The Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover         Missions                   Ray Arvidson      Washington Universi...
Planetary Terramechanics• Interaction of spacecraft systems with planetary  surfaces, e.g., during  – Hard landing (penetr...
Spirit and Opportunity Rovers                        •Six wheel drive                        with rigid wheels            ...
Machine-Terrain Interaction Design, Modeling, Testing, and Best Operational PracticesMust be Used to Avoid……..            ...
Spirit Rover               •Right front wheel               drive actuator               failed on sol 779               s...
6
Home Plate   Husband Hill                  7
HiRISE View Spirit’s traverses entry to                                             Inner Basin to 3rd winter siteHome Pla...
Spirit’s Traverses After Leaving Third Winter Site                                                     9
Stapledon Nodular Rock Clast Close to Winter Site             72% SiO2                                                    10
11
Sulfate-rich Soils Excavated by Inoperative Right Front Wheel                             30% SO3                         ...
Sol 1870 Navcam looking south showing Stratius and other features  The Troy Region as Seen on Sol 1870                    ...
Scamander crater 8 m wide and 25 cm deep                                     Rock Garden                                  ...
SandalsStratius             15
16
Olive tree             5 cm across                           17
18
Penina 3 (1.5 cm across)                           19
Cyclops eye RAT HolesOlivebranchsites                                 20
“Breast Stroke” Maneuver Moves Spirit ~35 cm over last drives                                                            21
PancamFalse color mosaicafter IDD andextricationefforts stoppedfor winter                     22
“Punch Line”•Relatively insolubleminerals concentratedtoward top of Troysoil section with ferric sulfate“lenses”•Generate ...
24
Opportunity Rover                    •Right front                    wheel left rotated                    ~8 deg inward  ...
Purgatoryripple            27
28
After backing out of Purgatory Ripple                                    29
30
Sol 2220 Ripple Slip of ~58% and sinkage of ~5 cm                                                    31
32
33
Sol 2143 Ripple Crossing Simulation                                      34
Similar to observedtelemetry                      35
36
37
Sol 2451 Backwards Downhill Drive Simulation                                           38
Similar to observedtelemetry                      39
41
2.0                                                                                  x100                    1.8          ...
HiRISE Image Opportunity
Sol 2709 Pancam Chester Lake                          In-situ measurement target
Rock Abrasion Tool image acquired 9/11/11Metal cable coverFrom Twin Towers
Size Comparison                                  MARS SCIENCE                                  LABORATORY (MSL)           ...
Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture
Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture
Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture
Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture
Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture
Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture
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Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture

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The Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Missions
Ray Arvidson Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Christopher Lecture 17th International ISTVS Conference
9/19/11

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Ray Arvidson, ISTVS St. Christopher Lecture

  1. 1. The Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover Missions Ray Arvidson Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Christopher Lecture 17th International ISTVS Conference 9/19/11 1
  2. 2. Planetary Terramechanics• Interaction of spacecraft systems with planetary surfaces, e.g., during – Hard landing (penetrometer) – Soft landing (rockets, air bags, “sky crane”) – Hopping (proposed Comet Hopper) – Digging and sampling (Mars Phoenix Lander, MER- Spirit and Opportunity) – Drilling and sampling (Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity), Mars 2018 Sample Caching Rover) – Roving (MER, MSL, Mars 2018 Sample Caching Rover) 2
  3. 3. Spirit and Opportunity Rovers •Six wheel drive with rigid wheels •Outer four wheels able to turn •Rocker-bogie suspension system •Navigation and hazard avoidance systems 3
  4. 4. Machine-Terrain Interaction Design, Modeling, Testing, and Best Operational PracticesMust be Used to Avoid…….. Did not happen with either Spirit or Opportunity!
  5. 5. Spirit Rover •Right front wheel drive actuator failed on sol 779 so subsequent drives caused rotations about that wheel •Embedded in sands of Troy after breaking through soil crust •Extrication stopped Sol 2169 to prepare for winter •Last communication March 2010 and mission over May 2011 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Home Plate Husband Hill 7
  8. 8. HiRISE View Spirit’s traverses entry to Inner Basin to 3rd winter siteHome Plate Mitcheltree Ridge 80 m wide Tyrone Low Ridge Crossfield Slide McCool Hill Von Braun Goddard 8
  9. 9. Spirit’s Traverses After Leaving Third Winter Site 9
  10. 10. Stapledon Nodular Rock Clast Close to Winter Site 72% SiO2 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. Sulfate-rich Soils Excavated by Inoperative Right Front Wheel 30% SO3 12
  13. 13. Sol 1870 Navcam looking south showing Stratius and other features The Troy Region as Seen on Sol 1870 13
  14. 14. Scamander crater 8 m wide and 25 cm deep Rock Garden 14
  15. 15. SandalsStratius 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Olive tree 5 cm across 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Penina 3 (1.5 cm across) 19
  20. 20. Cyclops eye RAT HolesOlivebranchsites 20
  21. 21. “Breast Stroke” Maneuver Moves Spirit ~35 cm over last drives 21
  22. 22. PancamFalse color mosaicafter IDD andextricationefforts stoppedfor winter 22
  23. 23. “Punch Line”•Relatively insolubleminerals concentratedtoward top of Troysoil section with ferric sulfate“lenses”•Generate sulfates duringInner Basin volcanic period•Wind erosion and transportmix sulfates and basalticmaterials, e.g., infilling ScamanderCrater•On-going wetting (frosts,snowpack) moves solublespecies down-section, withoutcomplete re-equilibration 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. Opportunity Rover •Right front wheel left rotated ~8 deg inward when azimuthal actuator failed •Shoulder IDD actuator failed so driving uses “fishing stow” and have limited deployment work space •Mini-TES no longer responding 25
  26. 26. Purgatoryripple 27
  27. 27. 28
  28. 28. After backing out of Purgatory Ripple 29
  29. 29. 30
  30. 30. Sol 2220 Ripple Slip of ~58% and sinkage of ~5 cm 31
  31. 31. 32
  32. 32. 33
  33. 33. Sol 2143 Ripple Crossing Simulation 34
  34. 34. Similar to observedtelemetry 35
  35. 35. 36
  36. 36. 37
  37. 37. Sol 2451 Backwards Downhill Drive Simulation 38
  38. 38. Similar to observedtelemetry 39
  39. 39. 41
  40. 40. 2.0 x100 1.8 Timmins ratio to Zn GusevSoil Br 1.6 Adirondack 1.4 Marquette Gibraltar 1.2 1.0 x10logartihmic ratio 0.8 P S change Cl 0.6 K 0.4 Ti x2 Ca 0.2 Mn Ni 0.0 x1 Fe -0.2 Si Na Al x0.5 -0.4 Mg -0.6 -0.8 Cr -1.0 x0.1 Oxide
  41. 41. HiRISE Image Opportunity
  42. 42. Sol 2709 Pancam Chester Lake In-situ measurement target
  43. 43. Rock Abrasion Tool image acquired 9/11/11Metal cable coverFrom Twin Towers
  44. 44. Size Comparison MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY (MSL) MARS EXPLORATION ROVER (MER)MARS PATHFINDER (MPF) Rover Mass 10.6 kg 174.0 kg 975.0 kg

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