordinated Universal Time prevents confusion between the different zones and types of time. All time in UTC is suffixed with a Z for identification. Because of this, UTC is referred to as “Zulu” time. The term Coordinated Universal Time and the abbreviation UTC, by international agreement, have replaced the older term Greenwich Mean Time and the older abbreviation GMT which is no longer recommended in technical contexts.
  • 14. 109.9 List the components of a standard navy message.
    • F/L Message Components: 4 Security warning, security classification code, transmission release code (TRC), special handling designator(s) (SHD) transmission instructions ( ZNR UUUUU ) 5 Precedence, originator's date-time-group, message instructions ( R 181230Z JUL 07 ) 6 Message originator ( FM ) 7 Action addressees ( TO ) 8 Information addressees ( INFO ) 11 Prosign BT 12 Message text 13 Prosign BT 15 End-of-message (EOM) validation consisting of number sign (#) and 4-digit station serial number (SSN) ( #1234 ) 16 EOM functions ( NNNN )
  • 15. 109.10 Define the following message precedence's:
    • a. R - Routine (6 hours) b. P - Priority (3 hours) c. O - Immediate (30 Minutes) d. Z - Flash (As fast as possible with an objective of less than 10 minutes) e. W - Flash Override (3 Minutes)
  • 16. 109.11 State the purpose of an OPTASK COMMS.
    • The OPTASK COMMS message is the means used by which the United States Navy and Allied Navies distribute afloat communications plans.
  • 17. 109.12 State the purpose of a COMMPLAN.
    • Communications Plan (COMMPLAN) is a multi-step process of developing and implementing voice and data communications in support of unit and fleet missions.
  • 18. 109.13 State the purpose of a TSO.
    • Telecommunications Service Order The authorization from Headquarters, DISA, a DISA area, or DISA-DSC to start, change, or discontinue circuits or trunks and to effect administrative changes.
  • 19. 109.14 State the purpose of a TSR.
    • Telecommunications Service Requests A valid, approved, and funded telecommunications requirement prepared in accordance with the format in chapter C3 and submitted to DISA or DISA activities for fulfillment. A TSR may not be issued except by a specifically authorized TCO.
  • 20. 109.15 State the purpose of a COMSPOT/Communications service advisory.
    • Communications Spot (COMSPOT) - reports will be submitted by all ships and shore facilities at any time communication outages or degradations are encountered. Submit the COMSPOT to the servicing NCTAMS and communications station respectively, info to the appropriate numbered fleet commander and ISIC. Timely submissions of COMSPOT reports are required, within thirty minutes of outage. Updates will be provided every hour or upon significant change in status. If systems can not be restored within 48 hours, submission of a CASREP will be sent in accordance with Joint Force Maintenance Manual. Do not delay CASREP submission because the cause of the outage is unclear (e.g., transport versus network). Intermittent outages should be considered for CASREP as well once the troubleshooting has exceeded the 48 hour window.
    • Communications Service Advisory - reports will be submitted by shore facilities at any time communication outages or degradations are encountered. Advisory’s are sent out anytime more than one unit has experienced an outage on a particular communications system.
  • 21. 109.16 State the purpose of Electronic Key Management System (EKMS).
    • EKMS-1B prescribes the minimum policies for issuing, accounting, handling, safeguarding, and disposing of COMSEC (Communications Security) material. Also prescribed are policies pertaining to the application of cryptographic and physical security measures involving COMSEC material and facilities.
  • 22. 109.17 State the purpose of OTAT/OTAR.
    • Over-the-Air Key Transfer (OTAT): Net Control Stations (NCSs), Circuit Control Offices, and Operational Commanders are authorized to transmit key, which is obtained through normal channels or is locally generated, over-the-air to interconnecting stations or supporting units. NOTE: Only established secure circuits that employ crypto systems designated for OTAT may be used. The Key Encryption Key (KEK) must be equal to/higher in classification than the Traffic Encryption Key (TEK)
    • Over-the-Air Rekeying (OTAR): NCSs and Circuit Control Officers are authorized to conduct OTAR with key that is obtained through normal channels or is locally generated, and rekey remote circuits under their control that employ crypto systems designated for OTAR.
  • 23. 109.18 Describe TEMPEST.
    • TEMPEST is the code name given to the investigation, study, and control of compromising emanations from telecommunications and automated information processing systems. Used to analyze and measure unwanted signal leakage do to equipment radiation.
  • 24. 109.19 State the purpose of Emissions Control (EMCON).
    • EMCON is control of all electromagnetic and acoustic radiations, including communications, radar, EW and sonar. During its imposition, no electronic emitting device within designated bands, including personal communications devices, will be operated unless absolutely essential to the mission. The OTC or his designated subordinate commander is responsible for imposing EMCON.