Serena borsani - the contribution of sport within the process of peace and reconciliation, from theory to practice.txt


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Serena borsani - the contribution of sport within the process of peace and reconciliation, from theory to practice.txt

  1. 1. The contribution of sport within the process of peace and reconciliation. From trauma healing toward social integration Case study: The impact of sports in Rift Valley-Kenya, after post election violence Power of Sport Summit - 9-12 June 2010 BORSANI SERENA !"#$%&' ! Conflict transformation and sport: 3R’s theory ! Sport and reconciliation ! Why - benefits ! How - process ! What - resilience, rebuilding relationships, social change ! Case study: Kenya PEV ! From the field ! Survey on Child Friendly Space 1
  2. 2. CONFLICT SCHOOLS OF THOUGH CONFLICT CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION: MANAGEMENT ! based on the basic human needs theory, unless you satisfy all these needs conflicts will erupt. ! transformation of norms, society and social relationship more in general, in different order to satisfy all those needs aiming at CONFLICT schools reaching peace and stability. RESOLUTION of ! it’s also a peace-building approach thought ! Galtung 3R’s theory CONFLICT PREVENTION ! is for conflict not to happen ! attempts to tackle the erupting conflict CONFLICT through early warning signs. MITIGATION Conflict transformation and sport GALTUNG 3Rs THEORY ! Reconstruction of people and places, ! Reconciliation of relationships, ! and Resolution of issues and animosities. If you do only one of these three without the other two you will not even get that one’ 2
  3. 3. 3R AFTER FEATURES CONTRIBUTION OF SPORT VIOLENCE RESOLUTION • Building relationships HOLISTIC APPROACH, WIDE • Creating favourable condition for peaceful Of the underlying, AND COMPREHENSIVE solution The time to start is always and root conflict • Increasing possibilities of success through the time to end is never. building relationship CLOSURE+HEALING • Mental and physical rehabilitation, trauma RECONCILIATION Establish reasonable working healing relations • Building relationships Of the parties (TRUST AND JUSTICE) • Helping people to break the vicious circle of FORGIVENESS hate and revenge REHABILITATION • Healing trauma and building relationships Healing of trauma among “others” projects REBUILDING Physically repairing or making • Building Sport infrastructure new building RECONSTRUCTION RECULTURATION • Bridge to approach youth involved in sport introducing practical conflict activities encouraging them to attend training After the violence knowledge and skills about HR and conflict knowledge RESTRUCTURATION Democratization Eliminating social exclusion Building relationship facilitating social inclusion strengthening the local community Conflict transformation and sport 3
  4. 4. SPORT IN RECONCILIATION WHAT RECONCILIATION it’s a long process of social change, of rebuilding relationships, of finding a way to live with hope for a peaceful future, of forgiveness and achievement of justice. PREDISPONE FORGIVENESS BREAK DOWN BARRIERS INCREASE TOLERANCE REBUILD RELATIONS SOCIAL CHANGE FOSTER RESILENCE CREATE DIALOGUE BUILD EMPATHY HEAL TRAUMA SPORT TIME LINE SPORT IN RECONCILIATION - HOW Sport its self is not good or bad, it is just an Empty empty and neutral box to be filled in and a Box tool to be used with values, ideas, meaning, dependent on the cultural context in which takes place and people who take part INGREDIENTS B E Peer S educators T process T P context O R O A meaning L C T ideas I C value E 4
  5. 5. EXAMPLE OF SPORT PROJECT CYCLE " Identification of local community conditions and resources " Formulation of programme aims and objectives " Training of peer leaders/coaches " Program content and provision " Sporting inclusion and nature of participant " Process of providing the programmes " Measuring sporting outcomes through indicators " Assessing the personal and social impact on participants " Assessing the non-sporting outcomes EXAMPLE OF NON SPORTING OUTCOME "to develop citizenship values and commitment to collective responsibility, "to heal psychosocial trauma, "to address gender-related issues, "to build relationships among different communities, "to development a commitment to education, "to develop conflict resolution and conflict management skills, "to reduce social isolation and tension, "to provide opportunities to empower participants, "to address health-related issues, including HIV/AIDS 5
  6. 6. Governments, Ministers WHO of youth, education and sport: establishment of Actors in sport nat. and int.l policies to for reconciliations favour the use of sport in the process of reconciliation TOP LEVEL MIDDLE-LEVEL, SPORT AMBASSADORS, NGO’s, ELITE Coordination of wide ATHLETES projects, creation of social network, GRASSROOTS AND CIVIL spreading of best SOCIETY, CBO’S, SOCIAL SPACE WHERE TO practice and toolkits, to IMPLEMENT SPORT improve accountability PROJECTS and quality MECHANISM FOR SOCIAL CHANGE 6
  7. 7. KENYA PEV Figures Jan 2008 Conteste presidential result quickly took on an ethnic dimension •IDP’s: 347,000 •Deaths: 1001 •Affected: more than 500,000 •Refugees in Uganda: 12,000 DIFFERENT APPROACHES OF THE USE OF SPORT IN HEALING AND RECONCILIATION Even here in Kenya, as in other post conflict situations, it is possible to identify : 1. Single events with different possible organisers like local NGO’s, famous runners, INGO’s (Shoe4Africa, Tegla Loroupe Peace Run) 2. Sport leagues as single project of a program (World Vision, Global Peace Game) 3. Sport based projects (Sport-Based Child Protection, Peace and Reconciliation Projects by Kesofo, Kenya Youth Sports4Peace & Reconciliation Projects by Care International) 4. Sport activities as part of a wider project (Amani Cup by IOM, CFS by IOM) 5. Combinations of the above 7
  8. 8. CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS) AN EARLY EVALUATION ! Questionnaire 50 youth respondents on questionnaire about the impact of sport in their life after PEV CHILD FRIENDLY SPACE (CFS) AN EARLY EVALUATION 8
  10. 10. CONCLUSION ! Recommendations "Understand the conflict. "Do not harm "Base the activities on mutual interest; "Use a participatory approach "Use of Peer educators and train them with sport, peace building and conflict management skills; "Focus on daily activities "Promote fair play rather then win at all costs. "Create a social network "Focus on the process of healing, building relationship and empathy rather than sport itself; "Develop best practices "Develop a monitoring and evaluation mechanism CONCLUSION ! The holistic approach must be used not only in peace building process but also in sport programs themselves. ! Healing is the first step to re-build relationship in order to achieve a social change. Sport is proofed to be a very feasible tool to achieve this progressive outcome. ! Favourable government policies and development of best practices allow the contribution of sport to be much more significant. 10
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