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THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick
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THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS - Peter McCornick

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  • Impacts:
    on the ground policy and investment changes in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh
    online tools for policymakers and investors (investment visualizer, gender mapper, technology database)
    data and products for development agencies and national policymakers (livelihood maps, participatory watershed mapping, multi-stakeholder policy dialogues)

  • National Irrigation Management Fund (India)
    Range of research outputs under IWMI-Tata program
    Participation in the 12th 5 year plan working group on public irrigation (number of critical partnerships and champions)
    Produced a funded (6,700 crore INR, ~ $1.23 billion) policy on improving the performance of public irrigation systems
    To achieve impact requires that the funds be used

    Emerging as an IDO for the Asia Canal Management Activity Cluster (Irrigation SRP)

  • For an Indian foundation and an International Research Centre to create a co-equal partnership

    Work with numerous Indian groups in a partnership mode;

    Do not duplicate science research in which India is strong; build upon it; add value to science; give local partners visibility;

    Focus on practical policy research in a problem solving framework;
  • Also emphasize business models? Potential for Irrigation in SSA. Not simply large scale irrigation. Need for more research, not just what is happening in the systems CRPs. Need to cover this in our presentation. 
  • A project sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation assessed the potential of smallholder irrigation across sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (Rainwater harvesting, groundwater, motorized pumps and river diversions for smallholder farmers).

    Impacts:
    on the ground policy and investment changes in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh
    online tools for policymakers and investors (investment visualizer, gender mapper, technology database)
    data and products for development agencies and national policymakers (livelihood maps, participatory watershed mapping, multi-stakeholder policy dialogues)


  • Impacts:
    on the ground policy and investment changes in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh
    online tools for policymakers and investors (investment visualizer, gender mapper, technology database)
    data and products for development agencies and national policymakers (livelihood maps, participatory watershed mapping, multi-stakeholder policy dialogues)


  • Impacts:
    on the ground policy and investment changes in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh
    online tools for policymakers and investors (investment visualizer, gender mapper, technology database)
    data and products for development agencies and national policymakers (livelihood maps, participatory watershed mapping, multi-stakeholder policy dialogues)


  • Impacts:
    on the ground policy and investment changes in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh
    online tools for policymakers and investors (investment visualizer, gender mapper, technology database)
    data and products for development agencies and national policymakers (livelihood maps, participatory watershed mapping, multi-stakeholder policy dialogues)

    Policies: National and sub-National polices changed to enhance the enabling environment. Ghana, Ethiopia, and Zambia

    Investments and Budgets: Increased funding to agricultural water management solutions: Tanzania, USAID, IFAD and SIDA
    Feed the Future Small Scale Irrigation Laboratory 2013-2018 – USAID
    IFAD investments in Africa
    Grand Challenge – Securing Water for Food: $25 million.

    Continuing IWMI Portfolio:
    On-going activities in 13 countries in SSA:
    Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.
    Partners include:
    Water Land Ecosystems, Humid Tropics, Dryland Systems and AAS;
    AVRDC, Bioversity, CIAT, CIP, ICRAF, IFPRI, ILRI;
    CIDA, DFID, EU, IFAD, JIRCAS, MAFF, SDC, USAID, WATERNET; and
    CADAP, CRS, FARA, WUR
  • Could be either too much or too little. This can be in the same place/ basin. Temporal and spatial variability. In water management – spatial variability was dealt with by interbasin transfers, and temporal – by surface storage reservoirs
  • More arid areas also often have more variable rainfall
    And increases with CC ! Need to mention it or combine slides or both . Also- to “complicate things” – variability has positive aspects too.- mention
    This is why it was identified for intensive research under WLE program….
  • Example mapping products …
    The left map is for 2010 year example shows different classes of “water”
    “Mixed crops” class refer to areas that are inundated in cropland, meaning reflectance value has mixed values from vegetation and water content

    Giriraj, A. (2013). An algorithm for rapid flood inundation mapping from optical data using a reflectance differencing technique. Journal of Flood Risk Management. doi:10.1111/jfr3.12045
    Amarnath, Giriraj; Ameer, Mohamed; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir. 2012. Detecting spatio-temporal changes in the extent of seasonal and annual flooding in South Asia using multi-resolution satellite data. In Civco, D. L.; Ehlers, M.; Habib, S.; Maltese, A.; Messinger, D.; Michel, U.; Nikolakopoulos, K. G.; Schulz, K. (Eds.). Earth resources and environmental remote sensing/GIS applications III: proceedings of the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), Vol.8538, Amsterdam, Netherland, 1-6 July 2012. Bellingham, WA, USA: International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE). 11p.
  • Chao Phraya case study

    Harvest water only in exceptionally wet years. 25% of the Managed Aquifer Recharge is harvestable
    100 km2 dedicated land to flood harvesting needed (< 1% of the Basin area)
    Additional 270,000 ha of irrigation possible
    Potential for $150 million / year - income to smallholder farmers
    Cost < $ 1 Billion Payback time – under 7 years
  • IWMI’s work is organized through five CGIAR research programmes (CRPs). These are multi-year research efforts intended to produce enough food without damaging the environment.
    The CRPs are a collaboration by 15 research centers, each with a different area of expertise.
  • The Game Changers for Sub-Saharan Africa
    What if smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa were able to grow crops all year round?
    What if we could prevent degradation and restore degraded lands?
    What if wastes and used water could have a second life in agriculture?
    What if excess water during floods could be stored in natural and man made systems and used during droughts?
  • Transcript

    • 1. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world THE INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE AND THE CGIAR RESEARCH PROGRAMS 8th Meeting of the CGIAR Independent Science Partnership Council 9-11 September 2013 IWMI Headquarters, Pelawatte, Sri Lanka
    • 2. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Vision Water for a food-secure world Mission To improve the management of land and water resources for food, livelihoods and the environment.
    • 3. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world • Small-Scale Irrigation/Agricultural Water Management in sub-Saharan Africa • Revitalizing Public Canal Irrigation • Combating Irrigation Induced Salinity • Water Management Solutions in the Eastern Gangetic Plains • Reducing Risk and Intensifying Production in Rainfed Systems • Business Opportunities for Resource Recovery and Reuse • Safe Wastewater and Excreta Use • Managing Variability • Water Resources Allocation and Sharing • Water, Energy, Food and Environment Tradeoffs • Water Data, Accounting and Agro-ecosystem Health Main Program Areas
    • 4. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world • Small-Scale Irrigation/Agricultural Water Management in sub-Saharan Africa • Revitalizing Public Canal Irrigation • Combating Irrigation Induced Salinity • Water Management Solutions in the Eastern Gangetic Plains • Reducing Risk and Intensifying Production in Rainfed Systems • Business Opportunities for Resource Recovery and Reuse • Safe Wastewater and Excreta Use • Managing Variability • Water Resources Allocation and Sharing • Water, Energy, Food and Environment Tradeoffs • Water Data, Accounting and Agro-ecosystem Health Main Program Areas
    • 5. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world RESEARCH CHANGE& OUTCOMES Research for Development POLICIES INVESTMENTS PRACTICES BIOPHYSICAL SOCIAL ECONOMICS BUSINESS RESEARCH OUTPUTS INTERMEDIATE DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES
    • 6. Outcome-Oriented Research This demands: • Priorities and requirements of users • Joint conceptualisation by research and non-research partners • Customize research findings for the audiences • Validation of emerging results • Teams with complementary expertise and leadership (research + communications + business + policy) • External intermediaries (senior level advisors, development practitioners) play a significant role in facilitating outcomes • Utilize synergies and allow flexibility
    • 7. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Notable and Emerging Outcomes • Mainstreaming the crisis in water and food through the Comprehensive Assessment, the Challenge Program on Water and Food, and other programs • Agricultural Water Management Solutions to scaling up and sustaining small- scale irrigation technologies and practices in Africa and South Asia. • Adoption of policies and guidelines to manage water for adaptation to climate change (ie. Nepal and Sri Lanka). • Implementation of a practical solution at-scale to the agriculture induced groundwater governance crisis in Gujarat, India. • Increasing Indian Government investments in reforming underperforming large scale public irrigation. • Adoption of policies, guidelines and practices for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture. • Development of environmental flow requirements for rivers in South Asia.
    • 8. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Towards Outcomes from Safe Wastewater Use in Agriculture 2010: Co-authored the World Bank policy on wastewater 2011: Member of the UN-Water Task Force on wastewater SDG targets 2012: MoU with WHO to institutionalize collaboration on safe wastewater use 2012: Co-authored the international chapter of USEPA-USAID Wastewater Use Guidelines 2012: Two IWMI researchers joined the WHO Global Expert Group on water quality 2012: FAO Farmer Field School manual based on IWMI research 2013: Regional wastewater reuse workshops involving 160 participants from 73 countries (together with UNU, UNEP, FAO and WHO) 2013: Partnering with FAO within WLE to update the AQUASTAT Wastewater database 2013: Joining UNEP’s Global Wastewater Initiative and UNEP’s initiative to write the First World Water Quality Assessment.
    • 9. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Governing Groundwater in Gujarat • Jyotigram program in Gujarat, where separate electrical supply lines have been developed for agricultural pumps. Allows for managing demand and withdrawals of water. • Being explored by other States as an option. • Of interest to States and countries still to develop groundwater resources
    • 10. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Groundwater: The Silent Revolution in Agriculture Each dot = 5,000 wells ~ 15 million electric pumps mostly in north-west, west and southern India ~11 million diesel pumps mostly in eastern India 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010cubickm/year US W.Europe Spain Mexico China India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Vietnam Ghana South Africa Tunisia Over exploited in the west and south India, and underdeveloped in the east.
    • 11. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Agricultural Water Management/Small- Scale Irrigation in Africa • Nearly 300 million of the poor in SSA are in rural areas where livelihoods depend on crops, livestock and fisheries. • Land and water management is one of four pillars for priority investment of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP). • The pillar aims to triple the area (~20 million hectares) under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems. • Many countries, including Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria and Tanzania, have prioritized investments in irrigation. • Expansion and sustaining irrigation requires good science and innovation, ie. business models. • As with South Asia in the past, small-holder, informal irrigation is expanding within rain-fed landscapes.
    • 12. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Agricultural Water Management - Across the Rainfed to Irrigated Continuum
    • 13. Back on the agenda in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso and elsewhere Unlocking the potential for smallholder agriculture to improve the lives of smallholder farmers in 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and 2 states in India Small-scale Irrigation in Africa (Giordano et al, 2012)
    • 14. Scaling Up: Access to Water & Markets Backward Linkages (Inputs) Resource/Livelihood situation Forward Linkages (Agricultural Products/Markets) Externality Management PROFITABILITY OF AWM SOLUTIONS POLICIES/ INSTITUTIONS ACCESS IMPROVED LIVELIHOODS Rapid Participatory Opportunity and Constraint Analysis (RPOCA) Methodology which provides insights into: • Where to invest? • Who could benefit? • What types of interventions work best? • How to intervene? • Actors: What support is needed and from whom?
    • 15. Smallholder Agricultural Water Management: A vibrant and growing sector in Sub Saharan Africa Outputs Agricultural Water Management in Ghana Source: estimates based on farmer surveys under this project 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 No. of farmers Irrigated area (ha.) Public irrigation schemes Small reservoirs Motorized pumps Buckets, watering cans
    • 16. Smallholder Agricultural Water Management: Potential to Impact Millions Outputs SSA: motor pumps • 122 million potential rural beneficiaries • Net revenues up to US$7.5 billion/yr. Tanzania: motor pumps could benefit 2-3 million people. Medium Low High
    • 17. Agricultural Water Management Solutions - Emerging Outcomes Policies: National and sub-National polices changed to enhance the enabling environment. Ghana, Ethiopia, and Zambia Investments and Budgets: Increased funding to agricultural water management solutions: Tanzania, USAID, IFAD, SIDA, etc. • Feed the Future Small Scale Irrigation Laboratory 2013-2018 – USAID • IFAD investments in Africa • Grand Challenge – Securing Water for Food: $25 million – SIDA & USAID Continuing program: On-going activities in 13 countries in SSA Partners include: • Water Land Ecosystems, Humid Tropics, Dryland Systems and AAS; • AVRDC, Bioversity, CIAT, CIP, ICRAF, IFPRI, ILRI; • CIDA, DFID, EU, IFAD, JIRCAS, MAFF, SDC, USAID, WATERNET; and • CADAP, CRS, FARA, WUR
    • 18. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Managing Variability TOO LITTLE… TOO MUCH…
    • 19. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Variability increases with climate change Source: Dartmouth Flood Observatory Variability increases water scarcity Variability determines flood risk and damages Water Resources Variability
    • 20. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world • Detailed characterization and mapping of flood and drought risks and hot spots globally and in regions – under current and future climates • Appraisal of diverse water storage “portfolios” of natural and built storage “infrastructure”, and ecosystem services they provide. Mainstreaming those into river basin development • Focus on underground solutions for conjunctive management of floods and droughts in a river basin Research Directions for Managing Variability
    • 21. Flooded area (2000 – 2011) Annual maps of maximum inundation Characterizing Floods • Exploring partnerships with re- insurance companies (Giriraj et al, 2012) © Photobucket
    • 22. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Water Storage Continuum
    • 23. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world • Recharge rates sufficient if canal water is pretreated through wetlands • Falling GW level trends can be reversed and year-round rice/sugar production maintained ` Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) to Stabilize Groundwater in Central Plains of Thailand
    • 24. CURRENT ACTIVITIES: • Assessing regional prospects (Eastern Ganga initially) • Developing conceptual hydrological modelling of pilot design • Selection of pilot catchments (Ganga & Chao Phraya basins) • Determine costs and benefits of options • Identifying institutional arrangements for sharing benefits and costs between farmers and flood agencies Currently Wet Season UTFI Wet Season UTFI Dry Season Basin Scale Conjunctive Use to Mitigate Floods, Improve Livelihoods and Increase Food Security. • Develop strong proof of concept in technical, economic & institutional terms • Evaluate opportunities for up-scaling & out- scaling Flood risk in the EGB Potential Solution: “Under Ground Taming of Floods”.
    • 25. Resource, Recovery & Reuse – Business Perspectives for Scaling Up How to move technologies and practices to scale?
    • 26. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Example of Resource Recovery & Reuse With urban areas increasingly consuming our resources, how best can they be recovered?
    • 27. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world • Technical knowledge is largely available but remains on the shelf, particularly in low-income countries. • Hardly any project goes to scale, recovers its costs, or even survives its subsidized pilot stage. • RRR brings a paradigm shift into the sanitation- agriculture interface by studying and testing Business Models with due consideration of safety aspects and cultural perceptions. Reuse is not new …
    • 28. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world • Applying a business perspective to the recovery of nutrients, water and energy. • Analyzing existing successes across low-income countries for their set-up, history and business models. • Testing most promising business models for replication and economic feasibility at largest possible scale. • Presenting results in business plans and city investment programs for RRR. • Addressing health concerns through the parallel development of Sanitation Safety Plans per business model. Solutions
    • 29. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Feasibility studies for Business and Investment plans 1. Demand for value proposition per market segment (from perceptions to WTP) 2. Supply and quality of raw materials 3. Locally available technical options 4. Regulatory and policy environment 5. Possible health/environmental risk mitigation measures and socio-economic benefits 6. Investment opportunities and partners
    • 30. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Current status: • Existing Database of 150+ business cases across Asia, Africa and Latin America • Selection of 60 cases for in-depth analysis • Development of 20 business models • Testing their feasibility in 10 cities Writing business plans for investors
    • 31. Selected strategic partners:
    • 32. • The RRR research portfolio targets private sector engagement, PPP, investors and business schools. • A team of economists, business developers, engineers and environmental scientists works closely together. • Analyzing business models, plans and returns on investment are building blocks of the research program. • This young program has received significant feedback with donors ready to invest in the business plans. • There are many avenues to apply the same analytical and business approach to other research portfolios. Take Home Messages
    • 33. IWMI’s is involved in five CGIAR research programs, and works with others
    • 34. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Drylands Humid Tropics AAS WLE CCAFS Windows Funding
    • 35. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Drylands Humid Tropics AAS WLE CCAFS Windows Funding
    • 36. 4. Variability management 3. Addressing degradation 1. Harnessing productivity 2. Business models

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