Problem Solving - Human vs. Machine Intelligence

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Presented by Dr Ding Liya, Member, Intelligent Systems & Technology, NUS-ISS at NUS-ISS Open Day & Career Fair 2014 on 16 Aug 2014.

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Problem Solving - Human vs. Machine Intelligence

  1. 1. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 Knowledge Engineering Group Problem Solving  Human vs. Machine Intelligence
  2. 2. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 2  Watson scores landslide victory over the best players on the TV game show Jeopardy, Feb 2011  Watson earned $77,147, versus $24,000 for Ken Jennings, and $21,600 for Brad Rutter Human Intelligence Machine Intelligence Watson took 25 IBM scientists 4 years, and around $30 million to create. Man vs. Machine: IBM Watson ?Do you also know ?
  3. 3. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 3 What experts say  Can Watson decide to create Watson? … While computers can calculate and construct, they cannot decide to create. We are far from there. … Our ability to create is what allows us to discover and create new knowledge and technology.  Pradeep Khosla, Carnegie Mellon University What Watson’s creators say  I see human intelligence consuming machine intelligence, not the other way around.  David Ferrucci, IBM's lead researcher on Watson Human Machine Intelligence
  4. 4. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 4  Human intelligence has been taken as the gold standard of machine intelligence.  Turing Test [Alan Turing, 1950] The Gold Standard & AI Dream The Turing test of artificial intelligence proposes a simple game where a hidden computer A and a person B converse with another person C. If C is unable to distinguish which he is conversing with then the computer can be said to be able to “think”. Modern computer still cannot pass the test ! image: www.rutherfordjournal.org
  5. 5. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 5  There are many aspects to describe human intelligence.  An important one is the capability of problem solving using knowledge  Using existing knowledge to solve new problem  Learning of new knowledge from new experience  Discovery of knowledge  Machine intelligence is expected to do the same. Human Intelligence image: jeeda-lovenpassion.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 6 Problem Solving  Typical (but COMPLEX) problem solving tasks:  Planning  Decision  Classification / categorization  Prediction / forecasting image: undsci.berkely.edu
  7. 7. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 7 Problem Solving: examples  Planning  new housing development  MRT stations / lines  a course timetable for school  … …  Decision / optimization an optimal investment decision a good university to attend … … image: techchai.com image: www.do2learn.com
  8. 8. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 8 Problem Solving: examples  Classification / categorization  Classifying customer groups for adopting suitable campaign / promotion strategies  Categorizing customer complaints for effective responses / follow-up actions  … … image: www.marketing.savant.com image: cacm.acm.org
  9. 9. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 9 Problem Solving: examples  Prediction / forecast  weather forecasting financial market trends demand of electricity … … image: www.paloalto.com
  10. 10. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 10 √ Faster √ Cheaper ? Better  Computer / software systems for problem solving and decision making, with the support of  Advance IT technologies  Internet, Mobile, Cloud, Data storage, …  Data / information  Past records, relevant reference, … Intelligent Systems  Why?  Humans performing the same tasks would be considered as being “intelligent” Automated Problem Solving
  11. 11. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 11  An intelligent system (IS) is an embodiment of machine intelligence. IS can typically solve problems …  in well defined domain  for well specified tasks  with well described performance targets  Intelligent Systems make use of …  intelligent algorithms and domain knowledge and/or  machine learning techniques and sources of data Machine Intelligence Provided by human Developed by human Created by human and/or machine Built by human
  12. 12. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 12  A big picture of intelligent system (at data / information level) Intelligent System Intelligent algorithms Data Domain knowledge human or machine intelligence User Developer Intelligent system
  13. 13. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 13  A complex task that requires the developer with …  competencies in knowledge and skills of exploiting intelligent systems techniques, and  experience and knowledge of problem domains  Knowledge engineering (KE), is an important discipline of Artificial Intelligence (AI). KE comprises: Methodologies, Techniques, and Practical approaches for the successful development of intelligent systems Developing Intelligent Systems image: www.123rf.com
  14. 14. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 14  Knowledge Based System for Marketing (Local retailer)  Indoor Location Prediction on Mobile Devices (SAP)  Intelligent Cab Management System  Length of stay prediction (Local Hospital)  Prediction of Colorectal cancer recurrence (TTSH)  Customer Complaints Handling (Local Bank)  Insurance Quote Comparison (Local Insurer)  Career Management system (Armed Forces)  JWT World Wide IT Intelligent System (JWT)  Regulatory Knowledge based system (Sennheiser)  Storm water drainage design (Engineering)  Weather forecasting system (NEA)  Intelligent System for evaluating musical chord progression (NIE) Many more in different areas … Systems Developed by KE Students Business Service / finance Healthcare / medicine Urban develop / environment Enterprise / organization Arts / Music image: www.projectinsight.net
  15. 15. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 15  Intelligent system for a local leading department store [KE24 batch, Jan 2014]  Using data mining techniques and other intelligent techniques  Business analytics  Perform spending analysis on their card member base  Build models using past promotion  Generate a list of card members who are likely respond to advertising for promotion Systems Developed by KE Students
  16. 16. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 16  Indoor Location Intelligence [KE24 batch, Jan 2014]  Realizing next place prediction in a shopping mall  Studying the historical data to work out patterns of the paths and recognizing the behavior of the shoppers using the data extracted from WiFi signal of the shoppers  An extended application that relates indoor geographic or location contexts to business data as part of the decision making process. Systems Developed by KE Students
  17. 17. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 17  In November 2013, IBM announced Watson as an application development platform in the Cloud.  IBM also recently announced its intention to open Watson to corporate developers, to advance a new generation of apps infused with Watson‘s cognitive computing intelligence.  Nearly 2,000 individuals and organizations have contacted IBM to share ideas for building cognitive applications that redefine how businesses and consumers make decisions. IBM Watson: recent news Users can also be contributors!
  18. 18. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 18  Learn and interact naturally with people to extend what either humans or machines could do on their own.  Help human experts make better decisions by penetrating the complexity of Big Data.  Human and machines working together. Cognitive Computing Systems
  19. 19. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 19  Humans work together with machines that are more intelligent  Understanding natural languages  Computing with words  Perception-based reasoning  Competitive & collaborative  Learning & adapting to changing environment  … … Towards the Future The gold standard is also evolving ! yesterday today tomorrow image: darleneglasgow.wordpress.com image: www.doyouknow.inimage: www.genetic-programming.org image: informatics.indiana.edu
  20. 20. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 Thank you!

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