Multilateral environmental agreement: An international agreement, many countries involved. A binding agreement, meaning the countries are commited to their emission limits. Developed countries are known as “Annex I” Countries. Have reached emission reduction target between the years 2008-2012. This is known as the first commitment period.
Australia only recently ratified the protocol in 2007. As you can see, there is one ratification that is still pending. (click to go to the Kazakhstan information). The U.S. is the only one with a declined ratification however… (go on to show the CO2 emission slide)
Judging by this CO2 emission map, the U.S. is also a country that has some of the highest emission amounts, and so would play a large roll in the Kyoto Protocol.
Although neither the Ramsar Convention or LRTAP treaty are focused directly on ozone layer depletion, they show that the world was starting to take environmental issues more seriously and focusing more on how to combat harm on the environment. Environmental initiatives used help the ozone layer: The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol, which targeted substances that depleted the ozone layer.
Explain the color key and how the timeline works. Ones to pull up: First Earth Summit, LRTAP Convention, Vienna Convention, IPCC created, IPCC release 1st report, Third COP in Kyoto, Fourth COP, Fifth COP, Seventh COP, Marrakech Accords, Russia ratifies Kyoto Protocol
People beginning to question the ability of the Kyoto Protocol to meet its ambitious goals.
Ones to click on: Australia rules out post-Kyoto emission limits, South Africa announces unready for an emission cap, Canada requests leniencies, 17 countries behind on targets, Canada says Kyoto Protocol not possible, Bali meetings on climate change, Australia ratifies protocol, Top emitters meet in Paris, China top carbon emitter, GAO report on climate change.
Ones to point out: COP 14, COP 15, Bali Road Map, Kyoto Protocol Goal, 2 nd commitment period begins, Prospective emission growth 2020, prospective emission growth 2030, both of the 2050s
Secretariat definition: The body established under an international agreement to arrange and service meetings of the governing body of that agreement, and assist Parties in coordinating implementation of the agreement. Also performs other functions as assigned to it by the agreement and the decisions of the governing body.
United States is leading. China is close behind in 2001 (Exceeded US around 2007), which is problematic in terms of the Kyoto Protocol because it is not bound by commitments since it is not considered a developed country. In more recent information, the top two emitters still do not change and remain significantly greater than the others.
Important point: The first international legally binding instrument to combat problems of air pollution over a broader region.
Kyoto and Beyond: The Evolution of Multilateral Agreements on Climate Change
Kyoto and Beyond:Evolution of Multilateral Agreements on Climate Change Updated September 8, 2009 ISCIENCES, LLC
The Kyoto Protocol Past, Present, and Future 1. The Kyoto Protocol: What is it? 2. Pre-Kyoto Entry into Force 1970s-1980s 3. Pre-Kyoto Entry into Force 1990s-2005 4. Kyoto 2005-2008 5. 2009 and Beyond 6. 2009 and Beyond
What is the Kyoto Protocol?• A multilateral environmental agreement with the goal of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions.• Developed countries are assigned limits on emissions relative to 1990 levels. Targets vary by nation. First commitment period is 2008-2012. (Target status).• The Protocol has “Flexibility Mechanisms” for meeting targets: emissions trading and Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM).
Essential Points of Understanding• The United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty drafted to deal with climate change. The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding addition to the UNFCCC.• Signatories to the Protocol (84 countries) agree to the ideas and goals. Countries who have ratified (nearly all except the US) are bound by its requirements.• Signatories are categorized into three groups based on their responsibilities: - Annex I: Industrialized countries that have agreed to reduce emissions. - Annex II: Developed countries who have to pay for the costs of the emissions reducing technologies of Developing countries. - Non-annex: Developing countries who are not restricted by the Protocol.• Although the Protocol is binding, there are no penalties if Annex I countries do not comply.• China and India, non-annex countries not bound by the Protocol, are some of the world’s top emitters.
Ratification Status as of December 2007 http://www.green.vn/trading.htm 6/13/2008 Ratification means that the countries agree to abide by the obligations stated in theProtocol. Ratification is open to all signatories regardless of whether they are Annex I, Annex II, or Developing countries.
Total CO2 Emissions in 2001 ISCIENCES LLCThe Top Ten Carbon Emitters of 2001
The Stages of the Kyoto Protocol 1970s-1980s 1990s-2005 2005-2008 2008-2050 More attention The UNFCCC is The Protocol Meetings being paid to the drafted. There is enters into force, concerning the environment. an increase in but problems future of the Several environmental occur as Protocol and multilateral initiatives and countries reveal alternatives will environmental the Kyoto they cannot meet take place. Also, agreements are Protocol is requirements. rising temperature implemented, formulated. The Discussions begin threats that beginning with Protocol enters on a post-2012 scientists have the Ramsar into force in framework despite already predicted Convention. 2005. some opposition. may occur.
Pre-Kyoto entry into force: 1970s-1980s• Multilateral environmental agreements begin to proliferate, culminating in agreements like Ramsar Convention (1971) and LRTAP (1979).• Decadal meetings are established which include an international discussion of the state of the world’s environment. These meetings are informally known as “summit meetings.”• Important environmental reports are published. One of the major successes is the Brundtland Report (1987) which advocates sustainable development and targets pollution and other environmental problems as a significant contributing factor to poverty.
Pre-Kyoto Entry into Force: 1990s-2005• The UNFCCC (1992) is drafted marking a significant period during which a collective international decision is made for countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. There are discussions about a binding framework that should be formulated, which would later become the Kyoto Protocol.• The Kyoto Protocol (1997) is formulated and opened for signing. It takes years for enough countries to sign the Protocol and enable it to enter into force.• Decadal meetings continue to take place and the IPCC releases three reports that warn about the negative effects of climate change.
Kyoto Protocol 2005-2008• Problems with the Protocol revealed as countries realized it would not be possible to meet their reduction targets.• Despite some opposition, work proceeded on the development of a post-2012 framework.
2009 - Present• The 15th Conference of Parties occurs in Copenhagen, Denmark. Here, the Copenhagen Accord is formed by leaders from the US, China, India, Brazil and South Africa. It has yet to become legally binding.• The United Nation’s summit on Climate Change and the World Climate Conference take place. Both meetings discuss necessary steps for controlling climate change.
The Future of Climate Change• One more Conferences of Parties has been set up for 2009 with established discussion topics centered on finding an international response to climate change.• Developing countries may be required to reduce emissions for the second commitment period of the Protocol, 2013-2017.• Emissions reduction goals have been set by various organizations and conventions. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol is for emissions reductions of 5.2% below 1990 levels.• The IPCC has projected a threat of a 60% increase in greenhouse gas emissions levels by 2030.• Scientists in the IPCC believe a 60%-80% emission reduction by 2050 is vital to avoid problems caused by rising temperatures.
The Future of Climate Change ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Supporting Documents S1970s-1980s 1990s-2005 2005-2008 2008-2050 Ramsar Convention Agenda 21 Twelfth COP Climate Change Goals First Earth Summit Rio Declaration Bali Meetings on Climate Change Kyoto Past and Future LRTAP Convention Forest Principles Vienna Convention Convention on Biological Diversity Report on Climate Change GAO Montreal Protocol UNFCCC Draft Basel Convention IPCC 2nd Report Accra Meetings on Climate Change Brundtland Report First COP Second COP Third COPFourth COP Fifth COP Sixth COPSeventh COP Marrakech Accords Eleventh COP
References"Accra talks bode well for future climate change negotiations." UN News Centre. 27 Aug. 2008. UN News Service. 30 Sept. 2008 http://http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?newsid=27846&cr=climate+change&cr1"Action on Climate Change Post 2012." 3 June 2008 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/pdf/background_paper.pdf."A New Era Starts." 2005. UNEP. http://www.vitalgraphics.net/climate2.cfm?pageID=12."Background Information." 2006. United Nations Climate Change Conference. http://www.mos.gov.pl/cop14/eng/info.shtml."Bali Preparing the After-Kyoto." 3 Dec. 2007. PIME. http://www.asianews.it/index.php?l=en&art=10951.Basel Convention. Secretariat of the Basel Convention. 3 June 2008 http://www.basel.int/convention/basics.html.“Climate Change Science” http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/futureac.htmlClover, Charles. "IPCC 4th Report: Climate Change Happening Faster." Telegraph.co.uk. 18 Sept. 2007.Telegraph Media Group Limited.23 Sept. 2008 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?xml=/earth/2007/09/18/eaipcc118.xml."COP15 Copenhagen 2009." United Nations Climate Change Conference. 3 June 2008 http://www.cop15.dk/en.Dufresne, Robert. "Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act." Publications List. 27 Nov. 2007. Library of Parliament. http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/prb0740-e.htm#enactmen"Earth Summit History." Greenpeace. 9 June 2008 http://archive.greenpeace.org/earthsummit/background_history.html."Earth Summit Info." 9 June 2008 http://www.earthsummit.info/.Goetze, Darren. "COP-5 in Bonn." Nov. 1999. Sound Science Initiative. http://www.ucsusa.org/ssi/archive/fifth-conference-of-the-parties-cop5.html.IISD. 2006. http://www.iisd.ca/ymb/ctiijs/."IPCC Third Assessment Report." Solving Global Warming. 2007. The David Suzuki Foundation. 19 Sept. 2008 http://www.davidsuzuki.org/climate_change/science/ipcc/tar/Kyoto Protocol. Team Kyoto 06. 3 June 2008 http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/02003/3timeline.html.McCarthy, Michael. "Bush declares he wont sign Kyotos landmark treaty on global warming." The Independent. 29 Mar. 2001.The Independent.21 Oct. 2008 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/bush-declares-he-wont-sign-kyotos-landmark-treaty-on-global-warming-689360.htmlNews on the Kyoto Protocol. 30 May 2008. INDECO. http://indeco.com/kyoto."Ozone Layer Depletion." 23 Nov. 2007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/ozone/intpol/index.html.Shah, Anup. Climate Change and Global Warming. 29 Dec. 2005. http://www.globalissues.org/EnvIssues/GlobalWarming/Montreal.asp."Sound Science Initiative." 11 Aug. 2005. http://www.ucsusa.org/ssi/archive/fifth-conference-of-the-parties-cop5.html."The Kyoto Protocol." 2008. The Woods Hole Research Center. http://www.whrc.org/resources/online_publications/warming_earth/kyoto.htm"The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands." The Ramsar Convention Secretariat. 3 June 2008 http://www.ramsar.org/"Top Emitters Meet in Paris this Week." Daily News. 16 Apr. 2008. Energy Saving Trust. 23 Sept. 2008 http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/resources/daily_news/climate_change/top_emitters_to_meet_in_paris_this_week/(energysavingtrust)/22190.UNECE. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 3 June 2008 http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/lrtap_h1.htmUNFCCC. 2008. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. http://unfccc.int/2860.php"United Nations Climate Change Conference." World Resources Institute. 3 June 2008 http://www.wri.org/event/2008/12/cop-14
The Secretariat• United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the secretariat for the Kyoto Protocol.• Drafted in 1992 to slow global warming.• A framework ratified by 189 countries, all of which agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions amounts.• UNFCCC hosts a conference of parties (COP) every year to discuss climate change and the Kyoto Protocol. GO BACK
KazakhstanKazakhstan is not considered a developedcountry and therefore is not included in therequirements of the Kyoto Protocol. However,the nation would like to be added into the list ofdeveloped countries that are assignedemissions reduction amounts and be bound bythe commitments of the Protocol. SinceKazakhstan did not declare this when theprotocol was adopted, the ratification process isstill taking place because their assignedemissions target is currently being figured out. GO BACK
Top Ten Carbon Emitters of 2001 CO2 : Total emissions (source: IEA): 2001 Canada Italy United Kingdom China Japan United States Germany North Korea India Russia6000 60004000 40002000 2000 0 0 2001 ISCIENCES LLC GO BACK
The Ramsar Convention• Date: February 2nd, 1971• A treaty is signed that defines the framework for international cooperation in wise use/conservation of wetlands. The purpose of the Convention is to improve the conservation and management of internationally significant wetlands by creating an international framework for funding and monitoring wetlands and wetlands management. GO BACK
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden• Date: June 5th – 16th, 1972• An agreement for leaders from around the world to meet every 10 years to discuss the state of the worlds environment. It is the beginning of the creation of an international environmental law, as well as the beginning of political and public awareness of environmental issues. At this summit, an action plan is produced, called the Stockholm Declaration, which deals with various environmental issues including human rights, pollution prevention, and natural resource management. The conference also spurred the development of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), which helps developing countries to implement environmentally sustainable policies, as well as encourages sustainable development. UNEP headquarters is in Nairobi. GO BACK
LRTAP Convention• Date: November 13th, 1979• The beginning stages of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulfur Emissions can be traced back to the 1960s when scientists found a relationship between sulfur emissions in Europe and the acidification of Scandinavian Lakes. It is the first international legally binding instrument to combat problems of air pollution over a broader region. Its objective is to protect humans and their environment against air pollution and to endeavor to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution. Its date of entry into force is March 16th, 1983. GO BACK
United Nations Conference on theHuman Environment in Nairobi, Kenya• Date: 1982• This is not considered an official "summit." The summit occurred at the height of the Cold War. Due to this tension between nations, the meeting was unsuccessful at producing actionable outcomes. GO BACK
World Commission on Environment and Development• Date: 1983• The WCED, also known as the Brundtland Commission, is created by the United Nations. The Commission, named for WCED Chair Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway and Director General of WHO, addresses growing concerns about depleting natural resources and the effect on social and economic development. The establishment of the Commission marks a significant time when the UN is recognizing that issues in the environment are a global problem, and that it is important for nations to establish policies for sustainable development. GO BACK
Vienna Convention• Date: March 22nd, 1985• The Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer touches on the dangers that can be caused from a depletion of the ozone layer. In 1981 the Governing Council set up a working group to prepare a global framework convention for the protection of the ozone layer. Its aim is to secure a general treaty to tackle ozone depletion. GO BACK
Montreal Protocol• Date: September 16th, 1987• The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone adopted freezes levels of production and consumption of certain identified ozone depleting substances. Later amendments to the Montreal Protocol require a complete phase out of production and consumption by 2010. The creators of the 1987 Montreal Protocol are the parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. GO BACK
The Brundtland Report is Published• Date: 1987• The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) publishes the Brundtland Report, also known as “Our Common Future.” The report states that critical global environmental issues are the primary source of poverty in the South, as well as non- sustainable consumption in the North. The Report’s goal is to unite efforts for global sustainable development and environmental practices. GO BACK
IPCC is Created• Date: 1988• The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is created by the World Meteorological Organization and UNEP. Scientists from around the world meet to research climate change since the threats are becoming so serious, and they feel increasing pressure to combat the depletion of the ozone layer. GO BACK
Toronto Conference on Climate Change• Date: June 27th-30th, 1988• The conference is considered to be the first major climate change conference, attended by more than 340 participants from 46 countries. They all recommend developing a global framework convention that will protect the atmosphere. Participants agree that there should be a 20% cut in global carbon dioxide emissions by 2005, and an eventual 50% cut. GO BACK
Basel Convention is Adopted• Date: March 22nd, 1989• The Basel Convention is adopted to combat the dumping of hazardous wastes in developing countries by developed countries. The Basel Convention establishes a global notification and consent system for the transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes. The main objectives of the Convention is to reduce transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, minimize creation of hazardous waste, and prohibit their shipment to countries lacking the capacity to dispose of hazardous wastes in an environmentally sound manner. GO BACK
The Climate Action Network is Established• Date: March 1989• The Climate Action Network (CAN) is considered to be the umbrella NGO in international, national, and local negotiations pertaining to climate change and the environment. The CAN is made up of 300 environmental NGOs and has the overall goal of decreasing human-induced climate change. The CAN’s future meetings include representatives from the various NGOs meeting to strategize matters concerning the latest environmental developments. The CAN will later also make significant contributions to the development and adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. GO BACK
IPCC Releases First Report• Date: 1990• The report says that the planet is warming due to human activities. It states that human activities are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases (CO2, methane, CFCs, and nitrous oxide), and will inevitably enhance the natural greenhouse effect causing a warming of the Earths surface. The report also states that CO2 is one of the main contributors to the enhanced greenhouse effect. The IPCC predicts an increase of 0.3 degrees Celsius in the global mean temperature per decade during the 21st century, which is greater than any increase seen over the past 10,000 years. GO BACK
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil• Date: June 3rd-14th, 1992• The summit is considered the largest gathering of world leaders. They create the Rio Convention which calls all parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the 1990 amounts. At the Rio Earth Summit a non-legally binding authoritative statement of principles for the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of Forests is produced. One of the major achievements at the summit is an agreement on the Climate Change Convention, which eventually will lead to the Kyoto Protocol. Participants also agree that there should be no activities done on other countries land that would cause harm to the environment or go against the culture. GO BACK
UNFCCC Drafting• Date: 1992• The drafting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is done in preparation for the Rio Summit of 1992. The UNFCCC is a non-binding agreement ratified by 189 states to address climate change. All countries involved agree to report their emissions amounts for greenhouse gases. It is decided that a binding framework will be necessary in order to make a difference and so negotiations will begin to take place. GO BACK
COP in Berlin, Germany• Date: March 28th – April 7th, 1995• The Conference of Parties meet for the first time in Berlin, Germany. The participants discuss concerns about the countries abilities to meet the commitments constructed under the convention framework. The concerns are expressed in a document called the "Berlin Mandate." The Mandate creates a 2 year time period to negotiate a choice of actions for countries to pick from which include future options of how to address climate change in a way that will be the best from both economic and environmental viewpoints. It also exempts non- Annex 1 countries from any more binding obligations. GO BACK
IPCC Releases 2nd Report• Date: 1995• The report further confirms that human activities are causing drastic climate change. It states that the greenhouse gas concentrations are constantly increasing. It is the only report to include a chapter on the economic impacts of climate change. GO BACK
Second COP in Geneva, Switzerland• Date: July 8th-19th, 1996• At the conference, countries that are part of the Rio Convention admit that climate change is threatening. There is also an acceptance of the findings on climate change made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its second report. Participants reject the idea of having uniform and harmonized policies because countries favor flexibility. GO BACK
Third COP in Kyoto, Japan• Date: December 1st – 10th, 1997• The binding framework that the states had talked about is agreed upon; they title it the Kyoto protocol. The Protocol states that developed countries will have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to a certain amount. The binding amounts will have to be met between the years 2008-2012. Most industrialized nations agree to the legally binding reductions to levels below 1990 amounts; the U.S. does not. GO BACK
Fourth COP in Buenos Aires, Argentina• Date: November 2nd-13th, 1998• Participants of the conference discuss the implementation of Protocol but decide to delay finalization. The resolving of the Protocol’s remaining issues does not happen because it becomes too difficult to reach agreement. As an alternative, a 2 year plan of action is created which will speed up efforts and create mechanisms for finalizing and implementing the Kyoto Protocol; the action plan is to be completed by 2000. GO BACK
Kyoto Protocol Opened for Signing• Date: March 16th, 1998• The Kyoto Protocol is open for signatures at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City, and 84 countries sign it between March 16th, 1998 and March 15th, 1999. GO BACK
Fifth COP in Bonn, Germany• Date: October 25th – November 5th, 1999• At the meeting, 166 countries discuss the details of Kyoto Protocol that are necessary for its implementation. The participants are able to agree on the steps needed in order to make decisions on the issues stated in the plan of action created at the fourth COP. During the meeting, an effort is also made to finish a possible negotiations text, but the developing countries believe this is premature and so it does not happen. The developing countries want more time for countries to make proposals on how the flexibility mechanisms should operate. There is also a large push to have an early entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002 (U.S. does not want this). However, Russia was the final country that needed to ratify in order to reach the 55% of industrialized nations required by the Kyoto Protocol, so the 2002 goal did not end up happening. GO BACK
Sixth COP in the Hague, Netherlands• Date: November 13th-24th, 2000• This COP is considered a failure due to a disagreement on carbon sinks. The US wants to include carbon sinks in the agreement, but very few other nations agree. European nations do not believe that the US should be allowed to meet greenhouse gas reduction targets without actually cutting emissions. This conflict is the main reason for the collapse of the meeting. GO BACK
IPCC Release 3rd Report• Date: 2001• The IPCC release their third report which represents the advances that scientists have made in the understanding of climate change and its possible effects. There were three major parts: 1) The Scientific Basis section confirmed that climate change is happening and that humans are the ones causing it. This section also states that the effects may be worse than was previously thought 2) The Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability section states that the impacts of climate change on humans and nature will be negative. It states that there is “potential for catastrophe” 3) The Mitigation Section states that there are options that exist for slowing down climate change, many of which could begin immediately with “no net cost.” GO BACK
Bush Declares Won’t Ratify the Kyoto Protocol• Date: March 28, 2001• George Bush announces to the world that the United states will not be implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Bush claims that the agreement leaves out too many countries under its rules, and so does not agree with the Protocol. Bush claims that he is going to find an alternative plan that will include more of the world in its guidelines. GO BACK
Seventh COP in Bonn, Germany• Date: October 29th - November 9th, 2001• At the meeting, 180 Nations finally agree on how to enforce the Protocol. Even with the agreement, however, some concerns arise that there will be little impact on the emissions, even with 55% of greenhouse gas emissions being accounted for. The US is not present during the meeting. GO BACK
The Marrakech Accords• Date: 2001• Nations come together in Marrakech and create detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol. The objective of the agreement is to finalize the agreement on operational details for commitments on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The accords also are meant to finalize the agreement on actions to strengthen implementation of the UNFCCC. GO BACK
The World Summit on Sustainable Development• Date: August 26th – September 4th, 2002• The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) convenes in Johannesburg, South Africa. At the summit, the United Nations discuss sustainable development. The main outcome of the summit is the Johannesburg Declaration, which further encourages sustainable development and mentions that multilateralism is the path forward. The United States is absent because George Bush boycotted the summit and so does not attend. GO BACK
World Climate Change Conference• Date: September 9th – October 3rd, 2003• The climate talks are meant to be an opportunity for scientists to meet to discuss the latest research on climate change and its impacts. However, the talks end up being focused directly on the Kyoto Protocol. There is much doubt about whether Russias president, Vladimir Putin, will ratify the Kyoto Protocol as he previously stated he would. This ends up receiving most of the attention of the conference instead of the scientists’ input. GO BACK
Russia Ratifies the Kyoto Protocol• Date: November 18th, 2004• This ratification is crucial and will fulfill the requirements necessary for the Protocol to take effect. The countries become collectively responsible for 55% of greenhouse gas emissions. Russia completes the 55% that is needed for the Protocol to enter into force. GO BACK
Eleventh COP in Montreal, Canada• Date: November 28th – December 9th, 2005• It is the largest intergovernmental climate conference since the Kyoto Protocol was adopted. The issues discussed include rules and commitments by different countries, how to help developing countries reduce gas emissions, how to measure emissions reductions, and accountability. GO BACK
South Africa Is Unready for Emission Cap• Date: October 18th, 2005• South Africa’s environment minister, Rejoice Thizwilondi Mabudafhasi, states that, for economic reasons, it is too soon to set targets for the developing world to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the developing countries are exempt from the emissions caps of the Kyoto Protocol. The environment minister also believes that the large greenhouse gas emitters of the developing world (i.e. South Africa, India, China, and Brazil) will have to find ways to curb emissions before targets are created. GO BACK
Australia Rules Out Post-Kyoto Limits• Date: October 31st, 2005• Australia states that negotiating new greenhouse gas emissions levels for years after 2012 is not necessary. This dampens the hopes that a major environment meeting in Canada in November will be able to set new targets. Ian Campbell, Australia’s Environment Minister, stated that most countries will not be able to meet their Kyoto targets and that creating new limits will not accomplish anything. GO BACK
Technology Transfer Seminar• Date: March 8th-9th, 2006• At the seminar, 144 participants from 11 Asian countries discuss technology transfer under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. It provides an opportunity for government representatives and policy makers to go over the best practices for technology transfer throughout Asia. The participants want to discuss the key success factors, as well as the best way to implement them. GO BACK
Canada Requests Leniencies• Date: May, 2006• Canada makes the statement that it will be willing to remain in the Kyoto Protocol after 2012, but only if it receives breaks on meeting the required targets. In a report to the United Nations, the country states that the second phase of the Kyoto Protocol should be more lenient with longer deadlines, voluntary targets, and exceptions for Canada’s resource based economy. GO BACK
17 Countries Behind on Targets• Date: June 2nd, 2006• In Bonn, figures are submitted by the governments to the United Nations Climate Secretariat showing that emissions of carbon dioxide in at least 17 of 40 industrialized countries are missing targets set under the Kyoto Protocol. GO BACK VIEW TABLE
International Conference on CDM• Date: September 19th-21st, 2006• At the conference, participants discuss the Protocol in relation to Saudi Arabia. The objective is to provide those participating with an understanding of financial benefits that CDM can provide. It is important to increase the awareness of newer mechanisms such as CCS, or Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, which is the separation of carbon dioxide from industrial sources and its transportation to a storage location where it is isolated from the atmosphere. GO BACK
Twelfth Conference of Parties in Nairobi, Kenya• Date: November 6th-17th, 2006• The participants of the second session of the Conference of the parties serving as the meeting of the parities to the Kyoto Protocol in Nairobi, Kenya adopt the first amendment to the Protocol that means including Belarus in the emissions reduction commitments stated under Annex B of the Protocol. The major focus of the meetings is long-term action on climate change, as well as what will happen after the first commitment period ends. Although it is not considered to be one of the most memorable COPs or CMPs, it still marks an important point for negotiators and post-2012 planning. GO BACK
Washington Declaration is Made• Date: February 16th, 2007• The heads of state from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, US, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa agree on an outline to the successor of the Kyoto Protocol. It is non- binding and is hoped to be in place by 2009. The agreement is a global cap and trade system that would apply to industrialized nations and developing countries. GO BACK
UNFCCC Asian Regional Workshop• Date: April 11th-15th, 2007• The purpose of the UNFCCC Asian Regional Workshop on Adaptation is to highlight Asian Concerns about climate change adaptation and vulnerability reduction. It is taking place because a request was made at the tenth Conference of Parties for the UNFCCC to organize workshops and meetings for small island developing nations to enable information exchange and assistance in identifying adaptation needs and concerns. GO BACK
Canada States Protocol Not Possible• Date: 2007• Canada claims that the Kyoto Protocol is not possible for the country. It creates an alternative plan that does not put a hard ceiling on greenhouse gases the way that the Kyoto Protocol does; instead, it makes intensity targets for emissions. The head of the international body overseeing the Kyoto Protocol says that this new plan does not guarantee that emissions will go down. There is worry that, since Canada is refusing to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, other countries might begin to do the same. Also, Canada is seen to be the role model for the U.S., so if Canada gives up, then the U.S. will have more reason not to ratify and comply with the Protocol. GO BACK
Vienna Climate Change Talks• Date: August 28th, 2007• The purpose of the meetings in Vienna is to discuss what will happen after the Kyoto Protocol ends. One of the main topics of discussion in the meetings is a United Nations report which shows how energy efficiency could bring significant cuts in emissions at low cost. The Vienna talks are meant to set the stage for the major international meeting that would be held in December of 2007. GO BACK
Australia Ratifies Kyoto Protocol• Date: December 3rd, 2007• Australia ratifies Kyoto Protocol in Bali. This is a very significant ratification because it results in the US being the only Annex I country who did not ratify the Protocol. GO BACK
Bali Climate Change Talks• Date: December 2nd – 15th, 2007• The fifteen day Bali meeting on climate change focuses on the question of how to save the climate from the continuous harmful emissions. The conference is considered a success because there is an overall agreement on three important goals: 1. to launch negotiations on the global agreement of climate change issues, 2. to create an agenda for these negotiations, and 3. to agree to conclude the negotiations by 2009. The Bali Road Map is created here, which includes the Bali Action Plan. They both discuss the three goals and create a course for a new negotiating process that will become a post 2012 international agreement on climate change, also considered to be the second commitment period. At the Bali meetings, a provision is added that requires emission reports to be submitted and validated for each country. GO BACK
IPCC Release 4th Report• Date: November 17th, 2007• The IPCC’s 4th report states that halting global warming completely is no longer possible. It says that increased heat waves and floods cannot be avoided, and will happen at lower temperatures than predicted. The report also predicts that greenhouse gas emissions will rise by 90% by 2030. The most vulnerable regions to climate change are noted to be Africa, Asian mega deltas, and the Arctic. Also, in the countries seen in being at the highest risk, the people who will be impacted the most are stated to be the elderly, the young, and the marginalized. GO BACK
Top Emitters Meet in Paris• Date: April 2008• The world’s top greenhouse gas emitters meet in Paris to work out ways to slow global warming. The participants were E.U, U.N, U.K, U.S, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. There are hopes for an agreement by the end of 2008 on curbs by the countries that emit 80% of the world’s greenhouse gases. Nations express skepticism about Bush’s late agreement for a need for more climate action. GO BACK
Bangkok Climate Change Talks• Date: March 31st – April 4th, 2008• These talks mark the beginning of a new negotiating phase. A new work program is created to make a future international climate pact that will successfully halt the increase in global emissions within the next 10-15 years and halt the increase in emissions by mid-century. GO BACK
China is Declared Top Carbon Emitter• Date: April 15th, 2008• A general consensus emerges that China has become the top carbon emitter, as well as one of the world’s biggest polluters. This presents a problem because it is not included in the binding framework of the Kyoto Protocol since it is not an Annex I developed country. Researchers warn that any unchecked future growth will dwarf emission cuts made by rich nations under the Kyoto Protocol. GO BACK
Bush Announces Emission Reduction Goal• Date: April 16th, 2008• Bush announces he is setting a national goal for the US to curb growth of greenhouse gas emissions by 2025. He also repeats his objections to the Kyoto Protocol, saying that technology would be the solution to the climate issues. He says that the US is willing to build a plan focused around technology into a binding international agreement if other nations are willing. GO BACK
GAO Report on Climate Change• Date: May 2008• The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) releases a report that includes expert opinions on actions that might be considered to address climate change based on potential benefits, costs, and uncertainties of the actions, as well as strengths and limitations. It is agreed that Congress should use a market-based mechanism to create a price on greenhouse gas emissions, which the majority currently think should be between $1 and $20 per ton. The experts believe that a tax could be created to set a fixed price on every ton of emissions. There would also be a market established for trading permits to emit specific amounts of greenhouse gases. It is considered to be a hybrid approach between taxes and the cap-and-trade method. GO BACK
Bonn Climate Change Talks• Date: June 2nd-13th, 2008• These talks are currently taking place. Various governments are meeting to continue preparing for the Bali Mandate that was created at the 13th Conference of Parties. It is what will help the governments to agree on a new climate deal by 2009. During this time period, the governments will also have to progress toward an ambitious outcome at the Poznan COP. They will need to figure out the options for a negotiations framework that will be agreed upon in Poznan and negotiated in 2009. GO BACK
Climate Change Talks in Accra, Ghana• Date: August 21st – 27th, 2008• The main purpose of the talks is to negotiate a new international climate change deal, as well as to work on the emissions reduction rules set under the Kyoto Protocol. This meeting is meant to be a springboard for official negotiations to be started in Poznan, Poland in December and finalized in Copenhagen in 2009. Ideas and proposals for a future deal are compiled and will continue to be compiled until the Poznan meeting. The topic of deforestation is also discussed in relation to the effect it has on speeding up climate change. About 1,600 participants attend with delegates from 160 different countries. This is the last major international conference before the meeting takes place in Poznan. GO BACK
Fourteenth Conference of Parties in Poznan, Poland• Date: December 1st-12th, 2008• The Conference of Parties results in governments committing to negotiate an international response to climate change in 2009. The meeting does not make progress on creating a new binding agreement by the end of 2009. It is emphasized that Barack Obama will be taking direct involvement in negotiating a new agreement in 2009. The meeting also focuses on the Kyoto Protocol’s Adaptation Fund, which now grants direct access to developing countries. GO BACK
Fifteenth Conference of Parties in Copenhagen, Denmark• Date: December 7th – 18th, 2009• COP 15 takes place in Copenhagen, Denmark. Denmark is to host the UN’s very important climate summit in 2009 when a “new Kyoto agreement” is to fall in place. At least 10,000 participants from the entire world are expected to attend the summit, which will be the most significant since the Kyoto meeting in 1997. The EU’s state and government leaders previously set the stage for making a new global climate agreement about the limitation of the emissions of greenhouse gas at the latest in 2009. The summit is imperative if the agreement is to be legal and effective when the Kyoto protocol will expire at the end of 2012. GO BACK
Bali Road Map• Date: 2009• Bali Roadmap should be ready for signing. A new pact to reduce greenhouse gases once Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012. It was created at the Bali Conference sponsored by the UN. The roadmap includes an agreement on the Adaptation Fund that will deliver funds for developing countries to deal with the impacts of climate change. The roadmap also includes an agreement to review how industrialized countries will meet emissions reduction targets in the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. It also represents a program that is meant to strengthen the UN climate change regime beyond the initial Protocol concepts - this would mean a clear involvement of the developing countries. GO BACK
Kyoto Protocol Goal to be Reached• Date: 2010• Goal by 2010: 5.2% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions below the 1990 Annex 1 countries. This is considered the overall goal of the Kyoto Protocol. GO BACK
Kyoto Protocol 2nd Commitment Period• Date: 2013-2017• In 2005 negotiations began for a second commitment period to possibly take place. There are goals to bring the United States, China, and India into the negotiations since they are large emitters of greenhouse gases. GO BACK
Prospective Temperature Growth• Date: 2020• The IPCC projects a possible temperature growth of one degree Celsius. This would mean: 30-40% of all known species are threatened by extinction; coral reefs are bleached; heat waves, floods, and draughts will be causing a higher mortality rate amongst humans. GO BACK
Emission Reduction Goal to be Reached• Date: 2020• Goal to reach emissions reductions discussed in Bali meeting in 2007. The goal range was between 25% and 40% reductions. GO BACK
Emission Reduction Goal to be Reached• Date: 2020• In 2001, the EU Sustainable Development Strategy stressed that the EU should aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions after 2012 by 1% per year up to 2020. It also specified that CO2 emissions alone should be reduced by 10% by 2020. This would in turn reduce emissions of pollutants that have adverse effects on public health. GO BACK
Energy Investment Goal to be Reached• Date: 2030• According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), huge energy investment decisions need to be in place by 2030 that will determine the mix of energy technologies and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions well into the 2nd half of the century. In Europe alone, this new mix of energy technologies could save up to 40% of energy. GO BACK
Prospective Emission Growth• Date: 2030• According to the IPCC, even though total emissions from industrialized nations that ratified the Kyoto Protocol will fall by a few percent, global emissions are actually expected to rise by 60% in 2030. This large increase would be caused mainly by the growth from the United States and China. The Protocol has not done much to reduce the growth of global emissions, and since the United States and China account for most of the worlds emissions, but are not included in the Kyoto Protocol for different reasons (the United States did not ratify it and China is not obligated to meet the requirements since it is a non-annex country), they will cause the emissions to continue to increase. GO BACK
Emission Reduction Goal to be Reached• Date: 2050• Representatives from the UK project that in 2050 the worlds developed countries would need to have cut greenhouse gas emissions by 60 to 80%. If this doesnt happen, then experts believe that there will be a temperature rise above 2-2.5 degrees Celsius. This would mean a higher occurrence of heat waves, droughts, and heavy rainfall. It would also adversely affect agriculture, forests, water resources, industry, and human health. Developing countries and poorer areas of the populations would be the most seriously harmed. GO BACK
Prospective Temperature Growth• Date: 2050• The IPCC projects a possible temperature growth of two degrees Celsius. This would mean: Biological systems experience massive change causing adverse effects on biodiversity and the supply of food and water worldwide. Also, millions of people would be living in severely flood- threatened regions. GO BACK
Annex I Countries Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia European Community Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey UkraineGO BACK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States of America
Annex II Countries Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark European Economic Community Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandGO BACK United States of America
Status of Kyoto Targets Allowed emission Change achievedOrange = Not meeting targets change target for 2012 in 2006 (percentage of 1990 base (percentage ofGray = Achieving targets Country year) 1990 base year) Australia 108.0 128.81Note: The Protocol sets goals for Austria 87.0 115.05 Belgium 92.5 94.77individual countries in order to Bulgaria 92.0 53.80achieve a combined international Canada 94.0 121.67emissions reduction of at least Croatia 95.0 94.79 Czech Republic 92.0 76.305% below 1990 levels. Goals Denmark 79.0 102.23include reductions (ex. Germany Estonia 92.0 45.38 Finland 100.0 113.17must reduce to 79% of 1990 France 100.0 96.49levels) as well as allowed Germany 79.0 81.84increases (ex. Spain may Greece 125.0 127.26 Hungary 94.0 67.87increase emissions levels to Iceland 110.0 124.22115% of 1990 levels). Ireland 113.0 125.64 Italy 93.5 109.87 Japan 94.0 105.35 Latvia 92.0 43.93 Liechtenstein 92.0 118.96 Lithuania 92.0 47.04 Luxembourg 72.0 101.03 Monaco 92.0 86.93 Netherlands 94.0 98.03 New Zealand 100.0 125.70 Norway 101.0 107.67 Poland 94.0 71.07 Portugal 127.0 139.98 Romania 92.0 55.58 Russian Federation 100.0 65.84 Slovakia 92.0 66.37 Slovenia 92.0 101.24 Spain 115.0 150.63 Sweden 104.0 91.26 Switzerland 92.0 100.77 GO BACK Ukraine 100.0 48.07 United Kingdom 87.5 84.95 Source: National greenhouse gas inventory data for 1990 to 2006, U.N Framework Convention on Climate Change