Steve Winkley, Technical Support Manager, Water Flow Products    AquaProbe Training    October 2011© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012...
AquaProbe© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 2
AquaProbe Service TrainingBasic Concept                            Insertion Type Flowmeter                            R...
AquaProbe Service TrainingSpecification    Suitable            for pipe diameters from    200mm to 8000mm    Accuracy±2%...
AquaProbe Service TrainingPricing                                 20   Fullbore / Probe Cost Ratio                        ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingCalibration                         ALL AquaProbes are                         Wet Tested      ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingHot Tap Capability                         1. Fit boss or tapping     1   4                     ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInsertion in Smaller Pipes                         1.   Measure the pipe                        ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInsertion in Larger Pipes                         1.    Measure the pipe internal               ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingAlignment of Sensor Head                                                   Handlebars           ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingSafe Withdrawl of the Probe – Restraining Clamp                          AquaProbe incorporates ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingTypical Applications                             Permanent                                  Ne...
AquaProbe Service TrainingChoice of Electronic Transmitters                             AquaMaster (AquaProbe II)        ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation Conditions                             Upstream pipe                              ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation Conditions - Upstream Straight pipe   Extract from ISO 7145                        ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation Conditions – Probe Alignment                             Alignment of             ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Measurement of Pipe Internal Diameter                             Measurement of...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation –Pipe Must Remain Full for Good Accuracy                          The pipe MUST BEp...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile                             For a Fullb...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile                             Flow Profil...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile                          Imagine a slice...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile                          Finally,takehow...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile            Fully Developed Turbulent Flo...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile            Fully Developed Turbulent Flo...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow ProfileFlow Profile through a T-Piece           ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile                                         ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile                          Click on the pi...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor                           The ‘Profile Fact...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor                                             ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor                                             ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor                                        Profi...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor                           The ‘Insertion ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor                          Cross Sectional A...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor       With no                      Graph ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor             Cross Sectional Area Blockage ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit                          Free Download from…   ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit                          Select ‘AquaProbe’ men...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit                          Input pipe            ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit                          Select                ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit                          Select                ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit                          Use these             ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity                          The maximum allowed flow                      ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity                                                                        ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity                          Effective Insertion Length (in Inches)        ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity                           If the maximum allowed                      ...
AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding                           The bending or damage to                          the...
AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding                          Any bluff (non-                          streamlined) b...
AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding       Flow Direction       AquaProbe tip                          Click on the p...
AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding                             An example of                             Vortex she...
AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding                             An example of                             Vortex she...
AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding                          This effect is not normally a                          ...
© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 52
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Aqua probe

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  • The basic concept of AquaProbe is to provide a portable flow metering system with all the benefits of Electromagnetic flowmeters The probe is inserted through a 1” BSP tapping (or 1.5” & NPT options) The probe can be hot-tapped, (fitted into a live pressurised water main without draining the pipe or shutting off the flow). More about this later Although it will never compare to the accuracy of a full bore sensor the AquaProbe offers very good accuracy over a wide flow range Probe price is virtually independent of pipe size. And the unit can be installed in either permanent or temporary installations. For example, temporary installation; to check a full bore meter at the same location. Permanent installation; in a large and inaccesible pipe where installing a full bore meter would be VERY expensive Like all electromagnetic flowmeters, there are no moving parts. So nothing to wear out and very high reliability of the measurement Available in 2 versions AquaProbe 1=magmaster 2=aquamaster txm
  • AquaProbe can be installed in pipe sizes from 200mm upwards, it is not suitable for smaller pipes as the mathematics used to calculate the average flow rate from the point measurement of the probe do not work correctly at this small size Accuracy of measurement is +/-2% of measured point velocity (note this is not +/-2% of flow) Volume flow accuracy refers to ISO (International Standards Organisation) standard 7145. This gives straight pipe requirements for a probe installation, more on this later Probe is bi-directional measurement can be in either direction Only for use on clean water as dirty water particles will make the flow signal noisy and foul the electrodes on the tip Accuracy is a partnership between us ABB (+/-2% velocity from cal rigs) and customer (how it is installed and correct programming of txm)
  • Basically as the pipe size increases the aquaprobe becomes much cheaper relative to a line-size magmeter
  • All probes are calibrated on wet test rigs @ Stonehouse
  • Hot tapping of probe is possible This involves a hot tap drill set (not supplied by us) This is a drill enclosed in a waterproof shell (drill shaft is sealed by an o-ring, the exposed shaft can then be attached to suitable hand-drill etc) Boss is welded onto sealed pipe, no hole is made in the pipe yet Fit a valve onto the boss Screw on the enclosed waterproof hot tap drill set Open the valve Insert drill and drill main pipeline. Water is contained inside the shell i.e. it doesn’t leak Pull back the drill Close the valve Unscrew the hot tap enclosure from the valve You now have a tapping to install the probe without ever shutting off or draining down the main line
  • A ‘smaller pipe’ is one where the probe tip can be inserted to touch the far wall of the pipe Follow the above procedure where the insertion length of the probe is long enough to be able to insert all the way to the far wall Basic procedure is to measure pipe ID, insert all the way until touching the far wall Then withdraw the probe Half the pipe diameter minus 30mm [The 30mm offset is required because the electrodes are 30mm from the tip of the probe]
  • A ‘larger pipe’ is one where the pipe is too big to insert all the way to the far wall Procedure is similar to smaller pipes, but this time we have to insert from the near wall by the tapping Basic procedure is to measure pipe ID With valve shut and probe NOT installed, measure distance from the shut face of the valve to the top of the inside of the pipe (it might be necessary to estimate the pipe thickness) Now install the probe and with the valve still shut, insert until the tip touches the face of the valve (where you measured from earlier) Now measure and insert the probe Distance measured from valve face to inside wall of pipe + half pipe daimeter + 30mm This time because we are inserting during installation (rather than withdrawing for smaller pipes) we have to add the 30mm electrode offset, instead of taking it away
  • The probe alignment is critical Ensure the AquaProbe ‘handlebars’ are aligned with the pipe axis (direction of flow) This places the measurement electrodes perpendicular to the flow direction (just like in a full bore sensor)
  • The safety lock mechanism on AquaProbe stops the probe shaft from shooting rapidly out of the line when the locknut is loosened It should always be applied and the allen bolt on the part adjacent to the probe shaft tightened before slackening the lock nut This stops people from Breaking teeth of having eyes gouged by the probe terminal box or handle bars firing into their face For Health & Safety this is very important requirement
  • Typical installations for AquaProbe; Permanent To survey network of large pipes in many locations Monitor leaks in large pipes DMA district metering areas Instead of a very large magmeter (cheaper) Temporary Survey a network of pipes by moving the probe in different locations Profile a pipe, use the probe as a velocity measurement probe to visualise the speed of flow in different area of a pipe To investigate how water is distributed around a network of pipes. Does more water go this way or that way? Checking the performance of a fullbore flowmeter in the same location
  • Like full bore meters there is a choice of electronics AquaProbe 1 – works with magmaster electronics has a 4-20mA output can be mains powered 100Vac or 230 Vac AquaProbe 2 – works with AquaMaster electronics only has pulsed output and can be mains or BATTERY powered AquaProbe 1 CANNOT be converted to AquaProbe 2 This is because the magnet coil used in the 2 types are different and not compatible
  • AquaProbe is more difficult to install properly than a fullbore sensor It requires much more straight pipe and must be installed directly and precisely onto the pipe centreline for a good measurement Poor installation can be tolerated by profiling the pipe and calculating installation specific adjustment factors Measurement of exact pipe ID is ALWAYS IMPORTANT Location of the probe is ALWAYS IMPORTANT
  • This is an extract from the International Standards Organisation ISO7145 It shows how much straight pipe should be used for an aquaprobe (or other insertion device) after certain types of distrurbances So after a Butterfly valve for example if the probe is installed on the centreline it must be more than 25 diameters after the valve. However if the probe is installed on the mean point (1/8 th or 7/8 th insertion) it must be more than 45 pipe diameters after the valve The preferred installation is on the centreline. More about the 1/8 th and 7/8 th installation later
  • Alignment of the probe tapping is important otherwise as the probe is inserted it will not pass through the pipe centreline Programming the electronics with the correct FACTORS is crucial otherwise the point measurement is not corrected into the average flow inside the pipe This is true for ANY insertion probe or device
  • Measurement of the pipe ID (internal diameter) is also very important In the example above, it shows how an error in measuring the pipe internal diameter of 1% (7mm out of 700mm) will give an error in the reading of 2% This is because the error is doubled when the transmitter uses the programmed pipe size to calculate the CSA (cross sectional area) of the pipe [pi * r^2]
  • For the profile calculations to work correctly the pipe MUST be full Any area of the pipe which is not full of water WILL give an error in the measurement e.g. if part of the top of the pipe is full of air
  • A probe can only ever give a point measurement inside a particular area of the pipe A fullbore sensor does a much better job of ‘averaging’ the signal across the whole of the pipe CSA This is part of the reason why it is SO important to know the condition of the flow inside the pipe. To know the ‘flow profile’ Knowing the flow profile allows the probe to accurately calculate to average flow from the measured point velocity of the probe tip
  • The profile inside the pipe is usually known because the user has installed the probe with the correct number of straight pipe diameters upstream (as per ISO 7145) Or the probe has been used as a tool (with ABB profiling software) to establish the profile by measurement in different areas across the pipe Either way, the correction factors which are calculated MUST be programmed into the electronics along with the exact pipe ID to ensure an accurate measurement This is true for any insertion device
  • This slide tries to depict a typical flow profile If you could visualise how fast the water was travelling inside the pipe in different areas of the pipe Near the pipe walls (all around the pipe walls, not just top to bottom as shown on the slide) the friction against the pipe wall and the thickness or viscosity of the water slows the flow to a crawl Then the flow speed or velocity increases rapidly as you move away from the pipe wall toward the centre of the pie The flow is moving fastest in the centre of the pipe, and around this central area of the pipe, the variations in the speed of flow are quite small
  • To show a flow profile (the distribution or spread of how fast the water is moving in different areas of the pipe) We create a graph. Using vectors (the arrows) to show the direction and speed of flow of the water in different areas of the pipe We then ‘join the dots’ or join the heads of the arrows to create the red line which is the flow profile The shape of the red line shows a typical ‘Fully Developed Turbulent Profile’ This type of profile is found in straight pipes after many pipe diameters (as per ISO 7145). To ‘condition’ the profile to this shape is why we require so many straight pipe diameters before the probe Knowing the shape of the profile, knowing how the flow is distributed across different areas of the pipe allows us to mathematically calculate the average flow inside the pipe from the point measurement of the probe with high precision
  • This graph shows a typical fully developed turbulent flow profile for an average flow velocity of 1.722 m/s Note: The highest flow velocity is actually 2.00 m/s @ the centreline Also note around the centreline, the value is fairly constant (marked ‘flat part of the curve’). This is why installation onto the centreline is preferred. Because if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct centreline location the reading will still be very accurate The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installation locations are also possible. These installations are chosen because 1/8 th and 7/8 th of the way across the pipe is where the profile velocity is already at the average value. On the diagram above, 1/8 th and 7/8 th insertions are located where the dotted line showing the average flow (1.722m/s) crosses the blue curved line showing the flow profile The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installations are not preferred because the velocity around these locations is changing rapidly (marked ‘rapidly changing velocities’). Therefore if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct 1/8 th or 7/8 th location the reading may be too large or too small
  • This graph shows a typical fully developed turbulent flow profile for an average flow velocity of 1.722 m/s Note: The highest flow velocity is actually 2.00 m/s @ the centreline Also note around the centreline, the value is fairly constant (marked ‘stable velocity’). This is why installation onto the centreline is preferred. Because if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct centreline location, the reading will still be very accurate The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installation locations are also possible. These installations are chosen because 1/8 th and 7/8 th of the way across the pipe is where the profile velocity is already at the average value. The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installations are not preferred because the velocity around these locations is changing rapidly (marked ‘rapidly changing velocity’). Therefore if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct 1/8 th or 7/8 th location, the reading may be too large or too small
  • Here we can see the effect that a simple and common piece of pipework will have on the flow profile The diagram above shows a cross-section through a t-piece The flow enters from the bottom and turns through 90 Deg clockwise exiting on the right hand side of the screen Before reaching the t-piece the flow had travelled through 50 diameters of straight unobstructed pipe and the flow profile was the classic fully developed turbulent shape we have discussed After exiting the t-piece, the profile is badly distorted. Most of the flow is pushed to the outside of the bend because of the weight and movement of the water (the inertia of the water) The sharp edge of the t-piece produces a swirling vortex on the inside corner of the exit leg. In this area close to the near wall of the pipe, the flow is actually moving backwards. In this example, if the probe was inserted from the top of the pipe vertically at 1/8 th , centreline and 7/8 th installations the answers would be VERY different. And in the case of the 7/8 th installation perhaps even in the wrong direction!!
  • This slide shows the distortion to the profile produced by a simple swept 90 deg bend Again the flow is entering from the bottom of the screen and exiting from the right hand side at the top On the vertical entry leg you can see how the highest flow is evenly spread in the middle of the pipe. However on the exit bend the highest flow has been ‘pushed’ to the outside of the exit of the bend. This distortion continues for quite some distance, perhaps 25 diameters. Again showing why an AquaProbe needs these long lengths of straight pipe upstream of the tapping location
  • This movie shows the distortion to the flow profile from 2off 90 deg bends out of plane with each other. i.e the entry and exit legs are both horizontal but are not parallel with each other (if the 2 bends were parallel the pipework would form a u-bend or an partial s-shape) This arrangement of pipework produces ‘swirl’, where the flow inside the pipe is swirling around the axis of the flow direction e.g. the flow in the top exit leg will be rotating around the pipe as it flows along Because straight pipes have nothing to stop the ‘swirl’ this is a bad thing to put close to an aquaprobe installation Before entering the first bend the flow has passed through >50 diameters of straight pipe and is again in the classic fully developed turbulent shape The ‘white blob’ which you can see pass along the pipe work represents the shape of the profile, you can see how this distorts as its moves around the bends. The coloured chart shows the axial velocity it the area of the pipe shown by the progress of the white blob. Notice how this starts off very evenly distributed with a peak (purple) in the middle reducing evenly and rapidly near the walls of the pipe (as discussed earlier. The chart marked ‘Crossflow Velocity’ shows the swirl inside the pipe represented by black arrows, this is most noticeable after the exit of the 2 nd bend, where even on the coloured axial velocity chart the clockwise rotation of the flow is noticeable. After 5 pipe diameters from the 2 nd bend the flow is fairly well distributed and a full-bore magmeter would produce a good reading from this. However a probe requires more straight pipe as it does not average across the whole area of the pipe, probe is only a point measurement
  • The first of the 2 ‘correction factors’ for AquaProbe is the profile factor This factor is used to turn the point velocity measured by the probe into the average velocity in the pipe Remembering the fully developed turbulent profile shape, we know that if we measure the velocity at the pipe centreline this will be higher than the average (from our example before, centreline = 2.00m/s, average = 1.722 m/s) Multiplying the measured point velocity flow by the profile factor produces the average flow velocity within the whole pipe. Provided the profile is fully developed turbulent. The exact value of the profile factor will vary with pipe size, but is usually around 0.85 e.g. Peak velocity * Profile factor = Average Flow velocity 2.00m/s * 0.85 = Approx 1.722 m/s On the 1/8 th or 7/8 th insertion points the measured point velocity is already the average value (remember the actual velocity and average values cross at 1/8 and 7/8 of the way across the pipe). Therefore here no adjustment for the profile factor is required and a value of 1.0000 is used
  • This graph shows a typical fully developed turbulent flow profile for an average flow velocity of 1.722 m/s Note: The highest flow velocity is actually 2.00 m/s @ the centreline Also note around the centreline, the value is fairly constant. This is why installation onto the centreline is preferred. Because if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct centreline location the reading will still be very accurate The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installation locations are also possible. These installations are chosen because 1/8 th and 7/8 th of the way across the pipe is where the profile velocity is already at the average value. On the diagram above, 1/8 th and 7/8 th insertions are located where the dotted line showing the average flow (1.722m/s) crosses the blue curved line showing the flow profile The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installations are not preferred because the velocity around these locations is changing rapidly (marked ‘rapidly changing velocities’). Therefore if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct 1/8 th or 7/8 th location the reading may be too large or too small
  • This graph shows a typical fully developed turbulent flow profile for an average flow velocity of 1.722 m/s Note: The highest flow velocity is actually 2.00 m/s @ the centreline Also note around the centreline, the value is fairly constant This is why installation onto the centreline is preferred. Because if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct centreline location the reading will still be very accurate The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installation locations are also possible. These installations are chosen because 1/8 th and 7/8 th of the way across the pipe is where the profile velocity is already at the average value. On the diagram above, 1/8 th and 7/8 th insertions are located where the dotted line showing the average flow (1.722m/s) crosses the blue curved line showing the flow profile The 1/8 th and 7/8 th installations are not preferred because the velocity around these locations is changing rapidly (marked ‘rapidly changing velocities’). Therefore if the probe is installed +/- 5 or 10mm from the correct 1/8 th or 7/8 th location the reading may be too large or too small
  • This graph shows the variation of the profile factor Fp with pipe internal diameter These Fp values are for insertion of the probe on the pipe centreline For 1/8 th and 7/8 th insertion, Fp value is 1.0000 as discussed before
  • The first of the 2 ‘correction factors’ for AquaProbe is the profile factor This factor is used to turn the point velocity measured by the probe into the average velocity in the pipe Remembering the fully developed turbulent profile shape, we know that if we measure the velocity at the pipe centreline this will be higher than the average (from our example before, centreline = 2.00m/s, average = 1.722 m/s) Multiplying the measured point velocity flow by the profile factor produces the average flow velocity within the whole pipe. Provided the profile is fully developed turbulent. The exact value of the profile factor will vary with pipe size, but is usually around 0.85 e.g. Peak velocity * Profile factor = Average Flow velocity 2.00m/s * 0.85 = Approx 1.722 m/s On the 1/8 th or 7/8 th insertion points the measured point velocity is already the average value (remember the actual velocity and average values cross at 1/8 and 7/8 of the way across the pipe). Therefore here no adjustment for the profile factor is required and a value of 1.0000 is used
  • For 1/8 th insertion the probe does not block much of the pipe CSA therefore the dominant effect is the distortion to the profile causing the probe to read too low, therefore the insertion factor must be >1 to compensate for this For Centreline insertion the 2 effects are fairly equal and nearly cancel each other out. Therefore the insertion factor is approx equal to 1 For 7/8 th insertion the probe blocks a large amount of the pipe CSA and this becomes the dominant effect, making the probe read too high, therefore the insertion factor must be <1 to compensate for this
  • Diagram showing the distortion to the shape of the profile due to the presence of the shaft of the probe itself
  • For 1/8 th insertion the probe does not block much of the pipe CSA therefore the dominant effect is the distortion to the profile causing the probe to read too low, therefore the insertion factor must be >1 to compensate for this For Centreline insertion the 2 effects are fairly equal and nearly cancel each other out. Therefore the insertion factor is approx equal to 1 For 7/8 th insertion the probe blocks a large amount of the pipe CSA and this becomes the dominant effect, making the probe read too high, therefore the insertion factor must be <1 to compensate for this
  • Toolkit software used for calculating Fi and Fp values for customers pipe size
  • Toolkit software used for calculating Fi and Fp values for customers pipe size
  • Toolkit software used for calculating Fi and Fp values for customers pipe size
  • Toolkit software used for calculating Fi and Fp values for customers pipe size
  • Toolkit software used for calculating Fi and Fp values for customers pipe size
  • Toolkit software used for calculating Fi and Fp values for customers pipe size
  • Due to limited thickness of the probe shaft (approx 20mm). There are limits to maximum flow velocity The maximum allowed flow velocity is 5m/s However this figure is reduced for longer insertion lengths, because the longer lengths of probe shaft are exposed to the force of the oncoming flow, if the force is high enough it can even bend the probe shaft! If the peak flow velocity is too high for a centreline insertion, then the 1/8 th insertion must be used. The shorter length of probe inserted into the pipe will then allow a higher maximum flow velocity See the table in the manual and datasheet for a chart of maximum flow velocity v insertion length
  • The maximum velocity depends on the total length of the AquaProbe shaft which is unsupported This is the insertion length + height of tapping + height of valve + 130mm of the AquaProbe body itself [The internal clamp of the AquaProbe shaft is approx 130mm from the tip of the thread which screws into the valve]
  • Maximum velocity v effective insertion length
  • Due to limited thickness of the probe shaft (approx 20mm). There are limits to maximum flow velocity The maximum allowed flow velocity is 5m/s However this figure is reduced for longer insertion lengths, because the longer lengths of probe shaft are exposed to the force of the oncoming flow, if the force is high enough it can even bend the probe shaft! If the peak flow velocity is too high for a centreline insertion, then the 1/8 th insertion must be used. The shorter length of probe inserted into the pipe will then allow a higher maximum flow velocity See the table in the manual and datasheet for a chart of maximum flow velocity v insertion length
  • Due to limited thickness of the probe shaft (approx 20mm). There are limits to maximum flow velocity The maximum allowed flow velocity is 5m/s However this figure is reduced for longer insertion lengths, because the longer lengths of probe shaft are exposed to the force of the oncoming flow, if the force is high enough it can even bend the probe shaft! If the peak flow velocity is too high for a centreline insertion, then the 1/8 th insertion must be used. The shorter length of probe inserted into the pipe will then allow a higher maximum flow velocity See the table in the manual and datasheet for a chart of maximum flow velocity v insertion length
  • Any non-streamlined shape (including the shaft of an AquaProbe) placed into a flowing medium will produce vortices which swirl in an alternating pattern from either side of the body These vortices produce low and high pressure areas on either side of the body, which will pull or sway it from side to side ABB Manufacture a flow meter based on this principle, TrioWirl Vortex FV4000
  • The movie above shows how the vortices are shed as water flows past the probe tip The white shape represents the tip of the shaft of the probe The vortices are coloured green if shed from the left of the probe shaft, red if shed from the right of the shaft (looking in the direction of the flow) You can see how the vortices alternate from either side of the probe shaft, producing alternating low pressure (and on the opposite side high pressure) areas. This alternating pressure will swing the probe shaft very slightly from side to side If this vortex vibration frequency approaches the resonant frequency of the aquaprobe shaft, then resonant feedback will occur and the vibration will become much worse!
  • The picture above shows an example of these vortices on a very large scale This is a picture of an island in the middle of a large ocean, the wind (flowing from the bottom of the screen to the top) flowing around the non streamlined shape of the island produces the vortex shedding effect on the downwind/downstream side
  • Again, wind flowing from bottom to top This time the swirling vortices are much clearer
  • As long as the vortex shedding frequency is not the same as the fundamental resonant frequency of the probe shaft this vortex shedding will not produce any problems The fundamental frequency of the probe shaft is the frequency the shaft would vibrate at if it were plucked like a guitar string. Or flicked like a ruler on the edge of a desk Obviously the longer the inserted length of the probe shaft, the lower the fundamental frequency becomes When these 2 frequencies ARE the same the swaying movement or vibration will become much worse due to feedback effects At the least this will cause the flow measurement signal to become very erratic or noisy. In the worst cases this vibration can cause damage to the probe shaft or tip as shown above!
  • Aqua probe

    1. 1. Steve Winkley, Technical Support Manager, Water Flow Products AquaProbe Training October 2011© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 1
    2. 2. AquaProbe© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 2
    3. 3. AquaProbe Service TrainingBasic Concept  Insertion Type Flowmeter  Rugged & Robust Construction  ‘Hot Tap’ Capability Good Accuracy over Wide Flow Range Price Virtually Independent of Pipe Size Suitable for Permanent or Temporary Installations No Moving Parts – High Reliability Choice of Transmitters and Power Supply Options© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 3
    4. 4. AquaProbe Service TrainingSpecification Suitable for pipe diameters from 200mm to 8000mm Accuracy±2% (or ±2mm/sec) of Measured Velocity Accuracy % Volume Flow Accuracy – Refer to ISO 7145 - 1982 2 -2 Bi-Directional For Clean Water Only 0.02 0.1 5 OVERALLACCURACY IS A Flow Velocity m/s PARTNERSHIP© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 4
    5. 5. AquaProbe Service TrainingPricing 20 Fullbore / Probe Cost Ratio 15 10 5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Line Size (mm)© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 5
    6. 6. AquaProbe Service TrainingCalibration ALL AquaProbes are Wet Tested CalibrationRigs Accredited to National Standards Actual 700mm probe calibration +3 +2 Proven Performance +1 % Accuracy 0 -1 -2 -3 0 1 2 3 Velocity m/s© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 6
    7. 7. AquaProbe Service TrainingHot Tap Capability 1. Fit boss or tapping 1 4 to pipeline 2 2. Fit isolating valve 3. Drill using ‘Hot-tap’ 3 drill set 4. Fit AquaProbe to pipe line© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 7
    8. 8. AquaProbe Service TrainingInsertion in Smaller Pipes 1. Measure the pipe internal diameter 2. Open Valve 3. Slacken Lock Nut 4. Fully insert probe to far pipe wall 5. Slide positioning collar down and lock in place 6. Fully retract probe 7. Unlock collar and move [ID / 2] – 30 mm. Re-lock in place 8. Insert probe to collar position 9. Tighten Lock Nut© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 8
    9. 9. AquaProbe Service TrainingInsertion in Larger Pipes 1. Measure the pipe internal diameter 2. Measure to top of valve plate 3. Slacken Lock Nut 4. Insert probe to touch valve plate 5. Slide positioning collar down and lock in place 6. Fully retract probe 7. Unlock collar & move [ID/2] + Valve Plate offset + pipe thickness + 30 mm 8. Re-lock collar 9. Insert probe to collar position 10. Tighten Lock Nut© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 9
    10. 10. AquaProbe Service TrainingAlignment of Sensor Head Handlebars Ensure the AquaProbe ‘Handlebars’ are aligned with the flow direction Flow Direction This places the sensor electrode axis perpendicular to the flow direction axis Electrode Axis© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 10
    11. 11. AquaProbe Service TrainingSafe Withdrawl of the Probe – Restraining Clamp AquaProbe incorporates a safety clamp which enables the operator to withdraw the device from the line (while pressurised) without fear of injury When the lock nut is released, a pressurised main can propel the probe shaft outwards at high speed. The clamp restricts the travel of the probe shaft, enabling safe withdrawal from the line© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 11
    12. 12. AquaProbe Service TrainingTypical Applications  Permanent  Network Management  Leakage Monitoring  District Metering  Temporary Installations  Surveys  Profiling  Distribution Investigation  Checking in-situ fullbore flowmeters© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 12
    13. 13. AquaProbe Service TrainingChoice of Electronic Transmitters  AquaMaster (AquaProbe II)  Submersible locations  Mains or battery operation  Local indication  Pulse output  MagMaster (AquaProbe I)  First choice for all other applications  Local indication  Pulse & mA outputs© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 13
    14. 14. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation Conditions  Upstream pipe conditions need to be good  25 to 50 diameters (Ref ISO7145)  Poor conditions can be tolerated by the use of ‘flow profiling’  Measurement of pipe diameter CRITICAL  Location of AquaProbe is important© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 14
    15. 15. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation Conditions - Upstream Straight pipe Extract from ISO 7145 Min Upstream Straight Length Expressed as Multiples of Diameter Mean Point Centre Line 90 Elbow or ‘T’ 50 25 Several 90 Bends (Coplanar) 50 25 Several 90 Bends (Not Coplanar) 80 50 Cone 18 - 36 deg 30 10 Diffuser 14 - 28 deg 55 25 Fully Open Butterfly Valve 45 25 Fully open Plug Valve 30 15© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 15
    16. 16. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation Conditions – Probe Alignment  Alignment of probe is important )  Programming of ) transmitter is ) CRUCIAL  TRUE FOR ANY INSERTION PROBE ) )© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 16
    17. 17. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Measurement of Pipe Internal Diameter  Measurement of Pipe Internal Diameter is CRUCIAL to accuracy e.g. 700mm nominal pipe size Transmitter programmed as 700mm Actual diameter = 707mm (e.g. +1%) Area of 700mm pipe = 0.3848451 m2 Area of 707mm pipe = 0.3925805 m2 Error in reading = - 2% There are also secondary effects due to the variation 3.5 in Profile and Insertion mm factors between the actual and programmed pipe sizes© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 17
    18. 18. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation –Pipe Must Remain Full for Good Accuracy The pipe MUST BEpipe will cause all This area of empty KEPT FULL at times to ensure accurate measurement errors in the measurement© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 18
    19. 19. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile  For a Fullbore Sensor the velocity measurement is an average of the velocity across the whole CSA of the pipe in the plane of the electrodes  For AquaProbe the velocity is a POINT measurement  The flow velocity in the whole pipe is calculated from this point measurement therefore…  …the Flow profile MUST be known© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 19
    20. 20. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile  Flow Profile is known by; 25 – 50 Dia m eters  Virtue of the amount of upstream pipework Fully Developed Turbulent Flow Profile Mean Velocity Vector  Or Rapidly Changing Velocities Flat Part Of Curve  Profiling the pipe  TRUE FOR ANY 1.722 m/s INSERTION PROBE 2.00 m/s Max Velocity Vector© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 20
    21. 21. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile Imagine a slice through a straight section of water pipe… If you could ‘see’ the flow of the water you would notice that; The water at the walls of the pipe was hardly moving at all Moving away from the pipe wall the flow rapidly begins to get faster The water flowing through the centre section of the pipe is moving quickest© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 21
    22. 22. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile Finally,takehow Dots’ to water in a ‘profile’ of the flow within the second Then plot a section ofproduce that section travels over 1 pipeline First, ‘Join the far the the pipe The ‘profile’ shows the flow velocity distribution in different areas of the pipe The diagram above shows a typical ‘Fully Developed Turbulent Profile’. This shape is typical in long, straight, full pipes© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 22
    23. 23. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile Fully Developed Turbulent Flow Profile Mean Velocity Vector (@1/8th pipe ID) Maximum Velocity Vector (@ pipe centreline) Mean Velocity Vector (@7/8th pipe ID) 2.00 m/s 1.71 m/s 0.00 m/s Maximum Velocity = 2.00 m/s Mean Velocity = 1.71 m/s© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 23
    24. 24. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile Fully Developed Turbulent Flow Profile 1/8th Insertion point. Rapidly changing Velocity (prone to errors if insertion point is not exactly correct or installation has slightly less straight pipe) Centreline Insertion. Stable velocity, preferred point (errors are small if insertion point is not exactly correct or installation has slightly less straight pipe) 7/8th Insertion point. Rapidly changing Velocity (prone to errors if insertion point is not exactly correct or installation has slightly less straight pipe) 0.00 m/s© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 24
    25. 25. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow ProfileFlow Profile through a T-Piece Obviously placing any flowmeter within this area causes big problems Flow through a T piece produces a distorted profile with accelerated flow on the outside of the exit leg and even a re-circulation zone where the flow actually travels backward!© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 25
    26. 26. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile  This chart shows why such long upstream lengths are required for a point measurement device (like AquaProbe)  Uneven and ‘under developed’  The ‘fully turbulent profile developed at exit from bend turbulent profile’  Even and ‘fully is not properly established for developed’ small lengths of turbulent profile straight pipework at entry to bend© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 26
    27. 27. AquaProbe Service TrainingInstallation – Understanding Importance of Flow Profile Click on the picture below to view the movie© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 27
    28. 28. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor  The ‘Profile Factor’ is used to adjust the point velocity measured by the probe into….  The AVERAGE FLOW VELOCITY in the pipe© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 28
    29. 29. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor Centreline Insertion Measured Flow Velocity = 2.00 m/s x So we use the Profile Factor 0.8550 . But! The Average flow velocity = = 1.71 m/s 1.71 m/s  Profile Factor changes slightly with pipe size 2.00 m/s 0.00 m/s 1.71 m/s  Profile Factor can be precisely calculated for fully developed turbulent profile  Use ‘ABB Toolkit’ software for calculation© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 29
    30. 30. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor 1/8th Insertion (or 7/8ths Insertion) Measured Flow Velocity = 1.71 m/ s x So Profile Factor 1.0000 . Average flow velocity = = 1.71 m/s 1.71 m/s  For Fully Developed Turbulent Profile AND Mean 2.00 m/s 0.00 m/s 1.71 m/s Insertion Point, Profile Factor = 1.0000  No adjustment is needed  You are already measuring the average velocity!© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 30
    31. 31. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Profile Factor Profile Factor vs Pipe Size 0.875 0.87 0.865Profile Factor 0.86 0.855 0.85 0.845 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Pipe Size (mm)© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 31
    32. 32. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor  The ‘Insertion Factor’ is used to compensate for 2 effects;  1) The BLOCKAGE of part of the pipe area by the shaft of the AquaProbe itself 2)The DISTORTION that the probe shaft causes to the flow profile© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 32
    33. 33. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor Cross Sectional Area Blockage (increases flow velocity)  With no AquaProbe inserted the flow has the whole pipe cross section to pass through  When the AquaProbe is inserted it blocks part of the cross section of the pipe. The flow has less area to pass through. So for the same flow rate, the flow velocity increases© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 33
    34. 34. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor  With no Graph showing 3D AquaProbe plot of flow profile inserted, the velocity distribution flow profile is an even shape with AquaProbe Inserted on  However, with centreline the AquaProbe inserted the shaft of the probe distorts the profile shape. This decreases the measured velocity around the probe tip© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 34
    35. 35. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – Insertion Factor Cross Sectional Area Blockage Flow Profile Distortion (increases flow velocity) (decreases flow velocity around Profile probe)1 /8th C /L 7 /8th   For 7/8th insertion For Centreline Insertion 1/8  The CSA blockage is larger (small increase) small and is the dominant factor  The CSA blockage and Profile Distortion are fairly well (large increase) balanced  The profile distortion is Insertion  Therefore the adjusting relatively smalleris approx decrease) factor (larger decrease) larger (smaller dominant Factorand is the 1  Therefore the adjusting Insertion Factor is smaller/lowerthan 1 larger/higher than 1© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 35
    36. 36. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit Free Download from… www.abb.com/flow > Electromagnetic Flowmeters > Water & Waste Water > MagMaster > Software© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 36
    37. 37. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit Select ‘AquaProbe’ menu© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 37
    38. 38. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit Input pipe Internal Diameter (ID)© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 38
    39. 39. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit Select insertion point© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 39
    40. 40. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit Select transmitter type© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 40
    41. 41. AquaProbe Service TrainingProgramming Electronic Transmitter – ABB Toolkit Use these Values for configuration© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 41
    42. 42. AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity The maximum allowed flow velocity for AquaProbe sensors is 5m/s This maximum figure is reduced for longer insertion lengths Therefore very large pipes must have either; Low velocity Or Shorter insertion length (e.g. 1/8th insertion)© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 42
    43. 43. AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity 130mm Total Effective Insertion Length The insertion length must Valve be calculated from the Valve electrode centreline, to the Tapping point at which the Tapping AquaProbe shaft is clamped inside the probe Insertion Length body This ‘effective insertion length’ must include the height of;  The tapping  The isolating valve  An additional 130mm of the AquaProbe body© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 43
    44. 44. AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity Effective Insertion Length (in Inches) Effective Insertion Length (in mm)© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 44
    45. 45. AquaProbe Service TrainingMaximum Allowed Velocity  If the maximum allowed flow velocity for a particular ‘effective insertion length’ is exceeded; The flow reading will become ‘noisy’ There may be excessive vibration of the AquaProbe  The AquaProbe shaft may be bent! Causing irreparable damage© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 45
    46. 46. AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding  The bending or damage to the probe shaft is not usually caused by the force of the oncoming water The bending can be caused by the vibration of the probe shaft due to ‘vortex shedding’© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 46
    47. 47. AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding Any bluff (non- streamlined) body placed in a flowing medium will oscillate (vibrate) at the frequency vortices are shed from either side of the body ABB Manufacture a Flowmeter based on this principle Triowirl FV4000 - Vortex…© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 47
    48. 48. AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding Flow Direction AquaProbe tip Click on the picture above to view the movie© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 48
    49. 49. AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding An example of Vortex shedding Cloud formations downwind from an island© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 49
    50. 50. AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding An example of Vortex shedding Cloud formations downwind from an island© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 50
    51. 51. AquaProbe Service TrainingVortex Shedding This effect is not normally a problem, however... The vortex shedding frequency increases with flow velocity When the vortex shedding frequency coincides with the fundamental frequency of the probe shaft then the probe will resonate (vibration feedback) This vibration can cause noise on the measurement and in worse cases can cause damage/bending to the shaft of the probe!© ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 51
    52. 52. © ABB GroupJuly 6, 2012 | Slide 52

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