What Works in Sexuality Education:  handling controversy and dispelling myths   Webinar,   February 28, 2008  Roselle Paul...
Roselle Paulsen has: <ul><li>Worked in sexuality education for 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>Taught sexuality education with…...
S.E.R.C. <ul><li>Training and Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops for Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Centre </li>...
Cathi Johnston has: <ul><li>Taught Family Life as a specialist teacher in all schools within district,grades 5-11 for the ...
Manitoba Curriculum <ul><li>Five significant risk behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate physical activity </li></ul><...
General Learning Outcomes,  Manitoba <ul><li>Resulting five GLOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Human Sexuality <ul><li>Content is identified in Healthy Lifestyle Practices GLO  gr. K, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12* </li></ul><ul...
B.C. Prescribed Learning Outcomes <ul><li>All Grades—outline physical/social/emotional changes associated with puberty </l...
B.C. PLOs cont’ <ul><li>Grade 9—components of healthy relationship, factors that influence responsible sexual decision-mak...
B.C. PLOs cont’ <ul><li>Grade 11—evaluate components needed to build and maintain healthy relationships in their adult liv...
Why We Teach Sexuality Education <ul><li>Inform, educate and influence </li></ul><ul><li>Develop skills </li></ul><ul><li>...
S.A.K.E. <ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>
Common Concerns about  Sexuality Education <ul><li>Children are too young to learn about sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality ...
Responses <ul><li>Students who are educated about sexual health usually postpone sexual activity longer or are more likely...
Answer: No. <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Does providing youth with sexual health education, including information o...
Abstinence-only S.E. <ul><li>Ideally, curricula are comprehensive, with an abstinence inclusion or focus </li></ul><ul><li...
Just Say No… <ul><li>… will be as effective in combating AIDS as “Have a nice day” has been in combating clinical depressi...
Racism, sexism, homophobia <ul><li>These are issues that do fit within sexuality education </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes inf...
 
Sexuality Education <ul><li>What are the  values  we promote? </li></ul><ul><li>“ What values are you teaching my child?” ...
Emerging Answers 2007 <ul><li>Kirby outlines 17 characteristics of effective curriculum-based programs for reducing teen p...
Assess Needs… “Straight youth don’t get HIV”  ??? <ul><li>Causes of HIV Infection in Manitoba, 2005   </li></ul><ul><li>35...
CYSHHAS <ul><li>11,074 students in grades 7, 9, & 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, 2003 </l...
Oral Sex at least once <ul><li>Male  Female </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 9  32%  28% </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 11  53  52 </li></ul>
Have had intercourse at least once <ul><li>  Males  Females </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 9  23%  19% </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 11...
Reasons Condoms Not Used <ul><li>Did not expect to have sex </li></ul><ul><li>Used other method of birth control </li></ul...
 
Emerging Answers continued <ul><li>Curriculum Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear health goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
Risk Factors for Teen Pregnancy, STI <ul><li>Social disorganization: violence, poverty…, disconnected feeling </li></ul><u...
Protective Factors…  <ul><li>Family connectedness, interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of parent education </li></...
Emerging Answers continued <ul><li>Methodologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates safe environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Social Messages…
Environment, social attitudes… Using Condoms is… S mart A ffordable F ashionable E asy R esponsible S ensible E rotic X ci...
Cultural environment… <ul><li>Cultural aspects of our experiences: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual O...
Emerging Answers continued <ul><li>Implementation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support from authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Healthy Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Positive self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of one’s sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Inte...
<ul><li>Desire,  </li></ul><ul><li>not improved cognition,  </li></ul><ul><li>produces positive outcomes in teens. </li></...
Components of Sexual Health Education   <ul><li>Acquisition of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Motivation </li>...
Results? <ul><li>Sexual Health Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of Sexual Health Problems </li></ul>
<ul><li>Family Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Do parents talk with their teens about sexuality? </li></ul>
Report having had a helpful conversation  about delaying sex and avoiding teen pregnancy… <ul><li>Teens  71% </li></ul><ul...
Informing Parents about S.E. <ul><li>In B.C. school district 83, the Family Life program is part of the Personal Planning ...
Opt in / opt out <ul><li>Opt out model works well in S.D. 83 (BC) </li></ul><ul><li>In Manitoba – S.E. is mandated, but di...
Tips for Meetings  <ul><li>Sign-in sheet at door </li></ul><ul><li>Administrator greets parents/attendees </li></ul><ul><l...
Tips for Meetings <ul><li>Cathi suggests: Know your audience! Be honest, keep it factual. </li></ul><ul><li>At a recent Pa...
Controversial meetings <ul><li>Condom policy (should machines go into high schools?) </li></ul><ul><li>How meeting went: l...
Responding to Concerns <ul><li>Cathi’s phone number is given for parents to phone directly </li></ul><ul><li>Cathi attends...
Outside Groups/ non-parents <ul><li>Find out who is challenging the education </li></ul><ul><li>Explain approach and ratio...
Cathi’s experiences <ul><li>Students’ questions… after TV shows “Sex, Toys & Chocolate”, “Family Guy”, and “South Park” </...
B.C. McCreary Study <ul><li>The  McCreary Centre  Society is a non-profit organization committed to improving the health o...
Safe Olympics
What Works for Cathi? <ul><li>Establishing a ‘comfort zone’ (ground rules, seating arrangement, classroom teacher usually ...
What works? <ul><li>Games: “Jeopardy” at all levels works (Puberty Jeopardy, Contraceptive Jeopardy, etc….prizes are from ...
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Handling controversy & dispelling myths in sexuality education slide presentation

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Techniques and procedures to handle controversies in sexual health education

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Handling controversy & dispelling myths in sexuality education slide presentation

  1. 1. What Works in Sexuality Education: handling controversy and dispelling myths Webinar, February 28, 2008 Roselle Paulsen , Professional Education & Training Coordinator Sexuality Education Resource Centre (SERC) Manitoba Cathi Johnston , Family Life Teacher, S.D. 83, B.C.
  2. 2. Roselle Paulsen has: <ul><li>Worked in sexuality education for 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>Taught sexuality education with… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grades 4 – 12 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>life skills, youth groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-secondary pre-service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals: education, nursing, public health, medicine, social work, child care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faced the “gym full of anxious parents” </li></ul><ul><li>Two teenage sons </li></ul>
  3. 3. S.E.R.C. <ul><li>Training and Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops for Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Facts of Life Program </li></ul><ul><li>Health Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Special Projects </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cathi Johnston has: <ul><li>Taught Family Life as a specialist teacher in all schools within district,grades 5-11 for the past 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Presented to parent groups, youth groups, administrator and trustee groups </li></ul><ul><li>Raised two sons, now 21 & 26 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Manitoba Curriculum <ul><li>Five significant risk behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhealthy dietary behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug use including alcohol and tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual behaviors that result in STI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and UPP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional and unintentional injuries </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. General Learning Outcomes, Manitoba <ul><li>Resulting five GLOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal and Social Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy Lifestyle Practices </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Human Sexuality <ul><li>Content is identified in Healthy Lifestyle Practices GLO gr. K, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12* </li></ul><ul><li>Key foundational content is in Personal and Social Management GLO </li></ul><ul><li>*in development, for 2008-09 </li></ul>
  8. 8. B.C. Prescribed Learning Outcomes <ul><li>All Grades—outline physical/social/emotional changes associated with puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Gr. 7—explain how reproductive system works. Describe factors that influence health relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Gr.8 –Knowledge of key lifestyle practices associated with STIs etc. Impact of peers, mass media and social influences of decision-making in personal relationships. </li></ul>
  9. 9. B.C. PLOs cont’ <ul><li>Grade 9—components of healthy relationship, factors that influence responsible sexual decision-making, prevention of HIV/AIDs and STIs. </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 10—possible effects of individual’s sexual decisions, knowledge of lifestyle practices associated with prevention of HIV/AIDs and STIs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. B.C. PLOs cont’ <ul><li>Grade 11—evaluate components needed to build and maintain healthy relationships in their adult lives. Prevention through lifestyle practices of HIV/AIDs and STIs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why We Teach Sexuality Education <ul><li>Inform, educate and influence </li></ul><ul><li>Develop skills </li></ul><ul><li>Address attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Create systemic change </li></ul><ul><li>Youth deserve the opportunity to discuss, assess, understand, process, and analyze issues that are incredibly charged – by media, peers, family and society </li></ul>
  12. 12. S.A.K.E. <ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common Concerns about Sexuality Education <ul><li>Children are too young to learn about sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality Education encourages sexual behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>S.E. teaches about homosexuality, abortion and masturbation. </li></ul><ul><li>Students think they’ll get a “how-to” class! </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers shouldn’t be teaching their values to my child. </li></ul><ul><li>Why aren’t we teaching abstinence? </li></ul><ul><li>We’re giving confusing and contradictory messages if we promote abstinence and birth control. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Responses <ul><li>Students who are educated about sexual health usually postpone sexual activity longer or are more likely to protect themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about homosexuality reduces the rates of bullying and encourages respect </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive S.E. promotes abstinence as a healthy choice, while providing accurate information to prevent pregnancy and STI’s (useful now, or in the future) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Answer: No. <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Does providing youth with sexual health education, including information on contraception and condom use, lead youth to become sexually active at an earlier age or to engage in more frequent sexual activity? </li></ul><ul><li>McKay, A. Sexual health education in the schools: Questions & Answers. SIECCAN, 2005. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Abstinence-only S.E. <ul><li>Ideally, curricula are comprehensive, with an abstinence inclusion or focus </li></ul><ul><li>Abstinence-only education contradicts the research, plus common sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Some issues: </li></ul><ul><li>short term modification of attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>reduced contraceptive use when sexually active </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of “Splash pregnancy” </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that oral sex is not “sex” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Just Say No… <ul><li>… will be as effective in combating AIDS as “Have a nice day” has been in combating clinical depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas Firstenberg, Hunter College, NY. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Racism, sexism, homophobia <ul><li>These are issues that do fit within sexuality education </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes influence safety, comfort, learning, and relationships </li></ul>
  19. 20. Sexuality Education <ul><li>What are the values we promote? </li></ul><ul><li>“ What values are you teaching my child?” </li></ul><ul><li>Rights, Respect, Responsibility </li></ul>
  20. 21. Emerging Answers 2007 <ul><li>Kirby outlines 17 characteristics of effective curriculum-based programs for reducing teen pregnancies and STIs </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess needs and assets of audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use logic model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities match values and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot-testing </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Assess Needs… “Straight youth don’t get HIV” ??? <ul><li>Causes of HIV Infection in Manitoba, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>35 Heterosexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>30 Endemic </li></ul><ul><li>21 MSM </li></ul><ul><li>11 IDU </li></ul><ul><li>Manitoba Health 2006 </li></ul>
  22. 23. CYSHHAS <ul><li>11,074 students in grades 7, 9, & 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Youth, Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Study </li></ul>
  23. 24. Oral Sex at least once <ul><li>Male Female </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 9 32% 28% </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 11 53 52 </li></ul>
  24. 25. Have had intercourse at least once <ul><li> Males Females </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 9 23% 19% </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 11 40 46 </li></ul>
  25. 26. Reasons Condoms Not Used <ul><li>Did not expect to have sex </li></ul><ul><li>Used other method of birth control </li></ul><ul><li>I/partner don’t like to use condoms </li></ul><ul><li>Had too much alcohol/drugs </li></ul>
  26. 28. Emerging Answers continued <ul><li>Curriculum Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear health goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on specific behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address psychosocial risk & protective factors </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Risk Factors for Teen Pregnancy, STI <ul><li>Social disorganization: violence, poverty…, disconnected feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Family disruption: divorce, substance use…parents not around </li></ul><ul><li>Older boyfriend </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant sister </li></ul><ul><li>Their own teenage mom </li></ul><ul><li>Peers: substance use, sexually active, pro-childbearing </li></ul><ul><li>Doing poorly in school; no post-sec plans </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually or physically abused </li></ul><ul><li>National Campaign on To Prevent Teen Pregnancy 2005 </li></ul>
  28. 30. Protective Factors… <ul><li>Family connectedness, interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of parent education </li></ul><ul><li>Greater parental supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Parent disapproval of teen sex </li></ul><ul><li>Parent support of Birth Control use if sex. active </li></ul><ul><li>Parent communication about sex, condoms, contraception </li></ul>
  29. 31. Emerging Answers continued <ul><li>Methodologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates safe environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple activities targeted to risk and protective factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound teaching methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods and messages appropriate to culture, age and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical sequence </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Social Messages…
  31. 33. Environment, social attitudes… Using Condoms is… S mart A ffordable F ashionable E asy R esponsible S ensible E rotic X citing
  32. 34. Cultural environment… <ul><li>Cultural aspects of our experiences: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Orientation Race </li></ul><ul><li>Faith Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Family Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Class Geography </li></ul>
  33. 35. Emerging Answers continued <ul><li>Implementation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support from authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educators who are willing, able, trained and supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment and retainment strategies for youth, when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All activities delivered, with fidelity </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Healthy Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Positive self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of one’s sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of sexuality into mutually satisfying relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Attainment and maintenance of SRH </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Guidelines for Sexual Health Education, </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada 2003 </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>Desire, </li></ul><ul><li>not improved cognition, </li></ul><ul><li>produces positive outcomes in teens. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Michael A. Carrera, Lessons for Lifeguards, 1996. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Components of Sexual Health Education <ul><li>Acquisition of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Conducive Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Guidelines for Sexual Health Education p. 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada, 2003 </li></ul>
  37. 39. Results? <ul><li>Sexual Health Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of Sexual Health Problems </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Family Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Do parents talk with their teens about sexuality? </li></ul>
  39. 41. Report having had a helpful conversation about delaying sex and avoiding teen pregnancy… <ul><li>Teens 71% </li></ul><ul><li>Parents 89% </li></ul><ul><li>Science Says: The sexual behavior of young adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 2007 </li></ul>
  40. 42. Informing Parents about S.E. <ul><li>In B.C. school district 83, the Family Life program is part of the Personal Planning Curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are informed by letter about the mandated program, and given the option to “opt-out”, expectation parents will cover that part of the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Those parents can contact Cathi or the school with questions. Curriculum made available. Happens rarely. </li></ul>
  41. 43. Opt in / opt out <ul><li>Opt out model works well in S.D. 83 (BC) </li></ul><ul><li>In Manitoba – S.E. is mandated, but divisions decide on the ‘depth and breadth’ of delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Opt-in is discouraged </li></ul>
  42. 44. Tips for Meetings <ul><li>Sign-in sheet at door </li></ul><ul><li>Administrator greets parents/attendees </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an outline of the S.E. that will be taught </li></ul><ul><li>Display curriculum and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Explain procedure for future questions </li></ul>
  43. 45. Tips for Meetings <ul><li>Cathi suggests: Know your audience! Be honest, keep it factual. </li></ul><ul><li>At a recent Parent Council meeting she was asked “What do you teach about Homosexuality?” (a common question right now) </li></ul><ul><li>Response: Emphasis was on respect, she used her “line of sexuality” example, reading the audience to determine at what depth to respond. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Controversial meetings <ul><li>Condom policy (should machines go into high schools?) </li></ul><ul><li>How meeting went: lots of group discussion in small groups, focus on the issue and intent of the meeting, “focus group” format, everyone has 2 minutes to speak, ensure support network attends meeting, some way of tallying responses, Moderator spends time in each group, gives large group a summary of what was heard. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Responding to Concerns <ul><li>Cathi’s phone number is given for parents to phone directly </li></ul><ul><li>Cathi attends numerous parent meetings (Cathi + trustee pro-active) </li></ul><ul><li>The Family Life teacher has a community presence (connects with public health, the churches, doctors, the media, other community agencies, small city of 15,000) </li></ul>
  46. 48. Outside Groups/ non-parents <ul><li>Find out who is challenging the education </li></ul><ul><li>Explain approach and rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Close </li></ul><ul><li>Inform systemic allies and offer them support and information </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency is key </li></ul><ul><li>Manitoba example </li></ul>
  47. 49. Cathi’s experiences <ul><li>Students’ questions… after TV shows “Sex, Toys & Chocolate”, “Family Guy”, and “South Park” </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Media to help </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation to school board </li></ul><ul><li>Information sent home </li></ul>
  48. 50. B.C. McCreary Study <ul><li>The McCreary Centre Society is a non-profit organization committed to improving the health of BC youth through research </li></ul><ul><li>The Adolescent Health Survey (AHS) is a questionnaire used to gather information about youth health in BC. Fourth provincial survey in early 2008. Questions about physical and emotional health, and factors that can influence health during adolescence or in later life. Sexual health one component. </li></ul><ul><li>Cathi presents results to the school board and to parents and to students </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to frequently </li></ul>
  49. 51. Safe Olympics
  50. 52. What Works for Cathi? <ul><li>Establishing a ‘comfort zone’ (ground rules, seating arrangement, classroom teacher usually leaves, Cathi is known as the ‘sex lady’ and over the years the students recognize her, talk with her about their concerns) </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping the class focused. Keep the embarrassment out of it. Younger students color and label the diagrams or the reproductive system. </li></ul>
  51. 53. What works? <ul><li>Games: “Jeopardy” at all levels works (Puberty Jeopardy, Contraceptive Jeopardy, etc….prizes are from www.sexualityandu.ca ) </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging students: chart paper and smelly felts!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Kits (finish off sentences, put sentences together, put cards in order, fishing activity…Grade 9s love it!) </li></ul><ul><li>Student participation (“Stand up for STIs”, water exchange…) </li></ul><ul><li>Question Bag </li></ul>
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