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Problem Solving - Human vs. Machine Intelligence

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Presented by Dr Ding Liya, Member, Intelligent Systems & Technology, NUS-ISS at NUS-ISS Open Day & Career Fair 2014 on 16 Aug 2014.

Presented by Dr Ding Liya, Member, Intelligent Systems & Technology, NUS-ISS at NUS-ISS Open Day & Career Fair 2014 on 16 Aug 2014.

Published in: Technology

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  • 1. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 Knowledge Engineering Group Problem Solving  Human vs. Machine Intelligence
  • 2. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 2  Watson scores landslide victory over the best players on the TV game show Jeopardy, Feb 2011  Watson earned $77,147, versus $24,000 for Ken Jennings, and $21,600 for Brad Rutter Human Intelligence Machine Intelligence Watson took 25 IBM scientists 4 years, and around $30 million to create. Man vs. Machine: IBM Watson ?Do you also know ?
  • 3. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 3 What experts say  Can Watson decide to create Watson? … While computers can calculate and construct, they cannot decide to create. We are far from there. … Our ability to create is what allows us to discover and create new knowledge and technology.  Pradeep Khosla, Carnegie Mellon University What Watson’s creators say  I see human intelligence consuming machine intelligence, not the other way around.  David Ferrucci, IBM's lead researcher on Watson Human Machine Intelligence
  • 4. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 4  Human intelligence has been taken as the gold standard of machine intelligence.  Turing Test [Alan Turing, 1950] The Gold Standard & AI Dream The Turing test of artificial intelligence proposes a simple game where a hidden computer A and a person B converse with another person C. If C is unable to distinguish which he is conversing with then the computer can be said to be able to “think”. Modern computer still cannot pass the test ! image: www.rutherfordjournal.org
  • 5. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 5  There are many aspects to describe human intelligence.  An important one is the capability of problem solving using knowledge  Using existing knowledge to solve new problem  Learning of new knowledge from new experience  Discovery of knowledge  Machine intelligence is expected to do the same. Human Intelligence image: jeeda-lovenpassion.blogspot.com
  • 6. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 6 Problem Solving  Typical (but COMPLEX) problem solving tasks:  Planning  Decision  Classification / categorization  Prediction / forecasting image: undsci.berkely.edu
  • 7. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 7 Problem Solving: examples  Planning  new housing development  MRT stations / lines  a course timetable for school  … …  Decision / optimization an optimal investment decision a good university to attend … … image: techchai.com image: www.do2learn.com
  • 8. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 8 Problem Solving: examples  Classification / categorization  Classifying customer groups for adopting suitable campaign / promotion strategies  Categorizing customer complaints for effective responses / follow-up actions  … … image: www.marketing.savant.com image: cacm.acm.org
  • 9. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 9 Problem Solving: examples  Prediction / forecast  weather forecasting financial market trends demand of electricity … … image: www.paloalto.com
  • 10. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 10 √ Faster √ Cheaper ? Better  Computer / software systems for problem solving and decision making, with the support of  Advance IT technologies  Internet, Mobile, Cloud, Data storage, …  Data / information  Past records, relevant reference, … Intelligent Systems  Why?  Humans performing the same tasks would be considered as being “intelligent” Automated Problem Solving
  • 11. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 11  An intelligent system (IS) is an embodiment of machine intelligence. IS can typically solve problems …  in well defined domain  for well specified tasks  with well described performance targets  Intelligent Systems make use of …  intelligent algorithms and domain knowledge and/or  machine learning techniques and sources of data Machine Intelligence Provided by human Developed by human Created by human and/or machine Built by human
  • 12. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 12  A big picture of intelligent system (at data / information level) Intelligent System Intelligent algorithms Data Domain knowledge human or machine intelligence User Developer Intelligent system
  • 13. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 13  A complex task that requires the developer with …  competencies in knowledge and skills of exploiting intelligent systems techniques, and  experience and knowledge of problem domains  Knowledge engineering (KE), is an important discipline of Artificial Intelligence (AI). KE comprises: Methodologies, Techniques, and Practical approaches for the successful development of intelligent systems Developing Intelligent Systems image: www.123rf.com
  • 14. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 14  Knowledge Based System for Marketing (Local retailer)  Indoor Location Prediction on Mobile Devices (SAP)  Intelligent Cab Management System  Length of stay prediction (Local Hospital)  Prediction of Colorectal cancer recurrence (TTSH)  Customer Complaints Handling (Local Bank)  Insurance Quote Comparison (Local Insurer)  Career Management system (Armed Forces)  JWT World Wide IT Intelligent System (JWT)  Regulatory Knowledge based system (Sennheiser)  Storm water drainage design (Engineering)  Weather forecasting system (NEA)  Intelligent System for evaluating musical chord progression (NIE) Many more in different areas … Systems Developed by KE Students Business Service / finance Healthcare / medicine Urban develop / environment Enterprise / organization Arts / Music image: www.projectinsight.net
  • 15. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 15  Intelligent system for a local leading department store [KE24 batch, Jan 2014]  Using data mining techniques and other intelligent techniques  Business analytics  Perform spending analysis on their card member base  Build models using past promotion  Generate a list of card members who are likely respond to advertising for promotion Systems Developed by KE Students
  • 16. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 16  Indoor Location Intelligence [KE24 batch, Jan 2014]  Realizing next place prediction in a shopping mall  Studying the historical data to work out patterns of the paths and recognizing the behavior of the shoppers using the data extracted from WiFi signal of the shoppers  An extended application that relates indoor geographic or location contexts to business data as part of the decision making process. Systems Developed by KE Students
  • 17. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 17  In November 2013, IBM announced Watson as an application development platform in the Cloud.  IBM also recently announced its intention to open Watson to corporate developers, to advance a new generation of apps infused with Watson‘s cognitive computing intelligence.  Nearly 2,000 individuals and organizations have contacted IBM to share ideas for building cognitive applications that redefine how businesses and consumers make decisions. IBM Watson: recent news Users can also be contributors!
  • 18. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 18  Learn and interact naturally with people to extend what either humans or machines could do on their own.  Help human experts make better decisions by penetrating the complexity of Big Data.  Human and machines working together. Cognitive Computing Systems
  • 19. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 19  Humans work together with machines that are more intelligent  Understanding natural languages  Computing with words  Perception-based reasoning  Competitive & collaborative  Learning & adapting to changing environment  … … Towards the Future The gold standard is also evolving ! yesterday today tomorrow image: darleneglasgow.wordpress.com image: www.doyouknow.inimage: www.genetic-programming.org image: informatics.indiana.edu
  • 20. Aug 16, 2014 ISS Open Day 2014 Thank you!

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