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הווב הסמנטי - אוניברסיטת בר אילן - יוני 2011
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הווב הסמנטי - אוניברסיטת בר אילן - יוני 2011

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http://www.w3c.org.il/node/256

http://www.w3c.org.il/node/256


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  • 1. ‫הווב הסמנטי‬ ‫אייל סלע‬ ‫מנהל פרויקטים, איגוד האינטרנט‬‫הישראלי ומשרד ה-‪ W3C‬הישראלי‬‫אוניברסיטת בר אילן – 1102/6/61‬
  • 2. ‫תוכן עניינים‬‫• מבוא - איגוד האינטרנט הישראלי ו-‪W3C‬‬ ‫• אודות ה-‪Semantic Web‬‬ ‫• דוגמאות‬ ‫2‬
  • 3. ‫איגוד האינטרנט הישראלי‬ ‫• שלוחת האיגוד הבינלאומי‬ ‫• עמותה ללא מטרת רווח‬ ‫• פועל לקידום האינטרנט והטמעתו בישראל‬‫כתשתית טכנולוגית, מחקרית, חינוכית, חברתית‬ ‫ועסקית‬ ‫‪www.w3c.org.il‬‬
  • 4. ‫‪W3C‬‬ ‫• ארגון בינלאומי‬ ‫• כ-053 ארגונים‬ ‫• פורום ניטראלי ליצירת תקני הווב‬ ‫• משימה:‬ ‫להוביל את הרשת למיצוי הפוטנציאל על ידי פיתוח‬‫פרוטוקולים וקווים מנחים שיאפשרו את צמיחתה לטווח‬ ‫ארוך.‬ ‫‪www.w3c.org.il‬‬ ‫4‬
  • 5. ‫תוכן עניינים‬ ‫מבוא - איגוד האינטרנט הישראלי ו-‪W3C‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫טכנולוגיות ווב חדשות‬ ‫•‬ ‫הווב הסמנטי‬ ‫•‬ ‫הווב הנייד‬ ‫•‬‫5‬
  • 6. W3C-‫ווב סמנטי ב‬ www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb6
  • 7. Semantic Web Web of Data7
  • 8. ‫דף אינטרנט רגיל בנוי באופן שבני אדם יכולים‬ ‫להבין את תוכנו‬ ‫4‪j.mp/w3cyd‬‬‫8‬
  • 9. 9
  • 10. ‫אבל המחשב יודע רק להציג את המידע.‬ ‫הוא אינו מבין איזה תוכן קיים בו.‬‫01‬
  • 11. j.mp/w3cyd411
  • 12. ‫מטרת הווב הסמנטי היא לגשר את הפער‬‫21‬
  • 13. Semantic web is about… machine interpretability of Web content applications can process the content of information instead of just presenting it to humans j.mp/w3cowl13
  • 14. ‫תאור מידע, ברמת הקוד (כלומר, הוספת‬‫משמעות, סמנטיקה), כך שמכונות יכולות‬ ‫להבין את תוכנו.‬
  • 15. Machines can read information about me15
  • 16. My blog on the Rich Snippets testing tool j.mp/b7cIO916
  • 17. ‫או את זכויות היוצרים באתר שלי‬‫71‬
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. ‫זהו בעצם מנגנון מוסכם (סטנדרט) לייצוג נתונים.‬
  • 21. ‫הרשת הופכת מאוסף של מסמכים (שרק בני אדם‬ ‫מבינים)‬ ‫למאגר נתונים (שמכונות יכולות "להבין").‬‫12‬
  • 22. ‫אפליקציות‬ ‫אבסטרקציה‬ ‫נתונים‬‫נתונים ב-‪RDF‬‬ ‫‪XML‬‬ ‫דפי אינטרנט‬ ‫מאגרי נתונים‬‫‪j.mp/w3civan‬‬
  • 23. The semantic technology stack23
  • 24. Semantic technology stack Web of Web of data documents24
  • 25. XML syntax for structured documents &URIUniform resource Identifier 25
  • 26. RDF 26
  • 27. The building block of the Semantic Web Resource Description Framework (RDF)27
  • 28. The building block of the Semantic Web Resource Description Framework (RDF) ‫שיטה לתאר דברים‬28
  • 29. (also) things not on the web 29
  • 30. 1. With RDF we describe resources in terms of properties and property values <http://www.productivewise.com/> <CreatedBy> "Eyal Sela" . subject predicate object30
  • 31. 2. Which are represented as a graph of nodes and arcs http://www.productivewise.com CreatedBy Eyal sela31
  • 32. 3. things are identified by URI http://www.productivewise.com/#me32
  • 33. 1. With RDF we describe resources in terms of properties and property values 2. Which are represented as a graph of nodes and arcs 3. Things are identified by URIs33
  • 34. ‫למשל....‬‫43‬
  • 35. RDF ‫איך מבטאים את המידע בעזרת‬there is a Person identified by http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, whose name isEric Miller, whose email address is em@w3.org, and whose title is Dr.j.mp/w3crdf35
  • 36. ‫נראה (למשל) ככה‬XML-based syntax 36
  • 37. ‫פריטים מוויקיפדיה על מפה‬DBpedia Mobilerenders a mapcontaininginformation aboutnearby locationsfrom the DBpediadataset. beckr.org/DBpediaMobile37
  • 38. ‫רגע.‬ ‫כשאומרים ‪ GivenName‬מתכוונים לשם של אדם או אולי‬ ‫משתנה בתוכנה?‬‫83‬
  • 39. ‫לא יודע...‬‫93‬
  • 40. ‫לכן משתמשים ב ‪URIs‬‬‫04‬
  • 41. http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenname The given name of some person. j.mp/9tGcBh41
  • 42. These are known as Vocabularies set of URIs defined for some specific purpose (E.g. identify employees)42
  • 43. Why use URIs as properites?1.Distinguish properties2. Properties treated as resources (add information about them) 43
  • 44. Another person/program familiar with thevocabulary will know what is meant by thisrelationship.44
  • 45. ...‫אז בעצם‬ ‫רק אפליקציות שיודעות לקרוא‬ RDF ‫ מסוים יבינו הצהרות‬vocabulary .‫שמשתמשות בו‬RDF statements using URIs from vocabulariesconvey the specific meanings associated with terms only to applications written to process these vocabularies. 45
  • 46. An application cannot actually "understand" suchstatements.any more than a database system "understands" terms like "employee" or "salary" inprocessing a query likeSELECT NAME FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE SALARY > 35000. 46
  • 47. Vocabularies you should know47
  • 48. FOAF - describing people, the links between themand the things they create and do Group Image LabelProperty OnlineAccount Organization Project Account Age Birthday Depiction familyName Knows …48
  • 49. Decentralization: The Future of Online SocialNetworkingyou (will) have apersonal Website, withyour photos, your familytree, your businessdetails, and aggregatorsthen (will) turn this intoadded value by findingthe links across thewhole web. ]Economist 2008[ )illustration by David Simonds( j.mp/w3cweb49
  • 50. Good relations - product, price, and company ActualProductOrServiceInstance BusinessEntity BusinessEntityType BusinessFunction DayOfWeek DeliveryChargeSpecification -DeliveryMethod DeliveryModeParcelService LocationOfSalesOrServiceProvisioning N-Ary-Relations Offering … j.mp/w3cbar650
  • 51. Dublin Core - 15 properties to describe esources(books, video, sound, image, web pages) Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights51
  • 52. ‫האם יש הבדל בין זה‬ ‫לזה?‬ ‫25‬
  • 53. 53
  • 54. But RDF can’t describe vocabularies– types of things (like exterms:Person)– properties (like exterms:age and exterms:creation-date)– types of things that can serve as the subjects or objects of statements involving those properties (like specifying that the value of an exterms:age property should always be an xsd:integer).  54
  • 55. RDFS 55
  • 56. RDFS defines classes (groups of related resources) and properties (relationships between resources) that are used to describe classes, properties and other resources.j.mp/w3crdfs 56
  • 57. RDFS does NOT specify a vocabulary of descriptiveproperties such as "author". it specifies mechanisms todo that. 57
  • 58. 58
  • 59. 59
  • 60. Inferred properties(<http://…/isbn/000651409X> rdf:type #Fiction)
  • 61. RDFS LimitsCan’t say: – “the domain of hasParent is Child when applied to Human and Calf when applied to Elephants” –“all instances of person have a mother that is also a person”, or that persons have exactly 2 parents –isAncestorOf is a transitive property –isMarriedTo or isPeeredWith is symmetrical –identification of objects with different URI-s j.mp/cO5kdK :`( 61
  • 62. OWL 62
  • 63. 63
  • 64. Term equivalences For classes:  owl:equivalentClass: two classes have the same individuals  owl:disjointWith: no individuals in common For properties:  owl:equivalentProperty  remember the a:author vs. f:auteur  owl:propertyDisjointWith For individuals:  owl:sameAs: two URIs refer to the same concept (“individual”)  owl:differentFrom: negation of owl:sameAs
  • 65. Classes in OWL In RDFS, you can subclass existing classes… that’s all In OWL, you can construct classes from existing ones:  enumerate its content  through intersection, union, complement
  • 66. SPARQL endpoint• SPARQL endpoint is a URI to which Queries can be sent, and which returns answers to the Queries as a response.j.mp/semqle
  • 67. !‫וגם אתם יכולים להשתמש במידע הזה‬querying RDFa from rotten tomatos :SELECT ?z ?i ?oFROM NAMED <http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?uri=http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/karate_kid_2010/>FROM NAMED <http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?uri=http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/a_team/>FROM NAMED <http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?uri=http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/prince_of_persia_sands_of_time/>FROM NAMED <http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?uri=http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/sex_and_the_city_2/>FROM NAMED <http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/extract?uri=http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1208173-splice/>WHERE { GRAPH ?dummy {?x <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#name> ?z .?x <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#summary> ?i .?w <http://opengraphprotocol.org/schema/image> ?o .}}http://dbpedia.org/sparql67
  • 68. RDF ‫ - הדגמה לשאילתות‬SPARQLersw.cs.technion.ac.il/eyalsela/
  • 69. SPRQL - exampleSelect the names and addresses of schools in London:prefix sch-ont: <http://education.data.gov.uk/def/school/>SELECT ?name ?address1 ?address2 ?postcode ?town WHERE { ?school a sch-ont:School; sch-ont:establishmentName ?name; sch-ont:districtAdministrative <http://statistics.data.gov.uk/id/local-authority-district/00AA> .}ORDER BY ?name~resultj.mp/w3cbar5 69
  • 70. Let us put it together :‫לסיכום‬ What we need for a Web of Data:  use URI-s to publish data, not only full documents  allow the data to link to other data  characterize/classify the data and the links (the “terms”( to convey some extra meaning  and use standards for all these!|
  • 71. ‫יישומים‬
  • 72. ?Linked Data ‫מי מפרסם‬New York TimesNewsweekdbPediaData.gov.ukTesco Best BuyBBCLOD‫דרופל‬ www.isoc.org.il www.w3c.org.il 72 eyal@isoc.org.il
  • 73. Facebook RDFa ‫יש‬ RDFa ‫אין‬73
  • 74. ‫בוגר אוניברסיטאות שכתבו עליהם בניו-יורק‬ ‫טיימס‬Who Went Where1. colleges and universities from DBpedia.2. queries DBpedia for the NYT identifiers of all the alumni3. identifiers are then used to query the New York Times Article Search APIj.mp/w3cbar474
  • 75. j.mp/tseyqw 75
  • 76. ‫מתכונים בגוגל‬‫‪j.mp/w3cqug‬‬ ‫67‬
  • 77. ‫• בעיקר מיקרופורמט‬ ‫• מיעוט/אי שימוש במילונים קיימים‬ ‫• החלטה על ידי מנועי החיפוש בלבד?‬‫‪schema.org‬‬
  • 78. Schema.org ‘s Type Hierarchy• CreativeWork• Event• Intangible• Organization• Person• Place• Product
  • 79. Data.gov Earthquakes + Exhibit =j.mp/w3cqwg 79
  • 80. dbrec http://dbrec.net80
  • 81. j.mp/w3cben181
  • 82. police.uk 82
  • 83. RelFinder j.mp/w3cda283
  • 84. Faceted browsingwiki.dbpedia.org/FacetedSearch84
  • 85. ‫תקנים – מה חדש?‬‫58‬
  • 86. HTML5 (!) – HTML+RDFa – HTML Microdata86
  • 87. RDFa API draft by RDFa working group document.getElementsByType(“http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person")The specification details howa developer may extract, storeand query structured datacontained within one or moreRDFa-enabled documents. j.mp/w3car287
  • 88. RDB2RDFUse Cases and Requirements for Mapping RelationalDatabases to RDFexampleWordpress….88
  • 89. ...‫עדכונים אחרונים‬• 2011-05-25 HTML Microdata• 2011-05-12 SPARQL 1.1 Update• 2011-05-12 RIF In RDF• 2011-05-10 RDF Interfaces 1.0• 2011-05-10 Pointer Methods in RDF 1.0• 2011-05-10 HTTP Vocabulary in RDF 1.0• 2011-05-10 Representing Content in RDF 1.0• 2011-04-19 RDFa API• 2011-03-24 A Direct Mapping of Relational Data to RDF• 2011-03-24 R2RML: RDB to RDF Mapping Language• 2011-03-31 RDFa Core 1.1• ……
  • 90.  ‫תודה‬ ‫אייל סלע‬ eyal@isoc.org.il @isociltech @eyalselaw3c.org.il/news/256 :‫המצגת‬