Jemimah Njuki, CARE "Gender, Women’s Empowerment and Links to Agriculture and Nutrition"

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Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)
Plenary Session: Gender and Nutrition
Main presentation: Jemimah Njuki

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Jemimah Njuki, CARE "Gender, Women’s Empowerment and Links to Agriculture and Nutrition"

  1. 1. Gender, Women’s Empowerment and links to Agriculture and Nutrition Jemimah Njuki Team Leader: Women in Agriculture, CARE USA September 22, 2013
  2. 2. Breastfeeding Complementary feeding Vitamin A Zinc Hygiene INSTITUTIONS FRAMEWORK POLITICAL & IDEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK ECONOMIC STRUCTURE RESOURCES ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY, PEOPLE Food/nutrient intake Health Water/ Sanitation health services Interventions Immediate causes Underlying causes Basic causes S H O R T R O U T E S L O N G R O U T E S Health Systems empowerment - Agriculture - Poverty Reduction - Education - Health Systems Strengthening - Income generation - Gender equality -Women’s empowerment Maternal and child- care practices Access to food How can we improve nutrition
  3. 3. Gender Mediated Pathways between Agriculture and Nutrition September 24, 2013 3
  4. 4. . Increasing household availability and access to sufficient and affordable quantities of food September 24, 2013 4 • Women as primary caregivers and influence child nutrition • directly through improved childcare practices • indirectly through improvements in their own nutrition • Women's role in food production=ensuring adequate food, diverse diets and quality of food • Women's Agency (Capacities, skills, conviction etc) critical for these Pathways? Role for those working in ag + nutrition in agency? • What is the relative controbution of these direct and indirect pathways to nutiriton (especially to child nutrition). Where should intervention emphasis be?
  5. 5. Impacts of agricultural interventions on women: Social and Economic Impacts • Time use studies show women spend substantial amount of time on crop and livestock production, as well as household chores such as water, fireword collection • What is the implications on child nutrition and child care? • Gender and Agriculture Assets Project: • In Mozambidue, introduction of dairy cattle increased women's time use on livestock production by close to 600% • Qualitative studies from an irigation project showed opportunity costs by women from irrigated agriculture—child care and leisure September 24, 2013 5
  6. 6. Impacts of agricultural interventions on women: Social and Economic Impacts • East Africa Dairy Development Program: A study looking at the impacts of dairy intensification on maternal workload and child care practices • 3 categories of households: (i) No cow households, (ii) Emgering dairy households (iii) Advanced dairy housheolds • Key Results showed: • An advanced dairy household was associated with significantly lower odds that children would be exclusively breastfed to 6 months of age. • Mothers from advanced dairy households 6 times more likely to introduce water and 12 times more likely to introduce cow’s milk into their child’s diet before 6 months than mothers from households in emerging dairy or no milk households. September 24, 2013 6
  7. 7. 2. Increasing income and reducing poverty in households engaged in agricultural • Hypothesis is that increasing household incomes leads to a higher purchasing power that allows households to purchase food that they do not produce • Expenditure patterns however differ by gender: Women spend about 90% of their income on their families, men spend 30-40% • Commercialization can leade to women losing control of main nutrition crops or income.. • Gender sensitve value chain analysis can enable women earn income and keep income under their control September 24, 2013 7
  8. 8. • Commercialization of agriculture can have impacts on • consumption patterns, • who manages income • decision making on housheold expenditure patterns e.g food and health input purchases • Research focus on both the postive and negative contributions of ag interventions to nutrition • Include time use studies on impact evaluations, changes in intra-household decision making Income and expenditure…… September 24, 2013 8 0% 20% 40% 60% Men Women Joint %income Management of dairy income Emerging Advanced0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2003/4 2004/5 2005/6 2006/7 Totalamount(USD) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 %shareofwomen
  9. 9. 3. Intra-household dynamics, disparities and nutrition Ealry studies showing: • Increasing women’s control over assets, mainly land, physical, and financial assets, has positive effects on a number of important development outcomes for the household, including food security, child nutrition, and education, as well as women’s own well-being (Quisumbing 2003; Smith 2003; World Bank 2001) • In Bangladesh, a higher share of women’s assets is associated with better health outcomes for girls (Hallman 2000). • A study by using cross-country data found that increases in women’s education (investment in human capital) have made the greatest contribution to reducing the rate of child malnutrition, responsible for 43 percent of the total reduction (Smith and Haddad, 2000) . September 24, 2013 9
  10. 10. 4. Women’s empowerment and Nutrition • Women’s empowerment ---complex term that captures a multitude of constructs: control of household resources and assets, decision making capabilities, position in society, and knowledge level • Women’s empowerment exerts a significant influence on child nutrition • Different aspects of women’s empowerment may act upon child nutrition in different ways and to varying degrees. • In Bangladesh, children of women who accept domestic violence are 1.07 times more likely to be stunted than children of women who do not justify domestic violence (Bhagowalia et al, 2012) • Relative to children of women with no education, children of women with secondary or higher education had lower odds of stunting.
  11. 11. Impacts of women's empowerment on child stunting (SHURHADO) CARE Bangldesh September 24, 2013 11
  12. 12. • Integrating women's empowerment into agriculture programming? • Who, how and when? • Capacity beyond gender analysis within agriculture and nutrition scientists? • Partnerships with development partners? • Capacity for implementation with NGOs and extension systems Women's empowerment and nutrition September 24, 2013 12
  13. 13. Breastfeeding Complementary feeding Vitamin A Zinc Hygiene INSTITUTIONS FRAMEWORK POLITICAL & IDEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK ECONOMIC STRUCTURE RESOURCES ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY, PEOPLE Food/nutrient intake Health Water/ Sanitation health services Interventions Immediate causes Underlying causes Basic causes S H O R T R O U T E S L O N G R O U T E S Health Systems empowerment - Agriculture - Poverty Reduction - Education - Health Systems Strengthening - Income generation - Gender equality -Women’s empowerment Maternal and child- care practices Access to food 5. Integrated programming for improved nutrition outcomes
  14. 14. CARE Pathways Program • Six country program in Africa and Asia working with close to 52,000 households • Multiple outcomes: agriculture productivity, food and nutrition security, women's empowerment, income generation • Solid theory of change based on analysis • Combines multiple interventions and approaches • A n adapted farmer field school approach that integrates business skills and nutrition education e.g topics on breastfeeding • Home gardens + value chain development • Gender dialogues to engage men and boys in changing gender relations • Women's access to land, inputs, savings, other resources • Water for agriculture, waater and sanitation Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Agency Structure Relations
  15. 15. Integrated programming: What implications for research? • How do we evaluate which of these interventions work? Or the magnitude of their impact? • What can we learn about the sequencing of these interventions? • How do we design the research that helps answer these questions? • How can research partner with development programs • Strategic partnerships that start from the design phase? • How do we balance research rigour with the practicalities of program implementation September 24, 2013 15 Agriculture interventions Nutrition Value chains Women's empowerment Behavior change communication Maternal and Child Health Water and Sanitation
  16. 16. Key Take Aways • We know the role of women in both agriculture and nutrition. More evidence on gender mediating factors between agriculture and nutrition e.g time use • Women's empowerment and nutrition. More robust evidence on what kinds of empowerment are crirtical for what nutritional outcomes? • Integrated programs: Making the impact pathways for integrated programs more robust. • What is the balance of different approaches? What should the focus be? How should they even be sequenced? What is the policy message • Partnerships: Development partners often broad based. Opportunities for research and generation of evidence from integrated programs. More of these needed September 24, 2013 16

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