Edmond Dounias IRD and CIFOR "Role of Forgotten Indigenous Food in Food Diversification"

  • 162 views
Uploaded on

Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org) …

Science Forum 2013 (www.scienceforum13.org)
Breakout Session 3 - DIET DIVERSIFICATION

More in: Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
162
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Breakout  Session  3:  Diet  Diversifica4on   Role  of  indigenous  [forgo;en]  foods  (plants  and  animals)   in  food  diversifica4on:   what  don’t  we  know  (domes4ca4on?  value  chain?)   edmond  dounias         e.dounias@cgiar.org    
  • 2. Over  the  past  12,000  years   Approx.  7,000  plant  species  and  several  thousand  animal  species  have  been   used  for  human  nutri?on  and  health       Since  early  XXth  century   Global  trend  towards  diet  simplifica?on       Today   Only  12  plant  crops  and  14  animal  species  provide  98%  of  world’s  food   needs       What  is  at  stake?   Promote  awareness  of  the  importance  of  food  biodiversity,  including  wild,   indigenous  and  tradi?onal  foods,  while  contribu?ng  to  global  nutri?on   security  and  the  conserva?on  and  sustainable  use  of  food  biodiversity     WE  NEED  TO  LOOK  AT  THE  PAST….  
  • 3. Man  ist,  was  Man  ißt   Brillat-­‐Savarin    (1755-­‐1826)                                    Tell  me  what  you  eat,  and  I’ll  tell  you  who  your  are!     TAKE  HOME  MESSAGE     Diet  diversifica?on  is  not  only  a  maUer  of  diversified  food  resources  and   diversified  nutrient  intake     It  is  primarily  a  maUer  of  cultural  diversity  in  dietary  regimes  and  food  habits     Food  and  nutrient  absorp?on  form  only  a  (?ny)  part  of  the  story     The  cultural  dimension  of  food  is  absent  of  policies  and  research  port-­‐folio       LEARNING  FROM  THE  POOR:     Before  implemen4ng  policies  and  R&D  programs  aiming  at  improving  the  diet   of  the  poor,  what    can  we  learn  from  their  diversified  dietary  regimes?  
  • 4. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY Food system BIOCULTURAL   DIMENSIONS   OF  FOOD  
  • 5. RESOURCE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGYRESOURCE FOCUSED APPROACH TOTAL SOCIAL FACT ANTHROPOLOGY HUMAN BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY ECONOMY PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY Marcel  Mauss  (1872-­‐1950)   Food system BIOCULTURAL   DIMENSIONS   OF  FOOD  
  • 6. LEAVES FRUITS HONEY SEEDS/NUTS GEOPHYTES DIVERSITY  OF  INDIGENOUS  FOOD  RESOURCES   RESOURCE FOCUSED APPROACH
  • 7. MUSHROOMS WILD ANIMALS FODDER/BROWSE INSECTS FUELWOOD FLOWERS RESOURCE FOCUSED APPROACH DIVERSITY  OF  INDIGENOUS  FOOD  RESOURCES  
  • 8. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE HARVESTING Food system
  • 9. CHILDREN:  THE  OVERLOOKED  PRODUCERS   RESOURCE HARVESTING Children  harvest  on  their  own  resources  that  are  immediately   edible  and  that  present  not  risk  during  harves?ng   harves?ng  honey  from  s?ngless  bees   Insects  collec?ng     Efficient  research  protocols  yet  to  be  elaborated   •  Detailed  studies  on  children’s  specific  TEK  are  rare   (Mignot  2003)     •  Methodological  challenge  to  work  with  children  in  the   tropics  (HewleU  2013)   Children’s  roles  might  have  greater  impact  than  usually  assumed   (Balinga  et  al.  in  progress)   They  are  not  always  this  high-­‐risk  group  that  we  admit  that  they  are   Household  economy  and  food  security       Land  use  and  NTFP    extrac?on  prac?ces       Shaping  of  future  gender  roles       Governance  arrangements  including  rights  and  access     Food  security  policies  do  not  integrate  children  and  their  economic,   social  and  other  roles  in  resource  management      
  • 10. RESOURCE HARVESTING RESOURCE  ACCESS  AND  LAND  RIGHTS   Pressure  exerted  on  highly  culturally  valued  resources   •  FaUy  oil  from  Baillonella  toxisperma  seed  (for  cooking,  cosme?c   and  medicinal  uses)   •  High  price  oil,  up  to  1,700  CFA/liter  (CIFOR  2000)   •  Conflict  of  interests  between  logging  companies  and  local   communi?es   Ci4zen  science  ini4a4ves  for  mapping  forest  resources     (Lewis  2008)   •  Hand-­‐held  computers  adapted  to  non-­‐literate  forest  dwellers   •  Mapping  of  hun?ng  grounds,  sacred  trees,  food  trees…   Baka  pygmies  using  GPS  to  map  moabi  trees  
  • 11. RESOURCE HARVESTING RESOURCE  ACCESS  AND  LAND  RIGHTS   •  Many  food  resources  are  neither  fully  wild  nor  fully  domes4cated   Palm  trees  (sago,  acai),  honeybees,  freshwater  fishes,  oleoproteaginous  seed  trees,  bushmeat   in  homegardens/agroforestry  systems,  termite  nests,  etc     •  Vast  spectrum  of  para/proto/pseudo/semi  domes?cated  resources      each  with  very  specific  access  rights  and  ownership  rules       The  local  customary  principles  for  the  management  of  these  resources  are  poorly   documented  and  are  hardly  generalizable   Paracul?va?on  of  wild  yams  by  Baka  Pygmies   Paracul?va?on:   The  ‘wild’  resource  is   ustainably  managed,  owned,   protected,  inherited…  while   maintained  in  its  natural   environment   (Dounias  2001)  
  • 12. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY Food system
  • 13. WEEDS:  ‘GOOD’  SAUCES  WITH  ‘BAD’  VEGETALS   RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY Crop  yield  maximiza?on  vs.  op?mized  agroecology?   a  needed  shih  in  agricultural  policies  and  paradigms     Ecosystem  based  management  of  agriculture…  
  • 14. INSECTS  AS  FOOD…  AND  AS  INDICATORS  OF  CLIMATE  CHANGE   approx.  600  known  edible  insect  species   RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY Cooking  of  Anaphe  caterpillars  seasonally   captured  on  Bridelia  micrantha  
  • 15. Occurrence  of  imago  swarming  and  Termitomyces  mushrooms  in  Tikar  valley,  Cameroon  (Dounias  2011)   Swarming  of   winged  imagos   Produc?on  of   Termitomyces  mushrooms   RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY INSECTS  AS  FOOD…  AND  AS  INDICATORS  OF  CLIMATE  CHANGE   100g  termites  =  613  KCal  
  • 16. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY Food system
  • 17. RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY SANITARY  FUNCTIONS  OF  INSECT  COLLECTING   Water Prot. Lip. Ca P Fe Energetic value % g g mg mg mg kJ kcal Adriaens, 1953 - 56,6 12,0 - - - - - Santos Oliveira et al., 1976 10,8 20,3 41,7 186 1972 13 2351 562 Ashiru, 1988 9,1 58,2 16,9 210 680 2 - - Malaisse & Parent, 1997 77,4 42,6 20,2 320 70 - 1523 364 Nutri?ve  value  of  weevil  larvae  (Rhynchophorus  phoenicis)  (from  Dounias  2003)   Two  edible  parasites  of  raphia  palm  trees  :  dynastes  (Prionoryctes  monoceros)                                        weevil  (Rhynchophorus  phoenicis)  (from  Dounias  2003)  
  • 18. RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY SANITARY  FUNCTIONS  OF  INSECT  COLLECTING   Swamps   •  Host  endemic  biodiversity     •  Fulfill  many  ecosystem  services     •  Palms:  mul?purpose  plants     •  Swamps  are  however  perceived  as   insalubrious     •  Many  projects  aim  to  convert  these  rich   yet  fragile  ecosystems  into  arable  lands     Impacts  of  insects  harves4ng  on  ecosystem   dynamics  are  not  addressed   Slash  field  of  off-­‐season  rice  in  forest  swamp  
  • 19. Symbioses  between  plants  and  mycorrhizal  fungi   RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY MUSHROOMS:  COMPLEX  MUTUALISTIC  INTERACTIONS  WITH  OTHER  PLANTS   Monodominant  Gilber?odendron  forest   Plant/mycorrhizal  fungi  symbioses  are  poorly   documented  in  the  tropics  (Selosse  2012)     What  are  the  consequences  of  excessive  harves4ng  of   certain  food  resources  on  the  resilience  of  their  hos4ng   ecosystems?   Mushroom  nutri4ve  value   •  Soluble  fibers   •  B  group  vitamins   •  Protein   •  Selenium  
  • 20. •  Many  tree  species  are  maintained  near  habitat   because  they  aUract  game   •  6%  of  total  bushmeat  biomass  are  captured   near  houses   •  Most  garden  hunters  are  children   •  Meat  of  limited  interest  for  markets:  domes?c   consump?on   •  Great  poten?al  to  mi?gate  hun?ng  pressure   on  large  mammals     Bushmeat  provides  30-­‐50%  of  protein  intake  for   forest  communi4es….  but  is  not  sustainably   exploited  (Nasi  et  al.  2011)       PEST  CONTROL  &  GARDEN  HUNTING   Giant  rat     Critetomys  emini   (Cricetomydae)   Cane  rat     Tryonomys  swinderianus   (Tryonomydae)   RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY
  • 21. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY TRANSACTIONS Food system
  • 22. TRANSACTIONS Market  of  course,  but  not  only!   Intra  and  inter  cultural  rela?onships  :   -­‐  Major  drivers  of  food  resource   circula?on  and  exchange   -­‐  Best  guarantee  for  cultural  integrity       Peanut  versus  wild  yam  exchange  between  a  Nzime  woman  and  a  Baka  man     Interethnic  /  intercommunity  complementari4es  are  not  taken  into   considera4on  in  the  assessment  of  indigenous  dietary  regimes      
  • 23. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY FOOD TECHNOLOGY Food system
  • 24. FOOD TECHNOLOGY Proteins   Lipids   Reducing  sugar   Cellulose   Minerals   G.  africanum   16.5   5.9   17.5   40.0   7.0   G.    bucholzianum   18.2   6.2   16.7   39.5   nc   SHARING  RESOURCES,  SHARING  PROCESSES…   Nutrient  content  of  Gnetum  leaves  (from  Mialundama  2008)   Monthly  earnings  of  a  middleman  in  Gnetum  trade   approximates  450  000  CFA  (Nde  Shiembo  1999)   Mbenzele  women  slicing  Gnetum  leaves  in  Congo   Alterna4ve  food  resource  processes  yet  to  be  conceived…  
  • 25. HEALTH Domes?ca?on  of  cul?vated  plants  has  led  to  a   reduc?on  of  their  thermostable   compounds  (increased  diges?bility  of  plants)       Most  wild  or  pseudo  domes4catd    food  plants   (especially  those  gathered  during  periods  of   food  shortage)  contain  compounds  that  need  to   be  eliminated  prior  to  consump4on     Long  detoxifica?on  processing:   -­‐  ?me  and  energy  costly   -­‐  requires  exper?se  that  are  decreasingly   transmiUed   TOXIC  FOOD  RESOURCES   Examples  of  edible  though  toxic  geophytes:  Tacca  involucrata  (upward)  and   Gloriosa  superba  (downward)  from  I.  de  Garine  1985  and  Dounias  2008)   Alterna4ve  food  resource  processes  yet  to  be  conceived…  
  • 26. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY FOOD BEHAVIOURFood system
  • 27. FOOD BEHAVIOUR WHO  EATS  WHAT  WHEN  WHERE  HOW…  AND  WITH  WHOM?   •  From  the  resource…  to  the  meal   •  Food  sharing  (not  only  with  humans)     •  Risks  of  intoxica?ons  increase  when  social  obliga?ons  of   sharing  food  decline   •  Food  taboos,  prohibi?ons,  prescrip?ons   •  Supercultural  food  (Jellife  1967  !)   •  Fes?ve  /  Ostenta?ous  /  Ceremonial  /  Ritual  food…     •  Snacks  (never  quan4fied  in  food  consump4on   surveys!)   Up  to  30%  of  food  intake  (Koppert  et  al.  1993,  Dounias  2007)   >50%  of  children  diet  during  food  shortage  seasons   No  leh  hand  please!   The  Punan  of  Borneo  share  meals  with  their  dogs   Muzei  children  of  Logone  river  tracking  frogs  (food  taboo  for  adults)  
  • 28. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY NUTRITION Food system
  • 29. •  Higher  levels  of  combined  essen?al  and  non-­‐essen?al  trace  elements  in  indigenous  than   in  commercial  refined  salts  (Kühnlein  1980)   •  Higher  quan?ty  of  Fe  in  indigenous  salts  of  plant  origins   •  Among  the  Azande  of  DRC,  replacement  of  indigenous  salt  by  poorly  iodized  refined  salt   has  caused  drama?c  increase  in  goiter  occurrence  (Prinz    1993)       Commercially  refined  salt  has  replaced  many  indigenous  substances  which   formerly  provided  salted  flavor  and  minerals  to  the  diet  of  na?ve  peoples   Lixivia?on  process  to  extract  salt  from  ash  plants  (Echeverri  and  Román-­‐Jitdutjaaño  2011)   NUTRITION INDIGENOUS  SALT  PLANTS   Effects  of  the  subs4tu4on  of  indigenous  salts  by   refined  salt  are  not  documented    
  • 30. GEOPHAGY   NUTRITION •  Intervene  in  plant  detoxifica?on:  the  mixing  of   soil  adsorbs  the  toxins  and  renders  the  food   palatable     •  Indigenous  Peruvians  and  American  first   na?ons  ate  clay  with  acorn  and  potatoes.  Clay   reduced  the  tannic  acid  contained  in  acorn     •  S?ll  assimilated  as  ‘dirt’  food  resul?ng  from   mental  disorder  (along  with  coprophagia,   tricophagia,  xylophagia,  and  orthorexia)  
  • 31. Extractable  concentra?ons  (mgkg-­‐1)  of  selected  macro-­‐  and  micronutrients  determined  from  geophagical   materials  collected  within  Africa  (from  Abrahams  2005)   GEOPHAGY   NUTRITION How  do  we  deal  with  cultural  prac4ces  that  interna4onal  standards  consider  as  disgus4ng?  
  • 32. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY Food system
  • 33. PHYSIOLOGY Quan?ta?ve  food  consump?on  surveys  are  rare     Even  rarer  are  es?mates  of  energy  balance  between   food  intake  and  ac?vi?es     Seasonal  fluctua?ons  of  energe?c  balance  are  ignored     Measurement  of  energe?c  cost  of  daily  ac?vi?es  among  the  Yasa  fishermen  in   coastal  Cameroon  (P.  Pasquet  1985)     Harassing  harves?ng  of  finger  millet  (Eleusine  carocana)  during  the  food   shortage  season  among  the  Muzei  of  Northern  Cameroon  (I.  de  Garine  1985)     ENERGY  BALANCE  (INTAKE    vs    EXPENDITURE)  
  • 34. PHYSIOLOGY   •  Lactase  persistence  among  some  human  popula?ons   •  Gut  microbiota  adapted  to  exclusive  liquid  consump?on   (H.  Hanawa  in  Northern  Congo)   •  Gusta?ve  sensibility  and  tolerance  to  par?cular  nutrients  (Inuit  can   detect  NaCl  in  drinkable  water  in  infinitesimal  quan??es)     •  Some  popula?ons  do  well  with  daily  caloric  intakes  below   admiUed  standard   The  variability  of  human  popula4ons  to  absence  vs  excessive   consump4on  of  some  nutrients  or  admi;edly  toxic  secondary   compounds    is  poorly  documented   NUTRIENTS:  GOOD  OR  BAD?  IT  DEPENDS!   Drinkable  water  from  Cissus  dinklagei  vine   Tolerance  of  Himalayan  honey  hunters  to  the  painful  s?ngs  of  the  cliff  giant  honeybees  
  • 35. PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH TRANSACTIONS NUTRITION RESOURCE HARVESTING FOOD BEHAVIOUR RESOURCE TEMPORAL AVAILABILITY RESOURCE SPATIAL AVAILABILITY FOOD TECHNOLOGY HEALTH Food system
  • 36. HEALTH Mushrooms   •  poorly  diges?ble  chi?n     •  trehalose  and  mannitol  sugars   not  correctly  degraded   •  Synthesis  of  complex  molecules   which  cause  allergenic  and   intolerant  reac?ons   Fern  crosses   •  Prolonged  cooking  needed  to   destroy  cyanogene?c  heterosids   •  Contain  thiaminase  which   destroys  vit  B1   •  Soluble  substances  (Ptaquiloside)   that  cause  gastro-­‐œsophagic     cancer  when  in  high   concentra?on  in  drinkable  water   Molluscs   •  Infec?on  (bacteria,  norovirus  and   enterovirus  (Hepa??s  A))   •  Intoxica?on  (Chemicals,  heavy   metal,  mercure,  cadmium,   plomb  ;  biotoxines)   TOXIC  FOOD  RESOURCES   But  are  indigenous  peoples  who  eat  these  food  resources  regularly   affected  by  these  health  disorders?    No  idea…  
  • 37. DIVERSITY  OF  AGROECOSYSTEMS   Homegardens  and  courtyards   Planta?ons   Parklands   Nurseries   Greenhouses   Fallows   Post  agricultural   secondary  forests   Monoculture   Poly-­‐mul?-­‐inter  cropping  fields   AGRICULTURE     The  inside  of  the  box  is   complex  and  tough   enough    
  • 38. Herding   Hun?ng  /  trapping   Gathering   Fishing   Extrac?vism   Small  entrepreneurship  /  Market   Salaried  job     AGRICULTURAL  PRODUCTS:  ONLY  PART  OF  AN  INTEGRAL  LAND  USE  SYSTEM   AGRICULTURE     We  need  to  consider   what  is  outside  the  box    
  • 39. YES!  indigenous  dietary  regimes  are  diversified     BUT     •  Remain  poorly  documented   •  Many  ques4ons  yet  unanswered     •  Many  lessons  to  learn  from  the  diets  of  the  poor     •  They  are  anchored  to  culture  thus  only  locally  relevant   •  Local  percep4on  and  local  ecological  knowledge  ma;er   •  But  s4ll  a  large  frac4on  of  the  scien4fic  community   doubt  about  it…   •  …  and  decision  makers  don’t  know  what  to  do  with   them!   LAST  SLIDE!                                                                        THANK  YOU  FOR  YOUR  ATTENTION