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Cindy Burleson Ekecheiria Revival

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  • 1. Ekecheiria Revival: Re-establishing the Ancient Olympic Truce in Modern-day Peacekeeping
    General Assembly Appeals for Observance of Olympic Truce
    Ali AbdussalamTreki (left), President of the sixty-fourth session of the General Assembly, convenes the Assembly's meeting on sport for peace and development and issues of sustainable development in Africa. At the meeting Mr. Treki read out an appeal for all Member States to observe the Olympic Truce during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. According to the Truce, warring states should lay down their arms in celebration of the Games.
    08 February 2010
    United Nations, New York
    Photo # 428100
    Prince Albert of Monaco and Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon / Image: UN - Mark Garten
    Presented by Cindy Burleson,
    International Sport for Development and Peace Association
    POWER OF SPORT SUMMIT
    June 11, 2010, Boston
    Email: cindyburleson@hotmail.com
    Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon speaks at an event dedicated to the Olympic Truce, ahead of the 2010 Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. With him is the Premier of British Columbia, Canada, Gordon Campbell. (UN Photo/EskinderDebebe)
  • 2. Overview
    Academic Study— Case Study of the Olympic Truce and the 1998 Winter Olympic Games in Japan
    Diplomacy— strengthening the Olympic Truce through the United Nations
    Advocacy— Using the Olympic Truce to address global problems such as the situation in Darfur
    Corporate Involvement— World’s leading travel agencies support the Olympic Truce
    Reverse the iceberg - challenge for us
  • 3. Overview
    Challenge: Reverse the Iceberg
    Academic Study— Case Study of the Olympic Truce and the 1998 Winter Olympic Games in Japan
    Diplomacy— strengthening the Olympic Truce through the United Nations
    Advocacy— Using the Olympic Truce to address global problems such as the situation in Darfur
    Corporate Involvement— World’s leading travel agencies support the Olympic Truce
  • 4. Abstract
     
    The purpose of this study is to explore how Ekecheiria, or Olympic Truce, can move the world towards a culture of peace. To do so, a case study method is employed to test the hypothesis that Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations. The findings show that in observing the principles of Ekecheiria, truce can move the world towards a culture of peace.
     
    Research Question
    Can the ancient Olympic tradition of truce move the world towards a culture of peace?
     
    Importance of question
    Olympic Truce was the basis for The Games in ancient times. In a period of constant war, it became necessary for Greece to establish the “Ekecheiria,” or truce, to ensure competition would take place under conditions of fairness and the order of administered rules. Some have said that during the Ekecheiria period of competition there was a general laying down of arms. Others say that the Ekecheiria peaceful period of competition does not constitute real peace; rather it represents only a truce. Regardless of how long a truce last, if the Olympic Truce is credited with causing legendary periods of peace, then truce is worth exploring as a peace-keeping tool.
     
    Hypothesis
    As a peace-keeping tool, Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations on a short-term basis, providing the conditions necessary for longer-term peace to occur. As honoring Olympic Truce increases, short-term peace increases. As short term peace increases, long-term peace increases.
     
    Methodology
    The methodology used to test this hypothesis is a case study of the 1998 Nagano Olympic Winter Games. Variables are observance of Olympic Truce as set forth in United Nations resolutions, the diplomatic intervention of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan and the resulting diplomatic resolution to the crisis in Iraq.
     
    Findings
    Olympic truce can move the world towards a culture of peace.
    Keywords: International Development, Olympic Studies, Olympic Truce, Ekecheiria, Sport for Development
    Ekecheiria Revival: Re-establishing the Ancient Olympic Truce in Modern-day Peacekeeping
    Presented by Cindy Burleson,
    to International Sport for Development and Peace Association POWER OF SPORT SUMMIT
    June 11, 2010, Boston
    Email: cindyburleson@hotmail.com
  • 5. What is the Olympic Truce?
    Where were people traveling from?
  • 6. Literature Review
    Since the 8th century B.C., the sacred Greek tradition of Ekecheiria, or the Olympic Truce, has called upon humanity to lay down its arms and work towards building peace, mutual respect, understanding and reconciliation so that the Games can take place in an environment free of conflict, where the rule of order allows for noble competition.
    Herodotus. (c. 484 BC–c. 425 BC). Histories.
    Crane, Gregory R. 1996. The Ancient Olympics: A Special Exhibit of the Perseus Digital Library Project: Tufts University. 2008.
    Thucydides. (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC) 1910. In The Peloponnesian War. London: J. M. Dent.
    References:
    Abrams, Harvey. The Olympic Truce - Myth and Reality. The Classics Technology Center 2000 [cited February 7, 2008. Available from http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/showcase/abrams1.html.
    Albright, Madeleine, and Bill Woodward. 2003. Madame Secretary. New York: Hyperion.
    Beacom, Aaron. 2000. Sport in International Relations: A Case for Cross-Disciplinary Investigation. The Sports Historian (became Sport in History in 2003) 20 (2):1-23.
    Cornell, T. J. 2002. On War and Games in the Ancient World. The Global Nexus Engaged:29-40.
    Crane, Gregory R. 1996. The Ancient Olympics: A Special Exhibit of the Perseus Digital Library Project: Tufts University.
    ———. 2008. Perseus Digital Library Project: Tufts University.
    Der, Bob. 1995. Stop the Killing! Sports Illustrated for Kids, May 1995, 1.
    Development, International Platform on Sport and. 2008. Sport & Development 2008 [cited April 10, 2008 2008]. Available from http://www.sportanddev.org.
    Herodotus. (c. 484 BC–c. 425 BC). Histories.
    Hoberman, John. 1995. Toward a Theory of Olympic Internationalism. Journal of Sport History 22 (1):1-37.
    Houlihan, Barrie. 1994. Sport and International Politics. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Kidane, Fékrou. 1999. Sport and Politics: Diplomacy of an Olympic Truce. Olympic Reveiw (August-September):48-53.
    Kyodo, News. 2008. Samaranch labels Nagano Olympics 'best organized'. The Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, February 22, 1998 1998 [cited April 10, 2008 2008]. Available from http://www.shinmai.co.jp/oly-eng/19980222/0006.htm.
    Longman, Jere. 1998. Olympics: Nagano 1998; I.O.C. Ask White House to HOnor Peace Pledge. The New York Times, February 4, 1998, 1.
    Press, Associated. Tradition, future clash as Nagano Games open. CNN/SI 1998 [cited. Available from http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/olympics/events/1998/nagano/news/1998/02/07/roundup/.
    Rocke, Jennifer. The Time Line Project 1996 [cited. Available from www.youth.net/olympic/timeline.events.html.
    Thomas, Anthony. 2004. The Real Olympics. Hollywood: Public Broadcasting Service.
    Thucydides. 1910. In The Peloponnesian War. London: J. M. Dent.
    UN. Resolution 687, United Nations Special Commission. The United Nations 1991 [cited April 10, 2008. Available from http://www.un.org/Depts/unscom/unscom.htm.
    ———. 1997. General Assembly Urges 'Olympic Truce' During Winter Games in Nagano, Japan, edited by C. o. t. World: The United Nations.
    ———. 1998. The Olympic Truce. UN Chronicle 35 (1):63.
    Wassong, Stephan. 2002. Pierre de Coubertin's American Studies and Their Importance for the Analysis of His Early Educational Campaign, originally published as Pierre de Coubertins US-amerikanische Studien und ihre Bedeutung für die Analyse seiner frühen Erziehungskampagne © ERGON Verlag, Würzburg, Germany 2002. Würzburg, Germany: ERGON Verlag.
    Wels, Susan. 1995. The Olympic Spirit: 100 Years of the Games. San Francisco: Collins Publishers.
    Yamaguchi, Ko. Outline of the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1997 [cited. Available from http://www.mofa.go.jp/j_info/japan/opinion/yamaguchi.html.
    The Sport for Development movement can benefit from the temporary peace-keeping practice of Olympic Truce. The idea of countries setting aside differences and laying down weapons for the period of time it takes to participate in the Games can be applied beyond its current scope to improve international relations and achieve longer periods of peace.
    International Platform on Sport and Development. 2008. Sport & Development 2008. Available from http://www.sportanddev.org
    Houlihan, Barrie. 1994. Sport and International Politics. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
  • 7. Case Study
    Winter Olympics 98                                                 Japan pleads for no military action during games
    Japan is hoping the games will not be overshadowed by international conflict
    Japan's Foreign Minister has asked the United States to refrain from taking any military action against Iraq during the Winter Olympic Games. Foreign Minister Keizo Obuchi expressed Japan's concern about the possible outbreak of hostilities during the games in a late Friday evening phone conversation with US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, according to a statement released by the Japanese Foreign Ministry. Ms Albright said that she understood Japan's position, but asked for Japan's full support in backing a US-led effort to force Iraq to abide by a UN-directed weapons inspections, the statement said. Earlier Mr. Obuchi conveyed Japan's concerns to Britain and France. Japan wants its allies to respect a non-binding resolution the United Nations passed in November urging countries to avoid any hostilities with one another during the Olympics.
    IOC backing
    On Tuesday the International Olympic Committee asked the Clinton administration to hold fire during the Olympics, which end on February 22. And in Nagano, IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch expressed confidence that Washington would find a peaceful solution to the crisis with Iraq.
    On Saturday, at the opening ceremony he reiterated the message of peace in his speech. He appealed to the 185 member states of the United Nations to observe the Olympic truce and use diplomacy to solve conflicts.
    "The future of our society truly lies in our youth. Let us build together for them a peaceful and better world," he added.
    Tensions are growing between the Iraq and the international community over the issue of UN inspections.
    Military build-up
    The United States has been increasing the size of its military presence in the Gulf for a possible military attack on Iraq over its non-compliance with UN weapons inspections.
    President Bill Clinton has said no decision has been made to attack Iraq, but his defense secretary, William Cohen, said that the Olympics cannot figure in U.S. military planning.
    Iraq is not sending a delegation to the Nagano Games.  
    Source: British Public Broadcasting
  • 8. Findings
    The case study of the Nagano Olympic Winter Games provided the means to test the hypothesis, which was “Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations on a short-term basis, providing the conditions for longer-term peace to emerge.”
    The first part of they hypothesis held true, because in the case study as honoring Olympic Truce increased, short-term peace increased.
    However, the second part of the hypothesis dealing with longer term peace is less conclusive. Otherwise stated, this part of the hypothesis says that as short-term peace increases, long-term peace increases. Though the Olympic Truce was helpful in achieving a short-term peace, in the long-run the US has invaded Iraq twice.
    It can be assumed that since this case study met with varied results, other conflicts could ware out much better. A recommended view is that Olympic truce can move us towards a culture of peace.
    In addition to diplomatic relations in foreign affairs, principles of the Olympic Truce can be applied in the everyday lives of individuals. The International Olympic Truce Centre currently supports the view that a major objective of the Olympic Truce is to promote peaceful coexistence among all people. Observance of the Olympic Truce calls for individuals to awaken consciousness and leaders to act conscientiously. Working towards the observance of the Olympic Truce means to encourage contact between adversaries, make humanitarian efforts easier in conflict-torn regions and help youth of the world participate peacefully in healthy competition. Extending the achievements of the Olympic Truce is to create structure for continued dialogue both during the Games and beyond. In the end, the Olympic Truce provides the vision for citizens of the world to build a global Culture of Peace.
    HYPOTHESIS—Olympic Truce improves diplomatic relations on a short-term basis, providing the conditions for longer-term peace to emerge
    TRUE—as honoring Olympic Truce increased, short-term peace increased.
    FALSE—as short-term peace increases, long-term peace increases
    RECOMMENDED VIEW—Olympic truce can move us towards a culture of peace.
  • 9. The U.N. General Assembly has adopted an Olympic truce resolution for every Olympics since the early 1990s.
    Most recently the U.N. adopted an Olympic truce resolution for the 2008 Beijing Games that calls upon the 182 U.N. member states to observe and promote peace during and beyond the Games.
    In doing so it ignored assorted protest groups.
  • 10. During the Beijing Games, much protest surrounded China’s position with Tibet and colossal carbon footprints. Human rights advocates called upon the international community to denounce disgraceful human rights practices.
    Even so, amidst the conflict between Russia and Georgia, the Olympic Truce was called upon in an optimistic appeal for peace.
  • 11. “Olympic Truce in ancient days had the power to stop wars. In modern times, wars have the power to stop the Olympic Games.”
    Shall we revive Ekecheiria to the same statue it held in the ancient world ?
  • 12. Discussion
    Should future Olympic Truce Resolutions be binding instead of voluntary?
    To be binding, future Olympic Truce resolutions would have be introduced through the UN Security Council.
    Resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council are the only agreements the UN may enforce.
    Could the Truce be enforced?
    Enforcement need not be militaristic, rather enforcement could be symbolic.
    Further still, enforcement could generate development funds for underdeveloped countries.
  • 13. Olympic Truce ends three months after Games
  • 14. Diplomacy
    Through the International Olympic Truce Foundation, the IOC aims to:• Encourage political leaders to act in favor of peace• Organize conferences on sport and peace• Mobilize young people for the promotion of the Olympic ideals• Develop initiatives with other organizations specializing in the field of peace, including the United Nations• Develop educational and research programs to promote the Olympic Truce
     
    And more generally:• Create a window of opportunity for dialogue and reconciliation, separate from any religious, economic or political influence.
    © IOC
    Sport for development, peace and cohesion
    The first-ever International Forum on Sport, Peace and Development was held at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne on 7-8 May 2009.
     
    The Forum centered on how sport can contribute to development, peace and national cohesion, spanning six main themes:• The potential of sport in the search for peace and development • Promoting a culture of peace among young people• Sport for community and youth development• Promoting education and healthy lifestyles through sport• The Olympic Games: a legacy for education, development and peace• Capitalizing on partnerships and networking
  • 15. OLYMPIC ATHLETES CALL FOR
    OLYMPIC TRUCE IN DARFUR
    While there are no offi cial guidelines governing the
    Olympic Truce, precedent suggests that various parties can
    invoke it, including the Olympic host, the United Nations,
    and the IOC.
    In 2008, a new precedent was set: more than 100 athletes
    — an essential constituency of the Olympic movement —
    invoked the 2008 Olympic Truce for Darfur by co-signing
    a letter to the UN, the Olympic host, and the IOC. Th e
    letter is available at www.teamdarfur.org.
    CHINA’S CHOICE:
    OLYMPIC TRUCE OR
    “GENOCIDE OLYMPICS”?
    China’s glorifi cation of itself as Olympic host is hypocritical
    given its complicity in the Darfur crisis. Th e government
    of China has for the past five years been the most
    important supporter, economically and diplomatically,
    of the regime in Sudan, which is engaged in a genocidal
    campaign against its own citizens in the Darfur region.
    Khartoum sells 70 percent of its oil to China, whose stateowned
    oil companies own production facilities throughout
    Sudan. China sells Khartoum weapons that are used against
    civilians in Darfur. At the UN Security Council, China has
    exercised its power as a permanent, veto-wielding member
    to advocate on behalf of Khartoum.6
    Th e government of China faces a stark choice. Beijing can
    deliver on its “One world, one dream” promise as Olympic
    host, and on its professed concern for the people of Darfur
    — or, Beijing can choose to be recorded in history as the
    host of the 2008 “Genocide Olympics.”
    WHAT MUST HAPPEN
    To realize an Olympic Truce for Darfur, the Olympic
    host, joined by the other UN Security Council leaders,
    must demand that the Sudanese regime stop all ground
    and aerial assaults on civilians as of July 8, 2008, one
    month before the traditional Truce period. Th is will allow
    Khartoum — with its history of broken promises — to
    demonstrate its commitment to comply with the truce. It
    will also allow humanitarian workers to begin to access
    isolated areas in Darfur in a secure environment.
    Invoking, and more importantly, implementing the Olympic
    Truce could be the show of international political will
    needed to bring peace and security in Darfur.
    FULL REPORTS
    Available at www.dreamfordarfur.org/olympictruce
    Th e Olympic Truce: 55 D • ays of Peace — and More — for
    Darfur, Dream for Darfur’s full report.
    • History of the Olympic Truce, a report on the evolution
    of this diplomatic tool.
    To support the Olympic Truce: Individuals can add their
    names to the letter signed by athletes calling for the 2008
    Olympic Truce for Darfur. Take action at:
    www.teamdarfur.org/truce.
    ENDNOTES
    1 Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. UN adopts
    Olympic Truce Resolution (2007, November 1). Retrieved June 20,
    2008, from: http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_1250.pdf and
    http://en.beijing2008.cn/news/offi cial/ioc/n214187495.shtml.
    2 United Nations. (2005, March 11). Comment by Greek Ambassador to
    the UN AdamantiosVassilakis during discussion of UN Olympic Truce
    resolution in at the 43rd Plenary session of the UN General Assembly,
    2005. General Assembly Urges States to Observe Olympic Truce During
    Upcoming Winter Games in Italy (GA/10415). Retrieved June 20, 2008
    from: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/ga10415.doc.htm.
    3 International Olympic Committee. FACTSHEET: Olympic Truce,
    UPDATE – FEBRUARY 2007, 1-2. Retrieved June 16, 2008, from:
    http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_839.pdf.
    4 United Nations. (2000, September 19). United Nations Millennium
    Declaration - 2000 (A/RES/55/2). Retrieved June 20, 2008, from:
    http://www.olympictruce.org/html/para_10_resolution.html.
    5 Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Aff airs. (2008). Statement of World
    Personalities in their Individual Capacities in Support for the Olympic
    Truce. Retrieved June 20, 2008, from: http://old.mfa.gr/english/satelites/
    olympic_truce/statement.html.
    6 Human Rights Watch. Th e United Nations and Darfur. Retrieved June
    20, 2008, from: http://www.hrw.org/wr2k5/darfur/3.htm.
    Copyright 2008 / Dream for Darfur / www.dreamfordarfur.org
    Advocacy
  • 16. Corporate Involvement
    World’s Leading Travel Organizations Join IIPT and eTurboNews in Support ofOlympic Truce
    Several of the world’s leading travel organizations joined IIPT and eTurbo News this past month, together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the United Nations in a call for a cessation of conflict and all acts of violence in an observance of the Olympic Truce during the Vancouver Winter Olympics February 12 – 28.
    Since its revival in 1992, the Olympic Truce has provided a valuable window of opportunity to work towards the peaceful resolution of conflict. The Olympic Truce once again called upon humanity to lay down its weapons and to work towards building the foundations of peace, mutual respect, understanding and reconciliation.
    “Tourism and sport are two connected global phenomena capturing the imagination of the modern world. They also share the responsibility of representing the positive aspects of globalization through their common objectives - closer cultural understanding, peace between nations and sustainable development. Sports have become an important driver of today’s tourism growth. UNWTO is therefore committed to assist its members in building up critical complementary elements for the success of sporting events, ranging from image building and promotion to human resources development to seize the tourism opportunities of major sporting events.
    Dr TalebRifaiSecretary General, UN World Tourism Organization   
    "As so vividly shown in Haiti, mankind has no control over Nature's awesome and devastating power. But we can bring an end to wars, conflict, and acts of violence that bring about the unnecessary loss of human life" said Tom Nutley, Managing Director of The Travel Club in London and former Chairman of Reed Travel Exhibitions. "International travel and tourism is unique insofar as it brings people together from every corner of the globe andtogether we must cry out for 'world peace'. The Directors and I at The Travel Club are proud to support the IIPT, UN and IOC's call for the Olympic Truce during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. It is a time to enjoy the Games but also one to lay down arms and rebuild the foundations of peace, mutual respect, understanding and reconciliation."Tom Nutley
    “The essence of the travel & tourism industry is about cross border communication, understandingand cooperation. The essence of life is clean, safe water and without both of these there is conflict, violence and war tearing countries and communities apart leaving behind thousands unnecessarily dead and even more disabled" said Fiona Jeffery, Chairman of World Travel and Founder and Chairman of Just a Drop and Market." We are proud to support IIPT and their call for an Olympic Truce has our total backing."
    Fiona Jeffrey
    “PATA would be delighted to support the Olympic Truce movement.”
    Gregory DuffellChief Executive OfficerPacific Asia Travel Association (PATA)
     
    Gregory Duffell
    About IIPT
    The International Institute for Peace through Tourism (IIPT) is a not for profit organization dedicated to fostering travel and tourism initiatives that contribute to international understanding and cooperation, an improved quality of environment, the preservation of heritage, and poverty reduction; and through these initiatives, helping to bring about a peaceful and sustainable world.  It is founded on a vision of the world’s largest industry, travel and tourism – becoming the world’s first global peace industry; and the belief that every traveler is potentially an “Ambassador for Peace.”
    For more information:IIPT Website: http://www.iipt.org/Tel: (802) 253-2658Fax: (802) 253-2645 Email: mailto:Africa@iipt.org
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Ekecheiria Revival: Re-establishing the Ancient Olympic Truce in Modern-day Peacekeeping
    Presented by Cindy Burleson,
    to International Sport for Development and Peace Association POWER OF SPORT SUMMIT
    June 11, 2010, Boston
    Email: cindyburleson@hotmail.com

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