Application of Biomechanical Analysis to Performance Testing & Program Design

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Introduction
    • The application of training and conditioning
    • Tests & validity
    • Biomechanics defined
    • How and why does it work
    • How can it improve actual performance
    • What you can do with your clients
  • 3. A little about me….
    • Founder and president of The Institute of Sport Science & Athletic Conditioning (ISSAC)
    • Current graduate student in Biomechanics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV)
    • In the industry for over twenty years
    • Former powerlifter (ADFPA)
    • And just to get it out of the way….
  • 4.  
  • 5. Sports & Specificity
    • So many different types of sports
    • So many different ways of training them
    • Sport Specific? How about Athlete Specific?
    • But the underlying science is constant!
  • 6. Training & Conditioning
    • What is the “Right Way?”
    • Speed, Power, Strength, etc….
    • Outcome dependent
    • SAID Principle : S pecific Adaptations to Imposed Demands
  • 7. Traditional Testing
  • 8. Why Do We Do It?
    • Assess athletic ability
    • Identify strengths
    • Identify weaknesses
    • Goal setting
    • Develop and adjust program
    • “Starting Point, End Point”
  • 9. Steps to Success!
    • Where are we?
    • Where do we want to go?
    • How do we get there?
    • Alternate paths?
    • Are we identifying the right variables?
  • 10. Program Design Implement & Assess Analysis & Testing
  • 11. Validity
    • Test must emulate energy requirements
    • Must duplicate the important movements of the sport for which it is being tested
  • 12. Traditional Testing
    • We know the typical
      • Vertical
      • 40
      • T-test
      • Etc……
    • What are we really measuring?
    • But what about something more?
  • 13. Exercise Physiology Tests
    • Most familiar to coaches
    • VO 2 Max
    • Lactate Threshold
    • Body Composition
    • Still, is there something more?
  • 14. Biomechanics
    • The discipline of biomechanics integrates the laws of physics and the working concepts of engineering to describe the motion of various body segments and the forces acting on these segments.
  • 15. What do we need to do?
    • Stick with The Foundations
    • Newtonian Physics applies across the board
    • Human or Machine, these are constant
    • This allows more precise and direct application
  • 16.
    • Power Production
    • Force Development
    • Work Load Capacity
    • Acceleration
    • Torque
    • Linear Velocity
    • Angular Momentum
    What are we looking for?
  • 17. Common Biomechanical Studies
    • Angular velocity of throwing/swinging arm
    • Arm swing/leg swing for sprinting
    • Vertical Jump
    • How about a little more detail?
    • Let’s get past the surface and down to the specifics!
  • 18. Application of Tests
  • 19. How do tests improve actual performance?
    • The science is constant
    • The basics are still observable
    • Therefore, methods are still applicable
  • 20. Why Are These Tests Valid?
    • Use “real life” motion
    • The important movements of sports are measurable
  • 21.
    • Power = Force x distance/time
    • Force = mass x acceleration
    • Acceleration = velocity/time
    • Velocity = displacement/time
    Let’s take a second look…
  • 22.
    • TIME!
    The Common Factor?
  • 23. Time is the common denominator variable in…
    • Increasing Power
    • Increasing Force
    • Increasing acceleration
    • Increasing velocity
    • Therefore, decrease your time, you increase your production.
  • 24. Speed vs. Fiber Activation
    • P = Fd/t = m a d / t
    • Lighter weight will decrease time
    • This will increase Power
    • At some point, mass becomes too small for Force to be maintained, and Power will decrease
  • 25. Speed vs. Fiber Activation
    • Speed isn’t everything
    • Time may small, but is Force (mass) exerted sufficient?
    • Recruit muscle fibers
    • Stimulate growth
    • But with substantial mass, fatigue sets in faster
  • 26. There are many variables that can lead to Muscular Fatigue:
    • Depletion of intramuscular ATP/CP
    • A drop in intramuscular pH, and rise in H + (Kent, Braunl et al 2004)
    • Altered Na + -K + -ATPase activity (Fowels, Green et al 2002)
    • Decreased release of Ca 2+ from the SR
    • Depletion of Glycogen
  • 27. Muscle Fatigue = Force Production
    • Decreases in maximum force (F Max ) and force production (F Prod ) are evident with muscle fatigue during high intensity anaerobic exercises (Viitasalo, Komi et al 1981)
  • 28. Anaerobic/complex movements
    • High intensity anaerobic sports demand explosive power/energy
    • Muscles involved can achieve muscular fatigue quickly
    • Highly technical complex multi joint lifts are also subject to neuromuscular fatigue for similar reasons
    • This can result in a rapid deterioration of technique and form, increasing the risk of injury and decreasing the effectiveness of the exercise
    • Consequently, they are generally kept at lower repetition ranges
  • 29. The Deadlift
    • Anaerobic
    • Rapid muscular fatigue
    • Rapid technique breakdown
    • Low reps
    • Time vs. Force?
  • 30. Fatigue quantifiable by:
    • Reduction in lifting force
    • Reduction in power
    • Decreased bar speed
    • Hip torque generation
    • Decreased hip and knee motion
    • Increased lumbar flexion
    • Decreased postural stability
  • 31. Does It Matter?
    • The ends are the same (fatigue)
    • Doesn’t quite matter how you get there
    • Observable biomechanical deficiencies will still be present
  • 32. So, now what?
    • We know what to look for
    • But how are we going to look for it?
  • 33. Optimal Equipment
    • Force plate
    • Tendo weightlifting analyzer
    • Accelerometer
    • High speed camera
    • Computer with Dart Fish
  • 34. A TON of variables!
    • Marker selection
    • Signal “noise,” Data smoothing
    • Discontinuity of Measuring angles (0 to 360°, +180° to -180°)
    • Cartesian or Polar coordinates?
    • Parallax Error
  • 35. A TON of variables!
    • Ridiculous amounts of anthropometric measurements
    • Throw in some Calculus
    • How about some more formulas?
  • 36. Do we REALLY want to deal with all this??
  • 37. Not practical…
    • Equipment expensive
    • Location restrictions
    • Time restraints
    • Got access to a full lab?
    • A day or two to kill?
  • 38. Realistic Equipment
    • Simple Video Camera
    • Olympic Bar & Plates
    • A pair or two of good eyeballs
    • Items to look for…
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42. Still Observable
    • Decreased bar speed
    • Decreased joint velocity
    • Decreased hip and knee motion
    • Decreased postural stability
    • Increased lumbar flexion
  • 43. Examples of other movements…
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47. Bottom Line…
    • Unless you are in a lab conducting research
    • This will get the job done with what you want to accomplish!
  • 48. Other Applications
  • 49. Quad to Hamstring Strength Ratio
    • Strength imbalance may equate to injury
    • Weak antagonist hamstring attempts to decelerate forward leg swing… SNAP!
  • 50. Ground Contact Time
    • Minimum time on the ground
    • Eccentric vs. Concentric Loading
    • Maximum Power/Force production.
  • 51. Bilateral vs. unilateral strength production
    • Hip Extensor, etc.
    • Instability in movement in sports
    • Monitor progress for athlete rehab
  • 52. Increasing leg turn over vs. stride length
    • More ground contact time ratio
    • Car in the air
    • More difficult to change person’s stride
  • 53. Upper body vs. lower body power/force production
    • Almost all sport movements begin with the feet in contact with the ground, with production beginning in the legs and, when needed, extending to the upper body.
  • 54. So, what to do…
    • Learn a little bit of the basics
    • Don’t ignore the obvious
    • Don’t wear the blinders
    • We’re not really that bad!
  • 55. How to put it all together
    • Observe and Assess
    • Recognize and Translate
    • Design and Apply
    • Implement and Improve
  • 56. Questions?
  • 57.
    • Michael S. Palmieri, CSCS, USAW
    • [email_address]