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Application of Biomechanical Analysis to Performance Testing & Program Design
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    Application of Biomechanical Analysis to Performance Testing & Program Design Application of Biomechanical Analysis to Performance Testing & Program Design Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Introduction
      • The application of training and conditioning
      • Tests & validity
      • Biomechanics defined
      • How and why does it work
      • How can it improve actual performance
      • What you can do with your clients
    • A little about me….
      • Founder and president of The Institute of Sport Science & Athletic Conditioning (ISSAC)
      • Current graduate student in Biomechanics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV)
      • In the industry for over twenty years
      • Former powerlifter (ADFPA)
      • And just to get it out of the way….
    •  
    • Sports & Specificity
      • So many different types of sports
      • So many different ways of training them
      • Sport Specific? How about Athlete Specific?
      • But the underlying science is constant!
    • Training & Conditioning
      • What is the “Right Way?”
      • Speed, Power, Strength, etc….
      • Outcome dependent
      • SAID Principle : S pecific Adaptations to Imposed Demands
    • Traditional Testing
    • Why Do We Do It?
      • Assess athletic ability
      • Identify strengths
      • Identify weaknesses
      • Goal setting
      • Develop and adjust program
      • “Starting Point, End Point”
    • Steps to Success!
      • Where are we?
      • Where do we want to go?
      • How do we get there?
      • Alternate paths?
      • Are we identifying the right variables?
    • Program Design Implement & Assess Analysis & Testing
    • Validity
      • Test must emulate energy requirements
      • Must duplicate the important movements of the sport for which it is being tested
    • Traditional Testing
      • We know the typical
        • Vertical
        • 40
        • T-test
        • Etc……
      • What are we really measuring?
      • But what about something more?
    • Exercise Physiology Tests
      • Most familiar to coaches
      • VO 2 Max
      • Lactate Threshold
      • Body Composition
      • Still, is there something more?
    • Biomechanics
      • The discipline of biomechanics integrates the laws of physics and the working concepts of engineering to describe the motion of various body segments and the forces acting on these segments.
    • What do we need to do?
      • Stick with The Foundations
      • Newtonian Physics applies across the board
      • Human or Machine, these are constant
      • This allows more precise and direct application
      • Power Production
      • Force Development
      • Work Load Capacity
      • Acceleration
      • Torque
      • Linear Velocity
      • Angular Momentum
      What are we looking for?
    • Common Biomechanical Studies
      • Angular velocity of throwing/swinging arm
      • Arm swing/leg swing for sprinting
      • Vertical Jump
      • How about a little more detail?
      • Let’s get past the surface and down to the specifics!
    • Application of Tests
    • How do tests improve actual performance?
      • The science is constant
      • The basics are still observable
      • Therefore, methods are still applicable
    • Why Are These Tests Valid?
      • Use “real life” motion
      • The important movements of sports are measurable
      • Power = Force x distance/time
      • Force = mass x acceleration
      • Acceleration = velocity/time
      • Velocity = displacement/time
      Let’s take a second look…
      • TIME!
      The Common Factor?
    • Time is the common denominator variable in…
      • Increasing Power
      • Increasing Force
      • Increasing acceleration
      • Increasing velocity
      • Therefore, decrease your time, you increase your production.
    • Speed vs. Fiber Activation
      • P = Fd/t = m a d / t
      • Lighter weight will decrease time
      • This will increase Power
      • At some point, mass becomes too small for Force to be maintained, and Power will decrease
    • Speed vs. Fiber Activation
      • Speed isn’t everything
      • Time may small, but is Force (mass) exerted sufficient?
      • Recruit muscle fibers
      • Stimulate growth
      • But with substantial mass, fatigue sets in faster
    • There are many variables that can lead to Muscular Fatigue:
      • Depletion of intramuscular ATP/CP
      • A drop in intramuscular pH, and rise in H + (Kent, Braunl et al 2004)
      • Altered Na + -K + -ATPase activity (Fowels, Green et al 2002)
      • Decreased release of Ca 2+ from the SR
      • Depletion of Glycogen
    • Muscle Fatigue = Force Production
      • Decreases in maximum force (F Max ) and force production (F Prod ) are evident with muscle fatigue during high intensity anaerobic exercises (Viitasalo, Komi et al 1981)
    • Anaerobic/complex movements
      • High intensity anaerobic sports demand explosive power/energy
      • Muscles involved can achieve muscular fatigue quickly
      • Highly technical complex multi joint lifts are also subject to neuromuscular fatigue for similar reasons
      • This can result in a rapid deterioration of technique and form, increasing the risk of injury and decreasing the effectiveness of the exercise
      • Consequently, they are generally kept at lower repetition ranges
    • The Deadlift
      • Anaerobic
      • Rapid muscular fatigue
      • Rapid technique breakdown
      • Low reps
      • Time vs. Force?
    • Fatigue quantifiable by:
      • Reduction in lifting force
      • Reduction in power
      • Decreased bar speed
      • Hip torque generation
      • Decreased hip and knee motion
      • Increased lumbar flexion
      • Decreased postural stability
    • Does It Matter?
      • The ends are the same (fatigue)
      • Doesn’t quite matter how you get there
      • Observable biomechanical deficiencies will still be present
    • So, now what?
      • We know what to look for
      • But how are we going to look for it?
    • Optimal Equipment
      • Force plate
      • Tendo weightlifting analyzer
      • Accelerometer
      • High speed camera
      • Computer with Dart Fish
    • A TON of variables!
      • Marker selection
      • Signal “noise,” Data smoothing
      • Discontinuity of Measuring angles (0 to 360°, +180° to -180°)
      • Cartesian or Polar coordinates?
      • Parallax Error
    • A TON of variables!
      • Ridiculous amounts of anthropometric measurements
      • Throw in some Calculus
      • How about some more formulas?
    • Do we REALLY want to deal with all this??
    • Not practical…
      • Equipment expensive
      • Location restrictions
      • Time restraints
      • Got access to a full lab?
      • A day or two to kill?
    • Realistic Equipment
      • Simple Video Camera
      • Olympic Bar & Plates
      • A pair or two of good eyeballs
      • Items to look for…
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Still Observable
      • Decreased bar speed
      • Decreased joint velocity
      • Decreased hip and knee motion
      • Decreased postural stability
      • Increased lumbar flexion
    • Examples of other movements…
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Bottom Line…
      • Unless you are in a lab conducting research
      • This will get the job done with what you want to accomplish!
    • Other Applications
    • Quad to Hamstring Strength Ratio
      • Strength imbalance may equate to injury
      • Weak antagonist hamstring attempts to decelerate forward leg swing… SNAP!
    • Ground Contact Time
      • Minimum time on the ground
      • Eccentric vs. Concentric Loading
      • Maximum Power/Force production.
    • Bilateral vs. unilateral strength production
      • Hip Extensor, etc.
      • Instability in movement in sports
      • Monitor progress for athlete rehab
    • Increasing leg turn over vs. stride length
      • More ground contact time ratio
      • Car in the air
      • More difficult to change person’s stride
    • Upper body vs. lower body power/force production
      • Almost all sport movements begin with the feet in contact with the ground, with production beginning in the legs and, when needed, extending to the upper body.
    • So, what to do…
      • Learn a little bit of the basics
      • Don’t ignore the obvious
      • Don’t wear the blinders
      • We’re not really that bad!
    • How to put it all together
      • Observe and Assess
      • Recognize and Translate
      • Design and Apply
      • Implement and Improve
    • Questions?
      • Michael S. Palmieri, CSCS, USAW
      • [email_address]