Victor Afari Sefa, AVRDC "The Role of Traditional Vegetables on Household Economy and Nutritional Outcomes in Tanzania"
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Victor Afari Sefa, AVRDC "The Role of Traditional Vegetables on Household Economy and Nutritional Outcomes in Tanzania"

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Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)

Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)
Breakout Session 10: Economic Implications

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    Victor Afari Sefa, AVRDC "The Role of Traditional Vegetables on Household Economy and Nutritional Outcomes in Tanzania" Victor Afari Sefa, AVRDC "The Role of Traditional Vegetables on Household Economy and Nutritional Outcomes in Tanzania" Presentation Transcript

    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 1 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 1 / Role of traditional vegetables on household economy and nutritional outcomes in Tanzania Victor Afari-Sefa (PhD) Agricultural Economist & Global Theme Leader - Consumption 2013 Science Policy Forum, September 23-25, 2013, Bonn, Germany Break-out Session 10: Economic Implications: Analysis of economic implications of shifting investments in the primary production to better meet healthy dietary needs
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 2 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 2 / Structure of the Presentation Part 1 • Background Statement Part II • Research Questions & Objectives of the Study Part III • Data Sources and Methods Part IV • Results and Discussion Part V • Conclusions & Policy Recommendations
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 3 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 3 / Background Statement • Growing scourge of malnutrition due to unhealthy and imbalanced diets has led to increased public health concerns and advocacy for dietary diversification into highly nutritious traditional vegetables and fruits as essential complements to staple-based diets for attainment of several MDGs. • Production and marketing of traditional African vegetables (TAVs) in Tanzania and other SSA countries are facing critical bottlenecks.
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 4 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 4 / Research Questions & Objectives Research Questions • Does farmer’ increased awareness of nutritional importance of TAVs enhance their decision to diversify cultivation of major staples to TAVs? • Do farmers gets better market access for TAVs compared to major staple crops? Objectives 1. Examine the effect of nutritional awareness of farmers towards adoption of selected TAVs. 2. Measure determinants of TAV market participation 3. Suggest entry points for formulating policies to improve smallholders’ market participation via promotion of their nutritional awareness.
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 5 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 5 / Data Sources Data Sources Primary Survey Vegetable Growers Survey Cropping Pattern, Input-output usage and marketing issues Nutritional Awareness etc Seed Growers Survey Traders Survey Marketing System Consumers Survey Nutritional Awareness, Willingness to Pay etc Secondary Survey Population list, area, production and number of traders etc.
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 6 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 6 / Study Regions Criteria 1: Large area under TAV cultivation Criteria 2: Market access Dodoma Dar Es Salaam
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 7 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 7 / Primary Survey Method, Selection of Study Area and Criteria Selection Criteria i. Area under Cultivation & Production ii. Market Access Multi-Stage Selection Procedure to select Study Region Meeting with officials in horticulture department at respective study sites Chasing of Lot Method (Acharya & Agarwal, 2011). To trace out the value chain system
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 8 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 8 / Methodology - Econometric Model: Multiple Regression Functions • Y (Dependent variables)= Model 1; Share of TAVs in total area under cultivation of all crops • Model 2 = Share of sales value to total production value of TAVs • Z (Independent variable) • Z1 = Age (Age of household head for farm j). • Z2 = Education (Household head’s years of schooling for farm j). • Z4 = Extension contact (dummy) • Z5 = Access to cash credit (dummy) • Z6 = Net Operated Area per farm household j • Z7 = Distance from farm to main road (km) • Zi = bottleneck for seeds in terms of 1. timely availability, 2. price and 3. quality issues (dummy) • Z8 = Total input cost; includes seed, fertilizers, chemicals and labour cost • Z9 = Nutritional Awareness on TAVs (scale 1=strongly disagree….5=Strongly agreed) • Dd = Region dummies (D2 = Tanga (slope dummy); D1 = Arusha and D3 = Dar, D4 = Morogoro, D4 = Dodoma region)
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 9 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 9 / Land Endowment and Farm Size Classification Farm Size Category No. of HH % Total Owned Area (Ha) Net Operated Area (NOA) (Ha) Net operated Irrigated Area (Ha) % of NOA* (Weighted by HH) Marginal & Small (0-2ha) 139 77 0.7 (0.6) 0.8 (0.5) 0.4 43.9 Medium (2-4ha) 32 18 2.8 (1.1) 2.7 (0.5) 0.5 34.1 Large (>4ha) 10 5 6.0 (2.2) 6.9 (3.4) 0.5 27.2 Overall 181 100 1.4 (1.6) 1.4 (1.8) 0.5 100 NOA: Net operated area In Brackets – SD; * indicates that weighted average ; (# of HHs*NOA)/(Total # of HH*NOA)
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 10 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 10 / Distribution of HHs by Crops (%) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Fruits Vegetable Cereals Pules Roots Oilseed Others Dodoma Morogoro Dar Tanga Arusha
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 11 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 11 / % of HHs who Grow TAVs 14 35 68 16 70 41 16 55 0 32 42 29 23 50 23 12 9 20 58 0 27 0 2 22 12 15 55 32 12 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ArushaTangaDarMorogoroDodomaOverall Amaranth African Eggplant Night Shade E-Mustard Sweet Potato
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 12 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 12 / Market Access Indicators Market Access Indicators % HH Difficulty in Selling Produce? 55 Access to Public Extension Services? 57 Access to Credit in last season for Agricultural Activities? 8 Access to Good Roads? 95 Seed Purchase in last season? 72 Fertilizer Purchase in last season? 55
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 13 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 13 / Awareness on Nutritional Importance of TAVs Farm Size Score (Liked Scale (1=Strongly disagree 5=Strongly agree) Marginal & Small Farms 3.9 Medium Farms 4.1 Large Farms 4.2 Overall 4.0
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 14 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 14 / Determinants of Crop Diversification towards TAVs (1) (2) VARIABLES without regional_effect with regional_effect Female -0.00163 -0.00446 (-0.0414) (-0.114) Level of Education (Years) -0.0118** -0.0111** (-2.509) (-2.367) Age (Years) 0.000280 0.0357 (0.149) (1.490) Square of Age -0.448 (-1.483) Family Size 0.0162* 0.0174** (1.862) (2.001) Log of NOA -0.215*** -0.215***
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 15 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 15 / Determinants of Crop Diversification towards TAVs. (1) (2) VARIABLES without regional_effect with regional_effect Awareness on nutrition value of TAVs (scale) 0.0427 0.0437* (1.634) (1.677) Extension Services (Dummy) -0.0410 -0.0397 (-0.955) (-0.928) Credit Access (Dummy) 0.205*** 0.193*** (2.931) (2.747) Log of Total Input Cost (excl. family labour) 0.0547*** 0.0558*** (3.275) (3.354) Time_seed (Dummy) -0.0368 -0.0407 (-0.624) (-0.692) Price_seed (Dummy) -0.0460 -0.0380 (-0.797) (-0.659) Quality_seed (Dummy) 0.0368 0.0420 (0.647) (0.740) Log of family labour cost 0.0947*** 0.0979*** (3.631) (3.758) Constant -1.191*** 0.145 (-4.097) (0.153) Observations 145 145 R-squared 0.624 0.624 Number of Region 5 t-statistics in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 16 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 16 / Market Access (1) VARIABLES with regional_effect Female -0.0151 (-0.0966) Level of Education (years) 0.0367** (1.982) Age (Years) 0.00169 (0.228) Family Size 0.0245 (0.711) Log of NOA 0.242*** (3.282) Awareness about Nutrition from Veg (Scale) -0.0345 (-0.340) Access to Extension Service (dummy) 0.322* (1.906) Access to Credit Service (dummy) -0.219 (-0.776)
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 17 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 17 / Market Access…. (1) VARIABLES with regional_effect Log of Total Input cost 0.127* (1.876) Time_seed (dummy) -0.0765 (-0.332) Price_seed (dummy) 0.174 (0.767) Quality_seed (dummy) -0.0257 (-0.117) Access to Motor Road 1.010*** (2.729) Home to Sales Location (KM) -0.00825** (-2.004) Transaction Time at Sales Location (Hrs) -0.0154 (-0.530) Production of TAVs (Kg) 0.000389*** (5.657) Constant 8.850*** (9.642) Observations 145 R-squared 0.442 t-statistics in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 18 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 18 / African eggplant is now a popular cash crop in Tanzania Farmers get on the average $1,200/ha/season
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 19 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 19 / Line DB3 Linking farmers to High value markets Linkage to high value markets
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 20 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 20 / Conclusions and Policy Recommendations • Target intervention programs towards smallholders and home gardeners since the former (44%) contributes the highest volume of TAVs for both market and home consumption. • In addition to higher farm gate values of TAVs per unit area, HHs seem to be much aware of the their nutritional importance ; a main driver of their production & consumption decisions. Need to measure dietary diversity. • There are marked regional differences in TAV preferences that need to be noted in targeting future interventions. • Need for farmers to target high value added niche markets for enhanced income and economic empowerment of women.
    • www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 21 / www.avrdc.org The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development 21 / AmaranthEthiopian mustard Jute mallow Affrican eggplant Okra Thank You Bitter leafRoselle Moringa