102.1: State and Discuss the six areas which comprise Naval Doctrine.
1. Naval Warfare
Describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of naval forces.
2. Naval Intelligence
Points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
3. Naval Operations
Develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
4. Naval Logistics
Addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential in the support of naval forces.
5. Naval Planning
Examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
6. Naval Command and Control
Provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.
102.2: State the Seven Principles of Naval Logistics
Responsiveness: Providing the right support at the right time, at the right place. This is the most important principle of logistics.
Simplicity: Avoiding unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning and conducting logistic operations.
Flexibility: Adapting logistics support to changing conditions.
Economy: Employing logistic support assets effectively.
Attainability: Acquiring the minimum essential logistic support begin combat operations.
Sustainability: Providing logistic support for the duration of the operation.
Survivability: Ensuring that the logistic infrastructure prevails in spite of degradation and damage.
102.3: States the First Navy Ship named after an Enlisted man.
USS Osmond Ingram (DD-255).
Launched 28 Feb 1919.
GM1 Ingram stationed aboard USS Cassin; was attacked by the German submarine on October 16, 1917.
GM1 spotted approaching torpedo and rushed to jettison the ammo. He was blown overboard when the torpedo struck.
He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on that day.
102.4: Discuss the conditions that led to the Formation of the U.S. Navy
The areas of our country that became the 13 original states were colonies of England in the mid-1700's. English Parliament passed several tax laws that affected the colonists in a problem known as "taxation without representation".
The colonists convened a Continental Congress to discuss these problems. This first congress met on 5 September 1774. At the meeting, the Congress produced a statement of rights it believed England should grant to the colonists.
A second Continental Congress convened on 10 May 1775. The Continental Congress felt forced to act as the provisional government for the colonies. They issued money, established a postal service, and created a Continental Navy.
The U.S. Navy was born on 13 October 1775. On this date the Second Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels. The first commander in chief was Esek Hopkins, who put the first squadron of the Continental Navy to sea in February 1776. The two ships were used to search for munitions ships supplying the British Army.
102.5: What 3 Classes of Naval Vessels existed at inception of the U.S. Navy?
102.6: Discuss the following military customs and courtesies:
Hand salute: Salutes are customarily given with the right hand, but there are exceptions. A sailor with his right arm or hand encumbered may salute left-handed.
Saluting the Ensign: Each person in the naval service, upon coming on board a ship of the Navy, shall salute the national ensign.
Dipping the Ensign: Merchant ships "salute" Navy ships by dipping their ensigns.
Gun salute: The gun salutes prescribed by Navy Regulations are fired only by ships and stations designated by the Secretary of the Navy.
A national salute of 21 guns is fired on Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, and Independence Day, and to honor the President of the United States and heads of foreign states.
Salutes are fired at intervals of 5 seconds, and always in odd numbers.
102.7: Discuss importance of the following events as related to Naval History:
Battle of Coral Sea
Voyage of the Great White Fleet
Battle of Normandy
Battle of Leyte Gulf
102.7 (cont): Battle of Coral Sea
7-8 May 1942
Broke Japanese Navy code; U.S. was alerted to a large Japanese force moving to the Coral Sea.
On May 7, the Japanese planes sank two minor ships, while U.S. planes sank and isolated the enemy carriers.
On May 8, both sides launched all their planes against the other. The aircraft passed each other unseen, in the world's first carrier verses carrier battle.
One Japanese carrier was damaged. The U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk, and the carrier Yorktown was damaged. After this action, both sides withdrew.
Although a tactical victory, Coral Sea was a strategic set-back for the Japanese who never again threatened Australia.
102.7 (cont): Voyage of the Great White Fleet
December 16, 1907
Order given by President Roosevelt that dispatched 16 US Navy battleships of the Atlantic Fleet.
The Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads, Virginia, for a round-the-world cruise to show the flag.
Demonstrated the strength of the U.S. Navy.
102.7 (cont): Battle of Normandy
June 6, 1944
The largest amphibious operation in history. The greatest armada ever assembled .
Carried out minesweeping, shore-bombardment, and amphibious operations and transported supplies and troops.
Those operations enabled the Allies to complete D-Day landings successfully and eventually push on to Germany.
102.7 (cont): Battle of Midway
4-7 June 1942
Midway was the turning point of the Pacific war.
U.S. broke Japanese naval code again. A huge Japanese armada of 160 warships was involved. The Japanese approached Midway with 4 aircraft carriers and 11 battleships.
U.S. had 3 carriers and no battleships. Admiral Nimitz positioned his 3 carriers, the Hornet, Enterprise, and Yorktown, out of Japanese reconnaissance range.
The U.S. sank 3 Japanese carriers. The next day the fourth carrier was sunk. Japanese planes sank the Yorktown.
102.7 (cont): Battle of Guadalcanal
13-15 November 1942
U.S. secured the island of Guadalcanal from the Japanese. With the fall of the island, the southern Solomons came under Allied control and Australia was in less danger of attack.
Navy policy was to place members of the same family on different ships, but the five Sullivan brothers, insisted on staying together. An exception was made and they all became crewmen onboard the Juneau.
The Juneau was damaged during the battle, as it limped off for repairs, it was torpedoed. The Sullivan’s along with 700 others were lost.
Because of this tragedy, Navy policy concerning family member separations was reinstated.
A ship (USS The Sullivans) was later named in their honor.
102.7 (cont): Battle of Leyte Gulf
October 23, 1944
In a last-chance effort to salvage the Philippines, the Japanese sent a naval force to Leyte Gulf to attack the U.S. Fleet.
Their plan backfired and the operation was a complete failure-the deciding catastrophe for their navy.
The loss of the Philippines severed their empire, and the homeland was cut off from its main source of supply from the south. With the losses at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, the war in the Pacific was approaching its final days.
102.8: Discuss the following events, impact on history, and Sailors involved:
Mercury 3 – 05 MAY 1961 (Alan B. Shepard) – First U.S. manned space flight.
Gemini 3 – 23 MAR 1965 (John W. Young) - First U.S. two-man space mission; first spacecraft to maneuver from one orbit to another; 3 Earth orbits.
Apollo 11 – 16-24 JUL 1969 (Neil A. Armstrong) - First manned lunar landing.
Apollo 17 – 07-19 DEC 1972 (Eugene A. Cernan and Ronald E. Evans) - Seventh and final lunar landing mission.
STS-1 – 12-14 APR 1981 (John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen) - First orbital test flight of a Space Shuttle. All Navy crew.
102.9: Discuss Historical Significance of events related to Information Dominance:
The On-The-Roof Gang
The Purple Code
The Battle of Midway
The attack on the USS LIBERTY
The capture of the USS PUEBLO
Landing at Inchon
Hainan Island EP-3 incident
The Navajo Code Talkers
The attack on the USS STARK
EC-121 Shoot down
102.9 (cont): The On-The-Roof Gang
In July, 1928; CNO announced the establishment of a school to instruct radio operators in intercept operations, particularly for Japanese kana.
Since these classes were held in a wood structure
set atop the Navy Headquarters Building in
Washington, and since the radiomen could not
explain their class work to others, they eventually
acquired the nickname, "The On-the-Roof Gang”.
102.9 (cont): The Purple Code
27 September 1940; the SIS had made their first solution to Japanese diplomatic messages enciphered in the Purple Code.
The Purple machine was first used by Japan in June 1938. US and British cryptanalysts had broken some of its messages well before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
102.9 (cont): The Battle of Midway
Spring, 1942 ; Japanese intercepts began to make references to a pending
operation in which the objective was designated as "AF.“ Rochefort and
Might be Midway since they had seen "A" designators assigned to
locations in the Hawaiian Islands.
In an effort to alleviate any doubt, in mid-May the commanding officer of
the Midway installation was instructed to send a message indicating that
the installation's water distillation plant was out. Shortly after the
transmission, an intercepted Japanese intelligence report indicated that
"AF is short of water.“
Nimitz began to draw up plans to move his carriers to a point northeast of
Midway where they would lie in wait. Once positioned, they could stage a
potentially decisive nautical ambush of Yamamoto's massive armada.
102.9 (cont): Attack on the USS LIBERTY
During the Six-Day War between Israel and several Arab nations, the United States of America maintained a neutral country status.
USS Liberty was ordered to proceed to the eastern Mediterranean to perform an electronic intelligence collection mission.
Due to concerns about her safety as she approached her patrol area, several messages were sent to Liberty to increase her allowable closest point of approach (CPA) to Egypt's and Israel's coasts.
Unfortunately, due to ineffective message handling and routing, the CPA change messages were not received until after the attack.
Isreali Air Force jet fighter aircraft and motor torpedo boats of the Israeli Navy attacked USS Liberty in international waters. Attack killed 34 and injured 170 crew members.
102.9 (cont): The Attack on the USS PUEBLO
January 23, 1968,
USS Pueblo is an ELINT and SIGINT Banner-class technical research ship (Navy intelligence) which was boarded and captured by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK). North Korea claimed the vessel had strayed into their territorial waters, and U.S. claimed that shipped remained in international waters.
Pueblo is still held by DPRK today; officially remains a commissioned vessel of the US Navy. It is located in DPRK’s Wonsan Harbor and used as a museum ship. It is the only US ship currently being held captive.
A NSA report quotes LT Steve Harris, the OIC of Pueblo's Naval Security Group Command detachment:
".. we had retained on board the obsolete publications and had all good intentions of getting rid of these things but had not done so at the time we had started the mission. I wanted to get the place organized eventually and we had excessive numbers of copies on board..." and concludes “Only a small percentage of the total classified material aboard the ship was destroyed.”
102.9(cont): D-Day Landing
In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a deception operation to persuade the Germans that areas other than northern France would be threatened as well.
An entirely fictitious First U.S. Army Group ("FUSAG"), was created in German minds by the use of double agents and fake radio traffic. Agents were dutifully sending back messages "confirming" the existence and location of FUSAG and the false landing point (Pas de Calais) as the likely main attack point.
Radio traffic from Scotland was designed to convince German traffic analysts that an invasion would also be mounted into Norway.
The last part of the deception occurred on the night before the invasion: two RAF squadrons created an illusion of a massive naval convoy sailing for the Cap d'Antifer. This was achieved by the precision dropping of strips of metal foil. The foil caused a radar return mistakenly interpreted by German radar operators as a fleet of small craft towing barrage balloons.
102.9(cont): Landing at Incheon
Seven days before the main attack on Incheon, a joint CIA–military intelligence reconnaissance effort, placed a team in Incheon. The group relayed intelligence back to U.S. forces.
With the help of locals, they gathered information about tides, mudflats, seawalls and enemy fortifications. The mission's most important contribution was the restarting of a lighthouse on Palmi-do.
102.9 (cont): Hainan Island EP-3 Incident
On April 1, 2001, a mid-air collision between a US Navy EP-3E surveillance aircraft and a J-8II interceptor fighter jet resulted in an international dispute between the United States and China.
24 crewmembers were detained and interrogated by the Chinese authorities
For 15 minutes after landing, the U.S. aircraft crew continued to destroy sensitive items and data on board the aircraft, as per DoD protocol. They were taken to a military barracks where they were interrogated for two nights. They were interrogated at all hours, and so suffered from lack of sleep.
The 24 crew-members were detained until April 11.
102.9 (cont): Bletchley Park
Also known as Station X, is an estate located in the town of Bletchley, in Buckinghamshire, England.
During WWII, Bletchley Park was the site of the United Kingdom’s main decryption establishment, the Government Code and Cypher School.
Ciphers and codes of several Axis countries were decrypted there, most importantly ciphers generated by the German Enigma and Lorenz machines.
The high-level intelligence produced at Bletchley Park, codenamed Ultra, provided crucial assistance to the Allied war effort and is credited by some with having shortened the war by two years.
102.9 (cont): The Navajo Code Talkers
Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima: the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945 (WWII).
Code talkers transmitted messages over military telephone and radio nets using their native language during WWII; a code that the Japanese never broke.
102.9 (cont): The Attack on the USS STARK
In 1987 during the Iran-Iraq war, an Iraqi jet fighter fired missiles at the USS Stark; killing 37, wounding 21.
It is the only successful anti-ship missile attack on a U.S. Navy warship.
The board of inquiry cited lapse of training requirements and lax procedures.
102.9 (cont): EC-121 Shootdown
15 April 1969
The USN EC-121 was on a SIGINT recon mission and was shot down by North Korean Aircraft over the Sea of Japan; killing all (31) aboard.
The EC-121 was under orders not to come closer than 50 miles to the coast.
Extensive search and rescue operations revealed only debris from the lost EC-121.
102.10: State the qualities that characterize the Navy/Marine Corps team as instruments to support national policies.
102.11: State the Three Levels of War
Tactical - Involves the details of individual engagements
Operational - Concerns forces collectively in a theater
Strategic - Focuses on supporting national goals.
102.12: Discuss the National Security Act of 1947.
The National Security Act of 1947 signed by President Truman on July 26, 1947; realigned and reorganized the US Armed Forces, foreign policy, and the Intelligence Community after the Cold War.
Merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (later known as DoD) headed by the SECDEF.
Created a separate Department of the Air Force from the existing Army Air Forces.
Eventually unified the Army, Navy and Air Force into a federated structure.
Established the National Security Council for national security policy.
Established a Central Intelligence Agency (the US’ first peacetime intelligence agency) under the National Security Council.
Established the Joint Chiefs of Staff
102.13: State when and why the Navy Core Values were developed.
Admiral Kelso (1992) adopted the Navy Core Values to provide principles to guide our Sailors.
102.14: Discuss when and why the Sailor’s Creed was developed
The “Sailor’s Creed” was written in 1993 at the direction of CNO Admiral Frank Kelso.
Admiral Kelso directed that every recruit be given a copy and required to commit it to memory.
In 1994, CNO Admiral Jeremy Boorda approved a minor change which made the creed inclusively descriptive of all hands.
In today's Navy, the Sailor's Creed is memorized by all personnel in boot camp and has been incorporated in officer training as well.
All of the personnel in the uniform of Naval Service are Sailors first and in addition, they are officers, chiefs, petty officers - aviators, Seabees, surface warriors and submariners. This is an important point impacting unity and esprit de corps.
102.15: State RADM Grace Hopper’s contributions to the U.S. Navy.
RADM Grace Hopper’s best-known
contribution to computing during
This period was the invention, in
1953, of the compiler, the
intermediate program that
translates English language
Instructions into the language of the
Her work on compilers and on
Making machines understand
Ordinary language instructions led
Ultimately to the development of the
Business language COBOL.
102.16: State the name of The First Computer and where it was located.
In 1942, Lt. Herman H. Goldstine, a former
mathematics professor, was stationed at the
Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the
University of Pennsylvania where he assisted in
the creation of the ENIAC , the first electronic
102.17: Discuss ARPANET and when it was developed.
ARPANET(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), created by a small research team at the head of the MIT and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the United States DoD.
World's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the contemporary global Internet.
The first message transmitted over the ARPANET was sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline, on October 29, 1969. Kline transmitted from the university's Host computer to the Stanford Research Institute's Host computer.
The first permanent ARPANET link was established on November 21, 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute.
102.18: Explain the impact of the John Walker espionage case.
John Anthony Walker, Jr. is a retired United States Navy Chief Warrant Officer and communications specialist convicted of spying for the Soviet Union from 1968 to 1985.
CWO Walker helped the Soviets decipher more than a million encrypted naval messages.
This is what initiated the requirement of Two-Person Integrity (TPI) when handling classified information.
102.19: State the Oldest Intelligent Organization in the U.S. Navy.
March 23, 1882
An “Office of Intelligence” is hereby established in the Bureau of Navigation for the purpose of collecting and recording such naval information as may be useful to the Department in time of war, as well as in peace.
102.20: Explain when ONI was established and by whom it was founded.
Office of Naval Intelligence from 1882 to 1889 and from 1919 through World War II.
Established by William H. Hunt, Secretary of the Navy.
102.21: State the first CIO/DNI.
Chief of the Bureau of Navigation.
102.22: Name the two Departments that were combined to form the ONI.
The Department Library was combined with the “Office of Intelligence”.
Updated 26 JAN 2011 (ITC Watkins/ITC Bangert)
The following are reserve slides
102.9: The Attack on the USS WAINWRIGHT
In 1988, The Joshan, a Iranian Kaman-class ship, attacked the Wainwright with a Harpoon missile, which missed. The Wainwright countered by firing four Standard missiles in response, severely damaging it. The Wainwright and the two other ships in Surface Action Group Charlie then sank the Joshan with naval gunfire.
First time chaff was used successfully used as an EW countermeasure from a surface vessel.