Ugo Pica Ciamarra, FAO  "Livestock Ownership and Consumption of Animal-source Foods in Sub-Saharan Africa"
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Ugo Pica Ciamarra, FAO "Livestock Ownership and Consumption of Animal-source Foods in Sub-Saharan Africa"

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Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)

Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)
Breakout Session 10: Economic Implications

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Ugo Pica Ciamarra, FAO  "Livestock Ownership and Consumption of Animal-source Foods in Sub-Saharan Africa" Ugo Pica Ciamarra, FAO "Livestock Ownership and Consumption of Animal-source Foods in Sub-Saharan Africa" Presentation Transcript

  • Livestock Ownership and Consumption of Animal-source Foods in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Do the Data Say? Ugo Pica-Ciamarra, FAO SCIENCE FORUM 2013 Nutrition and health outcomes: targets for agricultural research 23-25 September 2013, Bonn, Germany
  • Outline • Facts: Protein-energy malnutrition and animal source- foods • Livestock keepers and livestock eaters • Livestock ownership and the consumption of animal foods • Livestock productivity and improved nutrition: what connection? • Conclusions
  • Facts: undernourishment 870 million undernourished in 2010-2012 (12.5%) – 98% in developing countries (FAO, 2012) Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is the most lethal form of malnutrition (WHO, 2000)
  • Facts: animal source foods (ASFs) and undernourishment Meat, milk eggs and fish are sources of complete protein (contain all 9 essential amino acids) Animal source foods are also good sources of key micronutrients (vitamin A; iron; zinc; calcium; etc.)
  • Facts: most of rural households keep livestock % of rural households keeping livestock
  • Facts: livestock ownership and nutrition Source: T. Randolph et al (2007) Journal of Animal Science, 87
  • Question: livestock keeping ASF consumption? Source: T. Randolph et al (2007) Journal of Animal Science, 87 Animals owned HH ASF consumption
  • 1. Are livestock keepers livestock eaters? multitude of roles of livestock in the household economy 2. Is livestock ownership a predictor of ASF consumption? trade animals / livestock products for cheaper calories Question: livestock keeping ASF consumption? 3. Do increases in livestock productivity improve HH ASF intake (nutrition)? economic incentives / implications for policies
  • 1. Are livestock keepers livestock eaters? multitude of roles of livestock in the household economy 2. Is livestock ownership a predictor of ASF consumption? trade animals / livestock products for cheaper calories 3. Do increases in livestock productivity improve HH ASF intake (nutrition)? economic incentives / implications for policies Living Standards Measurement Studies from 7 sub-Saharan African Countries, (1999 to 2011) Question: livestock keeping ASF consumption?
  • Livestock keepers and livestock eaters
  • 1. Are livestock keepers livestock eaters? multitude of roles of livestock in the household economy 2. Is livestock ownership a predictor of animal food consumption? trade animals / livestock products for cheaper calories 3. Do increases in livestock productivity improve HH ASF intake (nutrition)? quantity Not all livestock keepers consume animal foods Question: livestock keeping ASF consumption?
  • Livestock ownership and consumption of animal foods
  • Livestock ownership and consumption of animal foods Variables Statistical significance ‘Tropical Livestock Unit’ / ‘Cattle equivalent’ Ghana***; Malawi***; Niger ***; Nigeria***; Tanzania***; Uganda*** - Large ruminants - Malawi***; Niger*; Nigeria*** ; Tanzania*** ;Uganda*** Small ruminants - Niger**; Tanzania**; Pigs and poultry birds - Ghana***; Malawi***; Niger*; Nigeria***; Tanzania***; Uganda* Other variables not presented *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1. Probit estimates on consumption of animal foods
  • 1. Are livestock keepers livestock eaters? multitude of roles of livestock in the household economy 2. Is livestock ownership a predictor of ASF consumption? trade animals / livestock products for cheaper calories Not all livestock keepers consume animal foods Ownership of dairy cattle and poultry are determinants of milk and egg consumption Question: livestock keeping ASF consumption? 3. Do increases in livestock productivity improve HH ASF intake (nutrition)? economic incentives / implications for policies
  • Quantity consumed is negligible Meat = btw 2.2 kg/year and 14 kg/year per capita Milk = btw 14 lit/year and 22 lit/year per capita (Recall periods differ / annual consumption difficult to calculate with no detailed info on production (e.g. clutching period for hens) / cross-sectoral partnerships appropriate for improved questionnaire design)
  • Quantity consumed is negligible Meat = btw 2.2 kg/year and 14 kg/year per capita Milk = btw 14 lit/year and 22 lit/year per capita Daily protein requirement for a 50 kg adult = 43 grams Beef / Pork = 73 kg/year Goat meat = 78 Kg/year Poultry = 81 Kg/year Milk = 460 lit/year Increase smallholder productivity for better ‘nutrition’?
  • % of rural households keeping livestock (mean / median herd size for livestock keeping households) (0.80/0.50) (1.93/0.50) (0.47/0.13) (3.17/0.33) (2.20/0.88) (1.25/0.45) (1.41/0.60) Average herd size (mean / median in ‘cattle equivalent’)
  • 1. Are livestock keepers livestock eaters? multitude of roles of livestock in the household economy 2. Is livestock ownership a predictor of ASF consumption? trade animals / livestock products for cheaper calories Not all livestock keepers consume animal foods Ownership of dairy cattle and poultry are determinants of milk and egg consumption Unlikely to have major direct effects on nutrition level on their own Question: livestock keeping ASF consumption? 3. Do increases in livestock productivity improve HH ASF intake (nutrition)? economic incentives / implications for policies
  • Conclusions Increases in smallholder livestock productivity support livelihoods but…. do they significantly directly impact on nutrition? ASF protein / micronutrient intake better achieved through market mechanism than through self- consumption ? Target ‘few’ ‘relatively large’ market oriented livestock producers ? (info is not available from nationally representative datasets!) 0.511.5 Density 0 5 10 15 20 Tropical Livestock Units: total
  • Thank you www.fao.org/ag/aga.html