Session 58 - Cloud computing, virtualisation and the future

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  • 1. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Aake
Edlund,
PhD
 KTH,
Sweden
 Bal1cGrid
(Project
Director)
 Bal1cGrid
Innova1on
Lab
and
Bal1cCloud
(Ini1ator,
Manager)
 Pawn
Promo1on
(CEO),
Numeri
(Co‐founder)

  • 2. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Paradigm
change
 “Cloud
compu1ng
is
the
ability
to
migrate
the

 computa1on
that
used
to
happen

 at
the
edges
into
the
network..”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Randy
H
Katz,
Berkeley
RAD
Labs

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
See
berkeleyclouds.blogspot.com
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 2

  • 3. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Paradigm
change
 “Free up the relationship between software and hardware and a whole new industry is born”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alan
Williamson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

www.aw20.co.uk
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 3

  • 4. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Cloud
vs
Grid
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 Google Trends, 1st of July 2009 4

  • 5. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Cloud
Compu0ng
–
short
version
 Cloud = Virtualization + Automation 1. The cloud is IT infrastructure as a service. 2. The IT infrastructure is delivered as virtual machines. 3. Automation moves those VMs around, thereby providing the delivery mechanism for the service. Rachel Chalmers, 451 group, October 20th, 2008 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 5

  • 6. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Virtualisa0on
 ‐
abstrac0on
of
computer
resources
 “Not
physically
exis1ng
as
such
but
made
by
 so^ware
to
appear
to
do
so”
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 6

  • 7. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Virtualisa0on
 ‐
abstrac0on
of
computer
resources
 PlaBorm
virtualiza0on
–

Separates
an
opera1ng
system
 from
the
underlying
plaaorm
resources
 Encapsula0on
‐
The
hiding
of
resource
complexity
by
the
 crea1on
of
a
simplified
interface
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 7

  • 8. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Virtualisa0on
 ‐
abstrac0on
of
computer
resources
 Storage
virtualiza0on
‐
The
process
of
completely
 abstrac1ng
logical
storage
from
physical
storage
 Network
virtualiza0on
‐
Crea1on
of
a
virtualised
network
 addressing
space
within
or
across
network
subnets
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 8

  • 9. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Virtualisa0on
 ‐
abstrac0on
of
computer
resources
 Computer
clusters,
grid
compu1ng,
and
cloud
compu1ng
‐
 the
combina1on
of
mul1ple
discrete
computers
into
larger
 metacomputers
 Applica0on
virtualiza0on
‐
The
hos1ng
of
individual
 applica1ons
on
alien
hardware/so^ware
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 9

  • 10. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Virtualisa0on
–
why?
 Hardware
is
underu1lized
–
Moore’s law
 Data
centers
run
out
of
space

 Economy
and
Environment
–
Energy
cost
explosion
 System
administra1on
cost…
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 10

  • 11. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Server
virtualisa0on
is
geHng
 Virtualisa0on
 cri0cal
–
we’re
running
out
of
 &
the
Future
 room
in
our
data
centers
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 11

  • 12. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Three
main
strategies
 OS
virtualisa1on
 Hardware
emula1on
 Paravirtualisa1on
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
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Sophia
An1polis
 12

  • 13. OS
virtualisa0on
 Virtual
 Virtual
 Virtual
 environment
1
 environment
2
 environment
3
 Installed
and
runs
on
top
of
an
 Applica1on
 so^ware
 Applica1on
 so^ware
 Applica1on
 so^ware
 exis1ng
host
OS,
and
provides
a
set
 System
so^ware
 System
libraries
 System
so^ware
 System
libraries
 System
so^ware
 System
libraries
 of
libraries
that
applica1ons
 interact
with.
 OS
|
Container
Virtualisa1on
Layer
 Host
Opera1ng
System
 Hardware
 Efficient,
imposes
liile
overhead,
 Network
 many
containers
on
one
piece
of
 HW
possible.

 Good
for
large
number
 
of
homogeneous
OS,

 Only
one
OS,
same
as
host
OS.
 e.g.
web
hos1ng.
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
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 13

  • 14. Hardware
emula0on
 OS
installed
on
a
virtual
machine
 Applica1on
 Applica1on
 that
emulates
the
hardware
that
 OS
 OS
 the
OS
usually
interact
with.
VVM
 coordinates
access
between
guest
 CPU,
 CPU,
 Memory,
 NIC,
Disk
 Memory,
 NIC,
Disk
 VMs
and
the
actual
underlying
 hardware
–
in
run1me.
 VMware
Virtualisa1on
Layer
 x86
Architecture
 Unmodified
guest
OSes.
Supports
 Device
driver
issues/ dissimilar
OSes.
 inflexibility:
could
limit

 the
usability.
 Performance
penalty.
 July
17,
2009
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An1polis
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  • 15. Paravirtualisa0on
 Does not create an entire VM to host the guest OS, rather enables the Xen
 Guest
 Guest
 guest OS to interact directly with the Device
 Tool
 Drivers
 OS
 OS
 hypervisor. Stack

 Less performance overhead. Xen
Hypercall
API
 Xen
Hypervisor
 Uses the device drivers contained in one of the guest operating systems – Hardware
 i.e. not limited to the drivers (as in hardware emulation) contained in the virtualisation software. July
17,
2009
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Sophia
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  • 16. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Again: Cloud
Compu0ng
–
short
version
 Cloud = Virtualization + Automation 1. The cloud is IT infrastructure as a service. 2. The IT infrastructure is delivered as virtual machines. 3. Automation moves those VMs around, thereby providing the delivery mechanism for the service. Rachel Chalmers, 451 group, October 20th, 2008 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 16

  • 17. Cloud
Compu0ng

 –
longer
version
 “Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services… The datacenter hardware and software is what we will call a Cloud… Cloud computing has the following characteristics 1. The illusion of infinite computing resources.. 2. The elimination of an up-front commitment by Cloud users.. 3. The ability to pay for use … as needed…” July
17,
2009
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‐
Sophia
An1polis
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 UC Berkeley RAD Labs
  • 18. Cloud
compu0ng
 
 –
once
more…
 1. The illusion of infinite computing resources.. 2. The elimination of an up-front commitment by Cloud users.. 3. The ability to pay for use … as needed…” a) Signup for an AWS account Use your existing Amazon.com account if you want b) Register a credit card Billed on the 1st of every month for usage prior c) http://aws.amazon.com/ec2 July
17,
2009
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  • 19. Spectrum
of
Clouds 
 •  Instruction Set VM (Amazon EC2) •  Bytecode VM (Microsoft Azure) •  Framework VM (Google App Engine) Lower-level, Higher-level, Less management More management EC2 Azure AppEngine July
17,
2009
 Automatic scalability and failover ISSGC09
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Sophia
An1polis
 19

  • 20. Two
views
 
 ‐
of
the
same
thing
 On the right, Sam Johnston’s 6 layer Cloud Computing Stack http://samj.net/2008/09/taxonomy-6-layer-cloud-computing-stack.html July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
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Sophia
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  • 21. Layer
1:
Cloud
Infrastructure
 ‐
Provisioning
of
compu0ng
resources:
CPU,
Memory,
Processing
 ‐
Basically
an
“Opera0ng
System”
on
demand
 ‐
Usually
billed
on
a
per‐hour
usage
model
 Players
in
this
space
 Amazon
EC2,
Flexiscale,
GoGrid,
Joyent,
AppNexeus
 Management
providers:
RightScale,
Elas0cServer
 Opera0onal
Differences
 ‐
Wildly
different
CPU/Memory
specs
 ‐
Opera0ng
System
differences
 ‐
Difficult/Impossible
to
move
whole
images
between
providers
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 21

  • 22. Layer
2:
Cloud
Storage
 - Provisioning of data storage: Either file/object based or Database like functionality. - Billed on bandwidth and storage consumed Players in the space: Amazon S3, Nirvanix, Mosso, Amazon’s SimpleDB, Google’s BigTable, Azure Storage Management Providers: Jungle Disk, Elephant Disk, PutPlace.com Issues - Different types of data storage models - Limitations on the size of individual data units - Different billing models makes it hard to do a straight comparison - Access to the data generally uses non-standard query syntax - No common API - Performance issues July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
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Sophia
An1polis
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  • 23. Layer
3:
Cloud
PlaBorm
 Provides a complete software stack - An IDE for the cloud Takes care of: Runtimes, Load balancing, Resource provisioning Players in the space - Google App Engine - Python (initially, now also Java) - Force.com (SalesForce) - Microsoft’s Azure - .NET - Heroku.com (RubyOnRails) Issues Different languages -- Most platforms are unary Different operational philosophies - Google App Engine for example doesn’t permit files Lots of limitations in terms of deployment Completely reliant on the provider for complete uptime and operation Widely different billing models July
17,
2009
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  • 24. Layer
4:
Cloud
Applica0ons
 - Applications that are completely ‘online’ - Operate on data that is stored in the ‘cloud’ or ‘ether’ - No client software generally required - Billing: Ad. Revenue, Premium Services Players in this space - Google Apps - Gmail / Google Docs - Apple’s MobileMe - Microsoft’s Live - Hotmail, Live Spaces - SalesForce.com Issues - Near on impossible to move between providers - GMail to Hotmail requires major disruption - End user focused o  Consumer side of cloud computing - July
17,
2009
 Completely reliant on the provider for complete uptime and operation ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
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  • 25. Layer
5:
Cloud
Services
 - Provides services to which other applications can utilise - Specific to vertical markets where most “Web2.0” standards live - Usually free for non-commercial use Players in the space - Google/Yahoo Maps - PayPal / Google Checkout - Google / Yahoo WebServices - Amazon Merchant Services - Amazon Simple Queue Service Issues/Comments - Some “Web2.0” services have attempted a standardization path - Most however are complete vendor lock-in - Mashup applications utilize Cloud Service July
17,
2009
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  • 26. Layer
6:
Cloud
Clients
 - Accessing the cloud - Clients utilize standard access protocols o  XML o  JSON o  REST / SOAP Browsers o  FireFox / IE / Chrome Mobile clients o  Google Android / Symbian / iPhone / J2ME Desktop Apps o  Google Gears / Adobe AIR / Microsoft Azure July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
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  • 27. Complexity
and

 Vendor
lock‐in
 Clients Services Increasing Applications level of complexity Platform and vendor lock-in Storage Infrastructure July
17,
2009
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  • 28. Vendor
lock‐in,
or
the

 risk/benefit
dance
 There are alternatives to Amazon, and the list is growing Many pricing models are confusing and unclear, and hard to compare Many pricing models will change (and are already) Important to get the big picture of what you need, today and later on Vendor locking is definitely a problem to address. Before you jump into it. But this is always true July
17,
2009
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  • 29. Cloud
Storage

 Calculator
 hip://www.aw20.co.uk/tools/storagecosts.cfm
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
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  • 30. But
is
that
the
 
 full
story?
 •  Like
any
good
model
it
is
only
valid
for
a
 broad
range
of
services
 •  Many
services
span
different
layers
at
once
 –  For
example
 •  Amazon
/
Google
/
Microso^
 •  Facebook
/
MySpace
 •  YouTube
/
Flickr
 •  Ebay
 ...making
standardiza1on
even
harder
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 30

  • 31. Why
now?
 Experience
with
very
large
datacenters 
 
 Unprecedented
economies
of
scale
 Cost in Cost in Resource Medium DC Very Large DC Ratio ≈ 1000 servers ≈ 50,000 servers Network $95 / Mbps / month $13 / Mbps / month 7.1x Storage $2.20 / GB / month $0.40 / GB / month 5.7x Administration ≈140 servers/admin >1000 servers/admin 7.1x Where Possible Reasons Why Price per KWH 3.6¢ Idaho Hydroelectric power; not sent long distance 10.0¢ California Electricity transmitted long distance over the grid; limited transmission lines in Bay Area; no coal fired electricity allowed in California. 18.0¢ July
17,
2009
 Hawaii Must ship fuel to generate electricity ISSGC09
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Sophia
An1polis
 31

  • 32. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Why now? Technology is ready
 –  Pervasive
broadband
Internet
 –  Fast
x86
virtualiza0on
 

Virtualiza1on
makes
it
all
possible
 


Virtualiza1on
is
now
built‐in
to
microprocessors
 o  Intel’s
Virtualiza1on
(Intel
VT)
 o  Hardware
based,
very
fast
 –  Pay‐as‐you‐go
billing
model
 –  Standard
sogware
stack
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 32

  • 33. Why
now?
 Business
drive
–
cloud
users 
 • 
Flexibility
 • 
Eco‐efficiency
 • 
Credit
crunch
business
impera0ves
 ‐ 
CapEx
to
OpEx
–
pay‐as‐you‐go
 ‐ 
Fixed
cost
to
variable
cost
 • 
Improved
0me
to
market
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 33

  • 34. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Pay
by
use
instead
of
provisioning
for
peak
 Capacity Resources Resources Demand Capacity Demand Time Time Static data center Data center in the cloud Unused resources July
17,
2009
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Sophia
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 34

  • 35. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Heavy penalty for under-provisioning Resources Capacity Demand Resources Capacity 1 2 3 Time (days) Demand Lost revenue 1 2 3 Time (days) Resources Capacity Demand 1 2 3 Time (days) July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 Lost users 35

  • 36. Trends:
How
is
cloud
compu0ng
 being
used?
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 36

  • 37. Trends:
Cloud
providers 
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
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Sophia
An1polis
 37

  • 38. The
devil
is
in
the
details…
 Your data in the cloud July
17,
2009
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An1polis
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  • 39. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Adop0on
Challenges
 Challenge Opportunity Availability Multiple providers & DCs Data lock-in Standardization Data Confidentiality and Encryption, VLANs, Auditability Firewalls; Geographical Data Storage July
17,
2009
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  • 40. Growth
Challenges
 Challenge Opportunity Data transfer bottlenecks FedEx-ing disks, Data Backup/ Archival Performance Improved VM support, flash unpredictability memory, scheduling VMs Scalable storage Invent scalable store Bugs in large distributed Invent Debugger that relies on systems Distributed VMs Scaling quickly Invent Auto-Scaler that relies on ML; Snapshots July
17,
2009
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 40

  • 41. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Policy
and
Business
Challenges
 Challenge Opportunity Reputation Fate Sharing Offer reputation-guarding services like those for email Software Licensing Pay-for-use licenses; Bulk use sales July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
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Sophia
An1polis
 41

  • 42. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Startups
opportuni0es 
 •  Startups
and
prototyping
 •  One‐off
tasks
 •  Research
at
scale
 •  Cloud
Killer
Apps:
Mobile
and
web
applica0ons
 
 

 
….
more
about
this
in
the
‘Future’
sec0on
 July
17,
2009
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Sophia
An1polis
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  • 43. Bal0c
Cloud
 Bringing
cloud
compu.ng
to
 
 
 the
Bal.c
States
and
Belarus Bal1cGrid
 BC Planned
 BGi
‐
Bal1cGrid
Innova1on
Lab
 ac1vi1es
 SA1‐3,
 SME
 Bal1cCloud
 Courses
 NA1‐4,
JRA
 connec1vity
 July
17,
2009
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 43

  • 44. Open
source
 
 44
 “cloud
in
a
box”
 Our (main) choice: -  Great team! Rich Wolski, UCSB. BC -  Integrated with -  Integrated with July
17,
2009
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Sophia
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  • 45. Cloud
pilot
 
 45
 –
spreading
 
Bal0cCloud
+

SE
+
NO
+

 
DK
+
FIN
+
Iceland
+
…
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis

  • 46. Almost‐there‐first‐summary
 Cloud computing is a new way of using existing technology, driven by business value for the whole chain, from the providers to their users and their user’s users. At this point in time, cloud computing is best used in startups and prototyping… July
17,
2009
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  • 47. from http://geekandpoke.typepad.com July
17,
2009
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An1polis
 47

  • 48. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Expecta0ons
on
2009
 •  See more cloud computing being used by startups and in-house quick prototyping •  See more cloud computing being used in academia – esp. HPC flavours •  See more open source alternatives, and alternative cloud providers – also in academia (BalticCloud, SweCloud, NordicCloud) •  Improved solutions addressing the dangers in cloud computing. •  Low expectations on standard APIs (takes time, not sure about the interest from industry, looks like for grids). I.e. industry will not help here, this is the competition epicenter. •  Hype, problems, business issues: Successful usage will prove the value. If it is a paradigm shift, it will be clear this year. •  Plenty to opportunities for everyone! July
17,
2009
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 48

  • 49. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on 
 &
the
Future
 The
startup
world
is
changing
 “ Startups
can
be
run
so
cheaply
now
(with
open‐ source
so^ware,
cloud
compu0ng,
and
virtual
 teams
spread
across
the
Web)
that
many
more
 ” can
achieve
profitability
without
any
VC
cash. 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Paul
Graham,
Ycombinator
 July
17,
2009
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 49

  • 50. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on 
 &
the
Future
 The
startup
world
is
changing
 “ Imagine
what
it
would
do
to
the
VC
business
if
 the
next
hot
company
didn’t
take
VC
at
all.
The
 less
venture
capital
there
is
for
new
startups,
the
 ” faster
the
decoupling
will
begin 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 July
17,
2009
 
 
 
 
 
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 
Paul
Graham,
Ycombinator
 50

  • 51. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on 
 &
the
Future
 Rethink
VCs
 “ IPO
market
is
dead
&
M&A
valua1ons
are
depressed
 Fundamental
problem:
IT
and
marke1ng
has
became
so
 cheap
that
VCs
may
not
be
needed
any
more
 Angels
to
take
care
of
earlier
stage,
VCs
move
back
to

 ” later
stage
 e.g.
Allan
Mar1nson,
MTVP
 July
17,
2009
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 51

  • 52. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on 
 &
the
Future
 Cloud
compu0ng
+
Microstartups
=
 True
love!

 Bootstrapping
–
more
than
ever
 Quick
start
–
really
quick!
 New
direc1ons,
prototyping,
customer
projects
 Lower
your
own
internal
IT
costs
 Quick
to
start,
agile

 “VC
=
VISA
Card”
 July
17,
2009
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 52

  • 53. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Future
‐
Fortune
1M
 “ Our vision is to enable one person to invent and run the next revolutionary IT service, operationally expressing a new business idea as a multi-million-user service over the course of a long weekend. By doing so we hope to enable an Internet ” "Fortune 1 million”. RAD Lab, Berkeley July
17,
2009
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 53

  • 54. Cloud
compu0ng,
 Virtualisa0on
 &
the
Future
 Enter
Microstartups!
 “ The
zero
cost
startup
has
led
to
the
age
of
the
“microstartup.”
 It’s
no
longer
two
folks
in
a
garage
hoping
to
build
a
prototype
 in
order
to
land
a
huge
VC
round,
then
geAng
millions
of
 dollars
to
build
out
an
office.
Microstartups
are
sustainable
 from
prototype
to
launch
and
on
to
a
core
user
base,
all
for
 around
$5‐10,000
in
costs.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 July
17,
2009
 ” 
 
 
 
Jason
(Calacanis.com)
 54

  • 55. STARTUP
 @
BGi

 Bal0cGrid
Innova0on
Lab
(BGi)

 –
the
star0ng
point
for
early
stage
startups
in
the
Bal0cs
 Scalability
–
How
to
build
–
technology
and
business
aspects
 Course
‐
Learning
how
to
leverage
on
cloud
compu1ng
 Course
–
“Startup
school”
 Networking
–
alumni,
investors,
excellence
centers,
industry
 Mentors
–
finding
and
follow
up
 Prototyping
resources
‐
the
whole
Bal1cCloud
to
“play
with”
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 55

  • 56. STARTUP
 @
BGi

 Try
it!
You
don’t
have
to
be
in
the
 Bal0cs
 BGi
is
a
unique
star0ng
point
for
microstartups
 Want
to
know
more?
 ake.edlund@gmail.com
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 56

  • 57. Acknowledgement and references Alan Williamson, www.aw20.co.uk Berkeley RAD lab, berkeleyclouds.blogspot.com Baltic Cloud team, cloud.balticgrid.eu Rich Wolski and his Eucalyptus team, eucalyptus.cs.ucsb.edu Dan Reed, Microsoft, www.hpcdan.org/reeds_ruminations/microsoft 451 group, www.451group.com July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 57

  • 58. STARTUPS
 Links 
 CLOUDS
 Clouds: BGi
and
Bal0cCloud:
 berkeleyclouds.blogspot.com ake.edlund@gmail.com
 ilja.livenson@gmail.com
 cloud.bal1cgrid.eu
 Startups, and Microstartups: www.infochachkie.com blog.guykawasaki.com microstartups.blogspot.com July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 58

  • 59. STARTUP
 @
UT
 SCHOOL

 Final
slide
–
yes,
you
made
it!
 July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 59

  • 60. Thanks! July
17,
2009
 ISSGC09
‐
Sophia
An1polis
 60