Eidws 102 heritage doctrine
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  • Responsiveness: Providing the right support at the right time, at the right place. This is the most important principle of logistics. Ensuring that adequate logistics resources are responsive to operational needs should be the focus of logistic planning. Such planning requires clear guidance from the commander to his planners; also, it requires clear communication between operational commanders and those who are responsible for providing logistic support. The operational commander’s concept of operations must be thoroughly familiar to the supporting elements—to ensure responsive, integrated support. Responsiveness is a product of logistic discipline, as well. Commanders and logisticians who consistently overestimate their requirements—in quantity and priority – risk slowing the systems ability to respond. Simplicity: Avoiding unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning and conducting logistic operations. Providing logistics support never is simple, but the logistics plans that utilize the basic standard support systems usually have the best chance for success. Mission-oriented logistics support concepts and standardized procedures reduce confusion. The operational commander must simplify the logistic task by communicating clear priorities, and forecasting needs based on current and accurate usage data. Flexibility: Adapting logistics support to changing conditions. Logistics must be flexible enough to support changing missions, evolving concepts of operations, and the dynamic situations that characterize naval operations. A thorough understanding of the commanders intent enables logistic planners to support the fluid requirements of naval operations. In striving for flexibility, the logistic commander considers such factors as alternative planning, anticipation, the use of reserve assets, and redundancy. The task-organization of combat service support units is an example of flexible tailoring of logistic support resources to meet anticipated operational requirements. Economy: Employing logistic support assets effectively. Accomplishing the mission requires the economical use of logistic support resources. Logistic assets are allocated on the basis of availability and the commanders objectives. Effective employment further the operational commander to decide which resources must be committed immediately and which should be kept in reserve. Additionally, the commander may need to allocate limited resources to support conflicting and multiple requirements. Prudent use of limited logistics resources ensures that support is available where and when it is most needed. Without economy, operational flexibility becomes comprised. Attainability: Acquiring the minimum essential logistic support begin combat operations. Risk is defined as the difference between the commanders desired level of support and the absolute minimum needed to satisfy mission requirements. The commander must determine the minimum essential requirements and ensure that adequate logistic support levels have been attained before initiating combat operations. In some cases time will permit building up support levels beyond minimum essential requirements. During Operation Desert Shield, for example, the coalition retained the operational initiative and delayed the commencement of combat operations until a six-month supply of material was in theater and available to the operating forces. In this case, the commander was able to attain the level needed to satisfy mission requirements. Sustainability: Providing logistic support for the duration of the operation. Sustaining the logistic needs of committed forces in a campaign of uncertain duration is the greatest challenge to the logistician. Every means must be taken to maintain minimum essential material levels at all times. This requires effective support planning that incorporates economy, responsiveness and flexibility. Sustainability also is influenced by our ability to maintain and protect the ships and aircraft that move material to and from the operational theater. Survivability: Ensuring that the logistic infrastructure prevails in spite of degradation and damage. Logistic support units and installations, lines of communication, transportation nodes and industrial centers are high-value targets that must be protected by both active and passive measures. For example—since we may not always have the luxury of conducting replenishment in protected rearward areas. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • His ship, USS Cassin, was attacked by the German submarine U-61 off the coast of Ireland on October 16, 1917. Gunner’s Mate First Class Ingram spotted the approaching torpedo, realized it would strike close by the ship's depth charges, thus dooming the ship, and rushed to jettison the ammunition. He was blown overboard when the torpedo struck, thus becoming the United States' first enlisted man killed in action in World War I as he attempted to save his ship and shipmates. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on that day. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • 102.4 – Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy. The areas of our country that became the 13 original states were colonies of England in the mid-1700's. The king of England allowed the colonies to trade only with England. Problems arose between the colonists and England as the years passed. English Parliament passed several tax laws that affected the colonists in a problem known as "taxation without representation". The colonists formed Committees of Correspondence to communicate the problems to England. They convened a Continental Congress to discuss these problems. This first congress met in 5 September 1774. At the meeting, the Congress produced a statement of rights it believed England should grant to the colonists. Then in October of 1774 the statement of rights was presented to the king. A second Continental Congress convened on 10 May 1775. The colonists appointed George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continental American Army on 15 June 1775. The Continental Congress felt forced to act as the provisional government for the colonies. They issued money, established a postal service, and created a Continental Navy. The U.S. Navy was born on 13 October 1775. On this date the Second Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels. The first commander in chief was Esek Hopkins, who put the first squadron of the Continental Navy to sea in February 1776. The two ships were used to search for munitions ships supplying the British Army. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Ships-of-the-line: The battleships of the sailing days. These ships were the largest of all sailing warships. These battleships carried 64 to 100 guns of various sizes. Frigates: The cruisers of the 18th century. These cruisers were next in size, usually smaller than average ships-of-the-line and usually faster. They carried 28 to 44 guns. Sloops-of-war: The small sailing warships. These ships carried 10 to 20 guns. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Hand salute: The hand salute is centuries old, and probably originated when men in armor raised their helmet visors so they could be identified. Salutes are customarily given with the right hand, but there are exceptions. A sailor with his right arm or hand encumbered may salute left-handed. Salute from a position of attention. Your upper arm should be parallel to the deck or ground, forearm inclined at a 45-degree angle, hand and wrist straight, palm slightly inward, thumb and fingers extended and joined, with the tip of the forefinger touching the cap beak, slightly to the right of the right eye. Hold the salute until the officer has returned or acknowledged it, then bring your hand smartly to your side. Salute all officers, men and women, of all U.S. services and all allied foreign services. Saluting the Ensign: Each person in the naval service, upon coming on board a ship of the Navy, shall salute the national ensign. He shall stop on reaching the upper platforms of the accommodation ladder, or the shipboard end of the brow, face the national ensign, and render the salute, after which he shall salute the officer of the deck. On leaving the ship, he shall render the salutes in inverse order. The officer of the deck shall return both salutes in each case. When passed by or passing the national ensign being carried, uncased, in a military formation, all persons in the naval service shall salute. Persons in vehicles or boats shall also be rendered to foreign national ensigns and aboard foreign men-of-war. Dipping the Ensign: Merchant ships "salute" Navy ships by dipping their ensigns. When a merchant ship of any nation formally recognized by the U.S. salutes a ship of the U.S. Navy, it lowers its national colors to half-mast. The Navy ship, at its closest point of approach, lowers the ensign to half-mast for a few seconds, then closes it up, after which the merchant ship raises its own flag. If the salute is made when the ensign is not displayed, the Navy ship will hoist her colors, dip for the salute, close them up again, and then haul them down after a suitable interval. Naval vessels dip the ensign only to answer a salute; they never salute first. Gun salute: In olden days it took as much as 20 minutes to load and fire a gun, so that a ship that fired her guns in salute did so as a friendly gesture, making herself powerless for the duration of the salute. The gun salutes prescribed by Navy Regulations are fired only by ships and stations designated by the Secretary of the Navy. A national salute of 21 guns is fired on Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, and Independence Day, and to honor the President of the United States and heads of foreign states. Salutes for naval officers are: Admiral: 17 guns Vice Admiral: 15 guns Rear Admiral: 13 guns Commodore: 11 guns Salutes are fired at intervals of 5 seconds, and always in odd numbers. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
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  • Battle of Coral Sea: 7-8 May 1942: Thanks to the breaking of the Japanese Navy code, the U.S. was alerted to a large Japanese force moving to the Coral Sea to seize Port Moresby on the southwest coast of New Guinea. It was to be the first step of a planned invasion of Australia. The Japanese operation centered around three aircraft carriers and dozens of troop transports, but the Americans met them with two carriers of their own. On May 7, the Japanese planes sank two minor ships, while U.S. planes sank an isolated the enemy carriers. The next day, both sides launched all their planes against the other. The aircraft passed each other unseen in the clouds, in the world's first carrier verses carrier battle. One Japanese carrier was damaged. The U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk, and the carrier Yorktown was damaged. After this action, both sides withdrew. Although a tactical victory, Coral Sea was a strategic set-back for the Japanese who never again threatened Australia. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • In pre-World War I days, the Navy carried out its role as a diplomatic arm of the government. On December 16, 1907, the Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads, Virginia, for a round-the-world cruise to show the flag. The exercise demonstrated the strength of the U.S. Navy. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • The Navy's most notable Atlantic action may have been its part in the June 6, 1944, invasion of Normandy-the largest amphibious operation in history. The greatest armada ever assembled carried out minesweeping, shore-bombardment, and amphibious operations and transported supplies and troops. Those operations enabled the Allies to complete D-Day landings successfully and eventually push on to Germany. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Battle of Midway: 3-5 June 1942: Midway was the turning point of the Pacific war. The U.S. breaking of the Japanese naval code was again the key element as it had been at Coral Sea a month earlier. A huge Japanese armada of 160 warships was involved, but commander-in-chief Admiral Yamamoto split his force, sending some ships north to the Aleutian Islands in a diversionary attack. The Japanese retained superior numbers approaching Midway which included 4 aircraft carriers and 11 battleships. At Midway the U.S. had 3 carriers and no battleships. The Americans knew what was coming because of the broken codes, and Admiral Nimitz positioned his 3 carriers, the Hornet, Enterprise, and Yorktown, out of Japanese reconnaissance range. As the Japanese carriers launched their planes to assault the Midway defenses, the U.S. planes headed for the enemy carriers. It took attack after attack, but finally the U.S. crews got through and sank 3 Japanese carriers. The next day the fourth carrier was sunk. Japanese planes sank the Yorktown. In one day Japan lost its bid for control of the Pacific. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Battle of Guadalcanal: 13-15 November 1942: After three days of bitter fighting, the Japanese naval forces retreated and U.S. Marines were able to secure the island of Guadalcanal. The Japanese lost 2 cruisers and 6 destroyers. The U.S.S. Juneau was involved in the battle. Navy policy was to place members of the same family on different ships, but the five Sullivan brother, from Waterloo, Iowa, insisted on staying together. An exception was made and they all became crewmen onboard the Juneau. The Juneau was damaged during the battle in a close-range night encounter. As it limped off for repairs, it was torpedoed. The Sullivan’s along with 700 others were lost. Because of this tragedy, Navy policy concerning family member separations was reinstated. A ship (USS The Sullivans) was later named in their honor. With the fall of the island, the southern Solomons came under Allied control and Australia was in less danger of attack. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf: The final blow to the Japanese navy came October 23, 1944. In a last-chance effort to salvage the Philippines, the Japanese sent a naval force to Leyte Gulf to attack the U.S. Fleet. Their plan backfired and the operation was a complete failure-the deciding catastrophe for their navy. The loss of the Philippines severed their empire, and the homeland was cut off from its main source of supply from the south. With the losses at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, the war in the Pacific was approaching its final days. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Mercury 3 – 05 MAY 1961 (Alan B. Shepard) – First U.S. manned space flight. Demonstrated the ability to achieve manual control under weightlessness. Gemini 3 – 23 MAR 1965 (John W. Young) - First U.S. two-man space mission; first spacecraft to maneuver from one orbit to another; 3 Earth orbits. Apollo 11 – 16-24 JUL 1969 (Neil A. Armstrong) - First manned lunar landing; the LEM descended to the lunar surface where astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin spent 21.5 hours deploying scientific instruments and collecting samples. Apollo 17 – 07-19 DEC 1972 (Eugene A. Cernan and Ronald E. Evans) - Seventh and final lunar landing mission. STS-1 – 12-14 APR 1981 (John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen) - First orbital test flight of Space Shuttle. All Navy crew. Crew tested opening and closing of cargo bay doors, emergency donning of pressure suits, and testing of basic systems. Orbiter completed planned 36 orbits and landed at Edwards AFB, Calif. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
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  • In the 1920s and 1930s, with units along the China coast the U.S. Asiatic Fleet became embroiled in the international conflict among the many powers and China. Factions in China were struggling to unify their country and to rid it of foreign imperialist enclaves. The Japanese military in China, however, often acting independently from Tokyo, was seeking to expand its control of Chinese territory. Early intercept of Japanese naval radio traffic was done on an ad hoc basis; the CNO let it be known that the Navy had an interest in acquiring encrypted Japanese communications. A number of Navy and Marine Corps radiomen spent Their spare time learning to copy Japanese messages. In May 1928, however, the CINCAF complained in a letter to the Chief of Naval Operations about how few operators he had who were qualified to copy Japanese kana code. The fleet had only nine qualified operators, all self-taught. Self- study and ad hoc operations were no longer sufficient to produce the number of needed qualified intercept operators. Therefore, in July, the CNO announced the establishment of a school to instruct radio operators in intercept operations, particularly for Japanese kana. The first class would begin on October 1, 1928, and instructors were to be two of the self-taught radiomen from the Asiatic fleet. With a larger pool of intercept operators to deploy, additional collection sites were opened: Guam, Olongapo, Philippine Islands, and Astoria, Oregon. Also, some intercept was conducted aboard ships. Since these classes were held in a wood structure set atop the Navy Headquarters Building in Washington, and since the radiomen could not explain their classwork to others, they eventually acquired the nickname, "The On-the-Roof Gang”. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • O n 27 September 1940; the SIS had made their first solution to Japanese diplomatic messages enciphered in the Purple Code. This astounding breakthrough, accomplished because the SIS was able to construct a duplicate of the Japanese Purple machine, was now to be shared with the British. The Purple machine itself was first used by Japan in June 1938, but US and British cryptanalysts had broken some of its messages well before the attack on Pearl Harbor. US cryptologists decrypted and translated the 14-part Japanese diplomatic message to its Washington Embassy (ominously) breaking off relations with the United States at 1 p.m. Washington time on 7 December 1941 before the Japanese Embassy in Washington could do so. Decryption and typing difficulties at the Embassy were a major reason the diplomatic "Nomura note" was delivered late. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • The task of obtaining the critical information required to turn the tide in the Pacific fell to OP-20-G, the Navy radio intelligence organization tasked with providing communications intelligence on the Japanese Navy. Established in the early 1920s by Laurence F. Safford, the " Father of Navy Cryptology," OP-20 -G was key to Nimitz's planning. Commander Joseph Rochefort was in command of Station Hypo, the Navy's codebreaking organization at Pearl Harbor. Over a period of 18 years, OP-20-G had developed a highly skilled group of officers and enlisted men. AF Is Short of Water: In the spring of 1942, Japanese intercepts began to make references to a pending operation in which the objective was designated as "AF.“ Rochefort and Captain Edwin Layton, Nimitz's Fleet Intelligence Officer, believed "AF" might be Midway since they had seen "A" designators assigned to locations in the Hawaiian Islands. Based on the information available, logic dictated that Midway would be the most probable place for the Japanese Navy to make its next move. Nimitz however, could not rely on educated guesses. In an effort to alleviate any doubt, in mid-May the commanding officer of the Midway installation was instructed to send a message in the clear indicating that the installation's water distillation plant had suffered serious damage and that fresh water was needed immediately. Shortly after the transmission, an intercepted Japanese intelligence report indicated that "AF is short of water." Armed with this information, Nimitz began to draw up plans to move his carriers to a point northeast of Midway where they would lie in wait. Once positioned, they could stage a potentially decisive nautical ambush of Yamamoto's massive armada. Due to the cryptologic achievements of Rochefort and his staff, Nimitz knew that the attack on Midway would commence on 3 June. Armed with this crucial information, he was able to get his outgunned but determined force in position in time. On 4 June the battle was finally joined. The early stages of the conflict consisted of several courageous but ineffective attacks by assorted Navy, Marine, and Army Air Corps units. The tide turned however, at 10:20 a.m. when Lt. Commander Wayne McClusky's Dauntless dive bombers from the USS Enterprise appeared over the main body of the Japanese invasion force. After a brief but effective attack, three of the four Japanese carriers, the Akagi, Soryu, and Kaga were on fire and about to sink. Later that day, Navy dive bombers located and attacked the Hiryu, the fourth and last major carrier in the invasion force, sending her, like the previous three, to the bottom. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • The Attack on the USS LIBERTY: During the Six-Day War between Israel and several Arab nations, the United States of America maintained a neutral country status. Shortly before the war began, the USS Liberty was ordered to proceed to the eastern Mediterranean to perform an electronic intelligence collection mission. After the war erupted, due to concerns about her safety as she approached her patrol area, several messages were sent to Liberty to increase her allowable closest point of approach (CPA) to Egypt's and Israel's coasts from 14 mi and 7.5 mi, respectively, to 23 mi and 17 mi, and then later to 120 mi for both countries. Unfortunately, due to ineffective message handling and routing, the CPA change messages were not received unt The attack on the USS Liberty was by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and motor torpedo boats, on June 8, 1967. The combined air and sea attack killed 34 crew members, wounded 170 crew members, and severely damaged the ship. At the time, the ship was in international waters north of the Sinai Peninsula, about 29 mi northwest from the Egyptian city of Arish. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • The Attack on the USS PUEBLO: USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is an ELINT and SIGINT Banner-class technical research ship (Navy intelligence) which was boarded and captured by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) on January 23, 1968, in what is known as the Pueblo incident or alternatively as the Pueblo crisis or Pueblo affair. It was a major incident in the Cold War. The North Korean vessels attempted to board Pueblo , but she maneuvered to prevent this for over two hours and a sub chaser opened fire with a 57 mm cannon, killing one member of the crew. The smaller vessels fired machine guns into Pueblo , which then signaled compliance and began destroying sensitive material. The volume of material on board was so great that it was impossible to destroy all of it. In his book The Pueblo Surrender - A Covert Action by the NSA , author Robert A. Liston points out that weakly armed spy ships operating alone, and dangerously close to enemy territorial waters normally carry little if any sensitive material on board, to minimize the risk of anything important falling into enemy hands. The crew inside the security space on board the Pueblo had over an hour to destroy sensitive material before the ship was boarded. A NSA report quotes LT Steve Harris, the OIC of Pueblo's Naval Security Group Command detachment: ".. we had retained on board the obsolete publications and had all good intentions of getting rid of these things but had not done so at the time we had started the mission. I wanted to get the place organized eventually and we had excessive numbers of copies on board..." and concludes “Only a small percentage of the total classified material aboard the ship was destroyed.” UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • D-Day Landing: In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a deception operation, Operation Bodyguard, designed to persuade the Germans that areas other than northern France would be threatened as well. Then, in the weeks leading up to the invasion, in order to persuade the Germans that the main invasion would really take place at the Pas de Calais, and to lead them to expect an invasion of Norway, the Allies prepared a massive deception plan, called Operation Fortitude. Operation Fortitude North would lead the Axis to expect an attack on Norway; the much more vital Operation Fortitude South was designed to lead the Germans to expect the main invasion at the Pas de Calais, and to hold back forces to guard against this threat rather than rushing them to Normandy. An entirely fictitious First U.S. Army Group ("FUSAG"), was created in German minds by the use of double agents and fake radio traffic. Agents were dutifully sending back messages "confirming" the existence and location of FUSAG and the Pas de Calais as the likely main attack point. During this period, most of the Allied naval bombardment was focused on Pas de Calais instead of Normandy. The Allied Forces even went as far as to broadcast static over Axis accessible radioways and convinced Germany to expend efforts to try to decode white noise, further leading Germany away from the upcoming Normandy invasion. In aid of Operation Fortitude North, Operation Skye was mounted from Scotland using radio traffic, designed to convince German traffic analysts that an invasion would also be mounted into Norway. Against this phantom threat, German units that otherwise could have been moved into France were instead kept in Norway. Operation Cover (June 2–5) used Eighth Air Force Missions to bomb transportation and airfield targets in Northern France and "coastal defenses, mainly located in the Pas de Calais coastal area, to deceive the enemy as to the sector to be invaded. The last part of the deception occurred on the night before the invasion: two RAF squadrons created an illusion of a massive naval convoy sailing for the Cap d'Antifer (15 miles north of Le Havre. This was achieved by the precision dropping of strips of metal foil. The foil caused a radar return mistakenly interpreted by German radar operators as a fleet of small craft towing barrage balloons. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Landing at Incheon: Seven days before the main attack on Incheon, a joint CIA–military intelligence reconnaissance effort, codenamed Trudy Jackson , placed a team in Incheon. The group, led by Navy Lieutenant Eugene F. Clark, landed at Yonghung-do, an island in the mouth of the harbor. From there, they relayed intelligence back to U.S. forces. With the help of locals, they gathered information about tides, mudflats,, seawalls and enemy fortifications. The mission's most important contribution was the restarting of a lighthouse on Palmi-do. When the North Koreans discovered that the agents had entered the peninsula, they sent an attack craft with 16 infantrymen. Clark mounted a machine gun on a sampan and sank the attack boat. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Hainan Island EP-3 incident: On April 1, 2001, a mid-air collision between a US Navy EP-3E surveillance aircraft and a J-8II interceptor fighter jet resulted in an international dispute between the United States and China called the Hainan Island incident . The EP-3 was operating off the PRC-controlled island of Hainan when it was intercepted by two J-8 fighters. A collision between the EP-3 and one of the J-8s forced the EP-3 to make an emergency landing on Hainan. The 24 crewmembers were detained and interrogated by the Chinese authorities until a letter of apology was issued by the United States Government. For 15 minutes after landing, the U.S. aircraft crew continued to destroy sensitive items and data on board the aircraft, as per DoD protocol. They were taken to a military barracks where they were interrogated for two nights before being moved to a lodge at Haikou, the island's main city. They were treated well in general, but were interrogated at all hours, and so suffered from lack of sleep. The 24 crew-members were detained until April 11, shortly after the U.S. issued the "letter of apology" to the Chinese. The Chinese military boarded the plane and stripped and examined the aircraft's equipment. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • Bletchley Park: Also known as Station X, is an estate located in the town of Bletchley, in Buckinghamshire, England. During WWII, Bletchley Park was the site of the United Kingdom’s main decryption establishment, the Government Code and Cypher School. Ciphers and codes of several Axis countries were decrypted there, most importantly ciphers generated by the German Enigma and Lorenz machines. The high-level intelligence produced at Bletchley Park, codenamed Ultra, provided crucial assistance to the Allied war effort and is credited with having shortened the war by two years, UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • The Navajo Code Talkers: Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima: the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945. They served in all six Marine divisions, Marine Raider battalions and Marine parachute units, transmitting messages by telephone and radio in their native language a code that the Japanese never broke. The idea to use Navajo for secure communications came from Philip Johnston, the son of a missionary to the Navajos and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Johnston, reared on the Navajo reservation, was a World War I veteran who knew of the military's search for a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He also knew that Native American languages notably Choctaw had been used in World War I to encode messages. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • The Attack on the USS STARK(FFG-31): In 1987, an Iraqi jet fighter attacked the USS Stark under disputed circumstances. 37 American sailors died as a result. It is the only successful anti-ship missile attack on a U.S. Navy warship. No weapons were fired in defense of Stark . The Phalanx CIWS remained in standby mode, Mark 36 SRBOC countermeasures were not armed, and the attacking Exocet missiles and Mirage aircraft were in a blindspot of the defensive STIR (Separate Target Illumination Radar) fire control system, preventing use of the ship's Standard missile defenses. The ship failed to maneuver to bring its weapons batteries to bear prior to the first missile impact. The board of inquiry cited lapse of training requirements and lax procedures. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • EC-121 Shoot down: The 15April1969 EC-121 shootdown remains mysterious. Such aggressive North Korean tactics against U.S. reconnaissance aircraft were very much the exception, and the incident has never been fully explained. The shootdown came suddenly and without warning. The Navy knew little about the action, since there were no survivors to tell the tale, and Pyongyang offered nothing but gloating. All that can be said for certain is that the unarmed EC-121 was attacked suddenly and blasted from the sky by at least one North Korean MiG and downed over the Sea of Japan while performing its reconnaissance mission. The EC-121 was under orders not to come closer than 50 miles to the coast. Extensive search and rescue operations revealed only debris from the lost EC-12l. It was impossible that there had been survivors among the 31 crewmen: UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
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  • The National Security Act of 1947 established a Central Intelligence Agency under the National Security Council. The function of the council was to advise the president on domestic, foreign, and military policies so that they may cooperate more tightly and efficiently. The following recommendations were submitted for consideration by the National Security Council at its first meeting: a. That all directives of the National Intelligence Authority to the Central Intelligence Group be continued in full force and effect. The Agency will function under this authorization until specifically repealed, altered or augmented by the National Security Council, or changed in accordance with the recommendation in paragraph b. below. b. That the National Security Council direct the Director of Central Intelligence to submit to the Council within sixty days, proposed authorizations supplanting the former directives of the National Intelligence Authority and specifying his functions and those of the Central Intelligence Agency in accordance with the provisions of the National Security Act of 1947. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
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  • The“Sailors Creed” was written by a “Blue Ribbon Recruit Training Panel” in 1993 at the direction of CNO Admiral Frank Kelso, who personally participated in the final edit of the working group's proposal. Admiral Kelso then directed that every recruit be given a copy and required to commit it to memory. In 1994, CNO Admiral Jeremy Boorda approved a minor change which made the creed inclusively descriptive of all hands. The change involved replacing the word “bluejacket” with "Navy," which describes the lowest enlisted rate, E-1, through the highest officer rank, O-10. After 1997 another change to the text occurred when the words "my superiors" were replaced with "those appointed over me." In today's Navy, the Sailor's Creed is memorized by all personnel in boot camp and has been incorporated in officer training as well. All of the personnel in the uniform of Naval Service are Sailors first and in addition, they are officers, chiefs, petty officers - aviators, Seabees, surface warriors and submariners. This is an important point impacting unity and esprit de corps. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • RADM Grace Hopper’s best-known contribution to computing during this period was the invention, in 1953, of the compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer. She did this, she said, because she was “ lazy” and hoped that “the programmer may return to being a mathematician.” Her work on compilers and on making machines understand ordinary language instructions led ultimately to the development of the business language COBOL. Hopper’s work also foreshadowed or embodied enormous numbers of developments that are still the very bones of digital computing: subroutines, formula translation, relative addressing, the linking loader, code optimization, and symbolic manipulation. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
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  • 102.17 – Discuss ARPANET and when it was developed. ARPANET ( Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ), created by a small research team at the head of the MIT and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the United States DoD, was the world's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the contemporary global Internet. The packet switching of the ARPANET was based on designs by Lawrence Roberts, of the Lincoln Laboratory. The first message transmitted over the ARPANET was sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline, at 10:30 p.m, on October 29, 1969. Kline transmitted from the university's SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the Stanford Research Institute's SDS 940 Host computer. The first permanent ARPANET link was established on November 21, 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute. By December 5, 1969, the entire four-node network was connected. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  • John Anthony Walker, Jr. is a retired United States Navy Chief Warrant Officer and communications specialist convicted of spying for the Soviet Union from 1968 to 1985. In late 1985, Walker pleaded guilty in a plea arrangement. During his time as a Soviet spy, CWO Walker helped the Soviets decipher more than a million encrypted naval messages. It was through Walker that the Soviets became aware that the United States were able to track the location of its submarines by the cavitations produced by their propellers. After this, the propellers on the Soviet submarines were improved to reduce cavitations. This is what initiated the requirement of Two-Person Integrity (TPI) when handling classified information. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
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  • The Attack on the USS WAINRIGHT(CG-28): In 1988, The Joshan, a Iranian Kaman-class ship, attacked the Wainwright with a Harpoon missile, which missed. The Wainwright countered by firing four Standard missiles in response, severely damaging it. The Wainwright and the two other ships in Surface Action Group Charlie then sank the Joshan with naval gunfire. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED

Eidws 102 heritage doctrine Eidws 102 heritage doctrine Presentation Transcript

  • SECTION 102 HERITAGE and DOCTRINE
  • 102.1: State and Discuss the six areas which comprise Naval Doctrine.
    • 1. Naval Warfare
      • Describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of naval forces.
    • 2. Naval Intelligence
      • Points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
    • 3. Naval Operations
      • Develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
    • 4. Naval Logistics
      • Addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential in the support of naval forces.
    • 5. Naval Planning
      • Examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
    • 6. Naval Command and Control
      • Provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.
  • 102.2: State the Seven Principles of Naval Logistics
    • Responsiveness: Providing the right support at the right time, at the right place. This is the most important principle of logistics.
    • Simplicity: Avoiding unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning and conducting logistic operations.
    • Flexibility: Adapting logistics support to changing conditions.
    • Economy: Employing logistic support assets effectively.
    • Attainability: Acquiring the minimum essential logistic support begin combat operations.
    • Sustainability: Providing logistic support for the duration of the operation.
    • Survivability: Ensuring that the logistic infrastructure prevails in spite of degradation and damage.
  • 102.3: States the First Navy Ship named after an Enlisted man.
    • USS Osmond Ingram (DD-255).
    • Launched 28 Feb 1919.
    • GM1 Ingram stationed aboard USS Cassin; was attacked by the German submarine on October 16, 1917.
    • GM1 spotted approaching torpedo and rushed to jettison the ammo. He was blown overboard when the torpedo struck.
    • He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on that day.
  • 102.4: Discuss the conditions that led to the Formation of the U.S. Navy
    • The areas of our country that became the 13 original states were colonies of England in the mid-1700's. English Parliament passed several tax laws that affected the colonists in a problem known as "taxation without representation".
    • The colonists convened a Continental Congress to discuss these problems. This first congress met on 5 September 1774. At the meeting, the Congress produced a statement of rights it believed England should grant to the colonists.
    • A second Continental Congress convened on 10 May 1775. The Continental Congress felt forced to act as the provisional government for the colonies. They issued money, established a postal service, and created a Continental Navy.
    • The U.S. Navy was born on 13 October 1775. On this date the Second Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels. The first commander in chief was Esek Hopkins, who put the first squadron of the Continental Navy to sea in February 1776. The two ships were used to search for munitions ships supplying the British Army.
  • 102.5: What 3 Classes of Naval Vessels existed at inception of the U.S. Navy?
    • Ships-of-the-line
    • Frigates
    • Sloops-of-war
  • 102.6: Discuss the following military customs and courtesies:
    • Hand salute: Salutes are customarily given with the right hand, but there are exceptions. A sailor with his right arm or hand encumbered may salute left-handed.
    • Saluting the Ensign: Each person in the naval service, upon coming on board a ship of the Navy, shall salute the national ensign.
    • Dipping the Ensign: Merchant ships "salute" Navy ships by dipping their ensigns.
    • Gun salute: The gun salutes prescribed by Navy Regulations are fired only by ships and stations designated by the Secretary of the Navy.
      • A national salute of 21 guns is fired on Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, and Independence Day, and to honor the President of the United States and heads of foreign states.
      • Salutes are fired at intervals of 5 seconds, and always in odd numbers.
      • Salutes for naval officers are: Admiral: 17 guns; Vice Admiral: 15 guns; Rear
      • Admiral: 13 guns; Commodore: 11 guns
  • 102.7: Discuss importance of the following events as related to Naval History:
    • Battle of Coral Sea
    • Voyage of the Great White Fleet
    • Battle of Normandy
    • Midway
    • Guadalcanal
    • Battle of Leyte Gulf
  • 102.7 (cont): Battle of Coral Sea
    • 7-8 May 1942
    • Broke Japanese Navy code; U.S. was alerted to a large Japanese force moving to the Coral Sea.
    • On May 7, the Japanese planes sank two minor ships, while U.S. planes sank and isolated the enemy carriers.
    • On May 8, both sides launched all their planes against the other. The aircraft passed each other unseen, in the world's first carrier verses carrier battle.
    • One Japanese carrier was damaged. The U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk, and the carrier Yorktown was damaged. After this action, both sides withdrew.
    • Although a tactical victory, Coral Sea was a strategic set-back for the Japanese who never again threatened Australia.
  • 102.7 (cont): Voyage of the Great White Fleet
    • December 16, 1907
    • Order given by President Roosevelt that dispatched 16 US Navy battleships of the Atlantic Fleet.
    • The Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads, Virginia, for a round-the-world cruise to show the flag.
    • Demonstrated the strength of the U.S. Navy.
  • 102.7 (cont): Battle of Normandy
    • June 6, 1944
    • The largest amphibious operation in history. The greatest armada ever assembled .
    • Carried out minesweeping, shore-bombardment, and amphibious operations and transported supplies and troops.
    • Those operations enabled the Allies to complete D-Day landings successfully and eventually push on to Germany.
  • 102.7 (cont): Battle of Midway
    • 4-7 June 1942
    • Midway was the turning point of the Pacific war.
    • U.S. broke Japanese naval code again. A huge Japanese armada of 160 warships was involved. The Japanese approached Midway with 4 aircraft carriers and 11 battleships.
    • U.S. had 3 carriers and no battleships. Admiral Nimitz positioned his 3 carriers, the Hornet, Enterprise, and Yorktown, out of Japanese reconnaissance range.
    • The U.S. sank 3 Japanese carriers. The next day the fourth carrier was sunk. Japanese planes sank the Yorktown.
  • 102.7 (cont): Battle of Guadalcanal
    • 13-15 November 1942
    • U.S. secured the island of Guadalcanal from the Japanese. With the fall of the island, the southern Solomons came under Allied control and Australia was in less danger of attack.
    • Navy policy was to place members of the same family on different ships, but the five Sullivan brothers, insisted on staying together. An exception was made and they all became crewmen onboard the Juneau.
    • The Juneau was damaged during the battle, as it limped off for repairs, it was torpedoed. The Sullivan’s along with 700 others were lost.
    • Because of this tragedy, Navy policy concerning family member separations was reinstated.
    • A ship (USS The Sullivans) was later named in their honor.
  • 102.7 (cont): Battle of Leyte Gulf
    • October 23, 1944
    • In a last-chance effort to salvage the Philippines, the Japanese sent a naval force to Leyte Gulf to attack the U.S. Fleet.
    • Their plan backfired and the operation was a complete failure-the deciding catastrophe for their navy.
    • The loss of the Philippines severed their empire, and the homeland was cut off from its main source of supply from the south. With the losses at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, the war in the Pacific was approaching its final days.
  • 102.8: Discuss the following events, impact on history, and Sailors involved:
    • Mercury 3 – 05 MAY 1961 (Alan B. Shepard) – First U.S. manned space flight.
    • Gemini 3 – 23 MAR 1965 (John W. Young) - First U.S. two-man space mission; first spacecraft to maneuver from one orbit to another; 3 Earth orbits.
    • Apollo 11 – 16-24 JUL 1969 (Neil A. Armstrong) - First manned lunar landing.
    • Apollo 17 – 07-19 DEC 1972 (Eugene A. Cernan and Ronald E. Evans) - Seventh and final lunar landing mission.
    • STS-1 – 12-14 APR 1981 (John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen) - First orbital test flight of a Space Shuttle. All Navy crew.
  • 102.9: Discuss Historical Significance of events related to Information Dominance:
    • The On-The-Roof Gang
    • The Purple Code
    • The Battle of Midway
    • The attack on the USS LIBERTY
    • The capture of the USS PUEBLO
    • D-Day Landing
    • Landing at Inchon
    • Hainan Island EP-3 incident
    • Bletchley Park
    • The Navajo Code Talkers
    • The attack on the USS STARK
    • EC-121 Shoot down
  • 102.9 (cont): The On-The-Roof Gang
    • In July, 1928; CNO announced the establishment of a school to instruct radio operators in intercept operations, particularly for Japanese kana.
    • Since these classes were held in a wood structure
    • set atop the Navy Headquarters Building in
    • Washington, and since the radiomen could not
    • explain their class work to others, they eventually
    • acquired the nickname, "The On-the-Roof Gang”.
  • 102.9 (cont): The Purple Code
    • 27 September 1940; the SIS had made their first solution to Japanese diplomatic messages enciphered in the Purple Code.
    • The Purple machine was first used by Japan in June 1938. US and British cryptanalysts had broken some of its messages well before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • 102.9 (cont): The Battle of Midway
    • Spring, 1942 ; Japanese intercepts began to make references to a pending
    • operation in which the objective was designated as "AF.“ Rochefort and
    • Captain Edwin Layton, Nimitz's Fleet Intelligence Officer, believed "AF"
    • Might be Midway since they had seen "A" designators assigned to
    • locations in the Hawaiian Islands.
    • In an effort to alleviate any doubt, in mid-May the commanding officer of
    • the Midway installation was instructed to send a message indicating that
    • the installation's water distillation plant was out. Shortly after the
    • transmission, an intercepted Japanese intelligence report indicated that
    • "AF is short of water.“
    • Nimitz began to draw up plans to move his carriers to a point northeast of
    • Midway where they would lie in wait. Once positioned, they could stage a
    • potentially decisive nautical ambush of Yamamoto's massive armada.
  • 102.9 (cont): Attack on the USS LIBERTY
    • During the Six-Day War between Israel and several Arab nations, the United States of America maintained a neutral country status.
    • USS Liberty was ordered to proceed to the eastern Mediterranean to perform an electronic intelligence collection mission.
    • Due to concerns about her safety as she approached her patrol area, several messages were sent to Liberty to increase her allowable closest point of approach (CPA) to Egypt's and Israel's coasts.
    • Unfortunately, due to ineffective message handling and routing, the CPA change messages were not received until after the attack.
    • Isreali Air Force jet fighter aircraft and motor torpedo boats of the Israeli Navy attacked USS Liberty in international waters. Attack killed 34 and injured 170 crew members.
  • 102.9 (cont): The Attack on the USS PUEBLO
    • January 23, 1968,
    • USS Pueblo is an ELINT and SIGINT Banner-class technical research ship (Navy intelligence) which was boarded and captured by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK). North Korea claimed the vessel had strayed into their territorial waters, and U.S. claimed that shipped remained in international waters.
    • Pueblo is still held by DPRK today; officially remains a commissioned vessel of the US Navy. It is located in DPRK’s Wonsan Harbor and used as a museum ship. It is the only US ship currently being held captive.
    • A NSA report quotes LT Steve Harris, the OIC of Pueblo's Naval Security Group Command detachment:
    • ".. we had retained on board the obsolete publications and had all good intentions of getting rid of these things but had not done so at the time we had started the mission. I wanted to get the place organized eventually and we had excessive numbers of copies on board..." and concludes “Only a small percentage of the total classified material aboard the ship was destroyed.”
  • 102.9(cont): D-Day Landing
    • In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a deception operation to persuade the Germans that areas other than northern France would be threatened as well.
    • An entirely fictitious First U.S. Army Group ("FUSAG"), was created in German minds by the use of double agents and fake radio traffic. Agents were dutifully sending back messages "confirming" the existence and location of FUSAG and the false landing point (Pas de Calais) as the likely main attack point.
    • Radio traffic from Scotland was designed to convince German traffic analysts that an invasion would also be mounted into Norway.
    • The last part of the deception occurred on the night before the invasion: two RAF squadrons created an illusion of a massive naval convoy sailing for the Cap d'Antifer. This was achieved by the precision dropping of strips of metal foil. The foil caused a radar return mistakenly interpreted by German radar operators as a fleet of small craft towing barrage balloons.
  • 102.9(cont): Landing at Incheon
    • Seven days before the main attack on Incheon, a joint CIA–military intelligence reconnaissance effort, placed a team in Incheon. The group relayed intelligence back to U.S. forces.
    • With the help of locals, they gathered information about tides, mudflats, seawalls and enemy fortifications. The mission's most important contribution was the restarting of a lighthouse on Palmi-do.
  • 102.9 (cont): Hainan Island EP-3 Incident
    • On April 1, 2001, a mid-air collision between a US Navy EP-3E surveillance aircraft and a J-8II interceptor fighter jet resulted in an international dispute between the United States and China.
    • 24 crewmembers were detained and interrogated by the Chinese authorities
    • For 15 minutes after landing, the U.S. aircraft crew continued to destroy sensitive items and data on board the aircraft, as per DoD protocol. They were taken to a military barracks where they were interrogated for two nights. They were interrogated at all hours, and so suffered from lack of sleep.
    • The 24 crew-members were detained until April 11.
  • 102.9 (cont): Bletchley Park
    • Also known as Station X, is an estate located in the town of Bletchley, in Buckinghamshire, England.
    • During WWII, Bletchley Park was the site of the United Kingdom’s main decryption establishment, the Government Code and Cypher School.
    • Ciphers and codes of several Axis countries were decrypted there, most importantly ciphers generated by the German Enigma and Lorenz machines.
    • The high-level intelligence produced at Bletchley Park, codenamed Ultra, provided crucial assistance to the Allied war effort and is credited by some with having shortened the war by two years.
  • 102.9 (cont): The Navajo Code Talkers
    • Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima: the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945 (WWII).
    • Code talkers transmitted messages over military telephone and radio nets using their native language during WWII; a code that the Japanese never broke.
  • 102.9 (cont): The Attack on the USS STARK
    • In 1987 during the Iran-Iraq war, an Iraqi jet fighter fired missiles at the USS Stark; killing 37, wounding 21.
    • It is the only successful anti-ship missile attack on a U.S. Navy warship.
    • The board of inquiry cited lapse of training requirements and lax procedures.
  • 102.9 (cont): EC-121 Shootdown
    • 15 April 1969
    • The USN EC-121 was on a SIGINT recon mission and was shot down by North Korean Aircraft over the Sea of Japan; killing all (31) aboard.
    • The EC-121 was under orders not to come closer than 50 miles to the coast.
    • Extensive search and rescue operations revealed only debris from the lost EC-121.
  • 102.10: State the qualities that characterize the Navy/Marine Corps team as instruments to support national policies.
    • Readiness
    • Flexibility
    • Self-sustainability
    • Mobility
  • 102.11: State the Three Levels of War
    • Tactical - Involves the details of individual engagements
    • Operational - Concerns forces collectively in a theater
    • Strategic - Focuses on supporting national goals.
  • 102.12: Discuss the National Security Act of 1947.
    • The National Security Act of 1947 signed by President Truman on July 26, 1947; realigned and reorganized the US Armed Forces, foreign policy, and the Intelligence Community after the Cold War.
      • Merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (later known as DoD) headed by the SECDEF.
      • Created a separate Department of the Air Force from the existing Army Air Forces.
      • Eventually unified the Army, Navy and Air Force into a federated structure.
      • Established the National Security Council for national security policy.
      • Established a Central Intelligence Agency (the US’ first peacetime intelligence agency) under the National Security Council.
      • Established the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • 102.13: State when and why the Navy Core Values were developed.
    • Admiral Kelso (1992) adopted the Navy Core Values to provide principles to guide our Sailors.
  • 102.14: Discuss when and why the Sailor’s Creed was developed
    • The “Sailor’s Creed” was written in 1993 at the direction of CNO Admiral Frank Kelso.
    • Admiral Kelso directed that every recruit be given a copy and required to commit it to memory.
    • In 1994, CNO Admiral Jeremy Boorda approved a minor change which made the creed inclusively descriptive of all hands.
    • In today's Navy, the Sailor's Creed is memorized by all personnel in boot camp and has been incorporated in officer training as well.
    • All of the personnel in the uniform of Naval Service are Sailors first and in addition, they are officers, chiefs, petty officers - aviators, Seabees, surface warriors and submariners. This is an important point impacting unity and esprit de corps.
  • 102.15: State RADM Grace Hopper’s contributions to the U.S. Navy.
    • RADM Grace Hopper’s best-known
    • contribution to computing during
    • This period was the invention, in
    • 1953, of the compiler, the
    • intermediate program that
    • translates English language
    • Instructions into the language of the
    • target computer.
    • Her work on compilers and on
    • Making machines understand
    • Ordinary language instructions led
    • Ultimately to the development of the
    • Business language COBOL.
  • 102.16: State the name of The First Computer and where it was located.
    • In 1942, Lt. Herman H. Goldstine, a former
    • mathematics professor, was stationed at the
    • Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the
    • University of Pennsylvania where he assisted in
    • the creation of the ENIAC , the first electronic
    • digital computer.
  • 102.17: Discuss ARPANET and when it was developed.
    • ARPANET(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), created by a small research team at the head of the MIT and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the United States DoD.
    • World's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the contemporary global Internet.
    • The first message transmitted over the ARPANET was sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline, on October 29, 1969. Kline transmitted from the university's Host computer to the Stanford Research Institute's Host computer.
    • The first permanent ARPANET link was established on November 21, 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute.
  • 102.18: Explain the impact of the John Walker espionage case.
    • John Anthony Walker, Jr. is a retired United States Navy Chief Warrant Officer and communications specialist convicted of spying for the Soviet Union from 1968 to 1985.
    • CWO Walker helped the Soviets decipher more than a million encrypted naval messages.
    • This is what initiated the requirement of Two-Person Integrity (TPI) when handling classified information.
  • 102.19: State the Oldest Intelligent Organization in the U.S. Navy.
    • March 23, 1882
    • An “Office of Intelligence” is hereby established in the Bureau of Navigation for the purpose of collecting and recording such naval information as may be useful to the Department in time of war, as well as in peace.
  • 102.20: Explain when ONI was established and by whom it was founded.
    • Office of Naval Intelligence from 1882 to 1889 and from 1919 through World War II.
    • Established by William H. Hunt, Secretary of the Navy.
  • 102.21: State the first CIO/DNI.
    • Chief of the Bureau of Navigation.
  • 102.22: Name the two Departments that were combined to form the ONI.
    • The Department Library was combined with the “Office of Intelligence”.
    • Questions?
    • Updated 26 JAN 2011 (ITC Watkins/ITC Bangert)
    • The following are reserve slides
  • 102.9: The Attack on the USS WAINWRIGHT
    • In 1988, The Joshan, a Iranian Kaman-class ship, attacked the Wainwright with a Harpoon missile, which missed. The Wainwright countered by firing four Standard missiles in response, severely damaging it. The Wainwright and the two other ships in Surface Action Group Charlie then sank the Joshan with naval gunfire.
    • First time chaff was used successfully used as an EW countermeasure from a surface vessel.