LTE-Advanced course - Additional materials from IS-Wireless Training


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Here are some additional materials from LTE-Advanced course delivered in September 2013 in Warsaw, Poland.

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LTE-Advanced course - Additional materials from IS-Wireless Training

  1. 1. LTE Advanced Additional Materials
  2. 2. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. • NGMN ( – Wireless operator consortium provides requirements on next generation networks – Identifies real needs from operators about what is necessary for OAM to optimize – Defines recommendations on SON & OAM Requirements • 3GPP ( – Standardization body for 2G/3G/LTE/LTE-Advanced – Defines a framework based on NGMN inputs to enable SON – Defines interfaces / messages / procedures to enable SON – Defines Use Cases for SON features – Defines common language (XML) and network management architecture (NMS) – Does not define algorithms • SOCRATES ( – Self-Optimisation and self-ConfiguRATion in wirelEss networkS – FP7 project to provide SON features (individual algorithms) – Jan 2008 to Dec 2010 – Worked closely with NGMN to get real needs from operators – Worked closely with 3GPP to define the algorithms within a framework – Developed algorithms for Self-Configuration, Self-Optimization, Self-Healing, X-Map Estimation – Provided requirements and framework for SON Coordination SON Introduction SON Background – Involved Parties
  3. 3. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. SON Introduction SON Within 3GPP Standardization SON targets / policies SON algorithms Settings, parameters Nodes and interfaces eNB, UE measurements SONFramework Standard / Operator Non-standard / Vendor dependent Standard Standard Standard Non-standard / Operator (counters / threshold / KPI) SON: set of Use Cases that govern the NW including: planning, setup & maintanence
  4. 4. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. SON Introduction Key Parts of SON Main areas of SONSON supporting functions
  5. 5. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. Supporting Function 3GPP Framework 3GPP Use Cases – Self-Configuration/Optimization/Healing Self-Optimization (SOpt) Self-Healing (SHeal)Self-Configuration (SConf) Drive Test Car Minimization of Drive Tests (MDT) Automated Neighbor Relation (ANR) Function Automated SW Management and Automatic Radio Configuration Automatic Configuration of PHY Cell ID Mobility Robustness Optimization (MRO) Mobility Load Balancing (MLB) RACH Optimization (RO) Energy Saving Management (ESM) Coverage and Capacity Optimization (CCO) Inter Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) Cell Outage Compensation (COC)
  6. 6. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. Rel. 9 SON Example: Automatic Neighbor Relation Establishment 2. Report: - Phy_CID =5 - strong signal 3. Report Global_CID Request: -Target Phy_CID=5 4. Read BCH 5. Report: -Global_CID = 19 Cell B Phy_CID=5 Global_CID=19 Cell A Phy_CID=3 Global_CID=17 6. Update NRT X2 7. Setup X2 interface eNB eNB Exploits UE measurements and reporting 8. Update neighbor cell list 1. Measure strong signal (PHY_CID = 5)
  7. 7. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. X2 Load Information Interference co-ordintation info between eNBs using the same frequency f f . . . . . . DL_PRB_0 DL_PRB_1 DL_PRB_60 UL_PRB_0 UL_PRB_1 UL_PRB_60 f UL_PRB_0 UL_PRB_1 Load Information message includes: UL Interference experience DL Interference experience UL interference overload Indication IE • UL_PRB_0, interf_lev = high • UL_PRB_1, interf_lev = medium • … • UL_PRB_60, interf_lev = low` UL High interference Indication IE • UL_PRB_0, high_interf_lev_sens = 1 • UL_PRB_1, high_interf_lev_sens = 1 • … • UL_PRB_60, high_interf_lev_sens = 0 I’ve got a cell edge user on UL_PRB_0 and 1. Please try to avoid scheduling your users on these PRBs. I hear your users at these levels. Relative Narrowband TxPower IE • DL_PRB_0, txPower < RNTPthres = 1 • DL_PRB_1, txPower < RNTPthres = 0 •… • DL_PRB_60, txPower < RNTPthres = 1 • RNTPthres itself I will exceed the power threshold in the DL on these DL_PRBs. Please take it into account while sheduling your users. I attached the threshold as well. Rel. 9 SON Interference Management eNB2eNB1 Sensitive PRB Not sensitive PRB
  8. 8. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. 3GPP Framework SON in 3GPP Releases Self-Configuration Self-Optimization Self-Healing Supporting Fcns Automatic Neighbor Relations Automatic SW mgmt Automatic Radio conf Automatic PCI allocation Rel. 8 Mobility Robustness Opt Mobility Load Balancing Energy Saving (Concept) RACH Opt (RO) Rel. 9 MRO Ext (IRAT) MLB Ext (IRAT) ES Coverage Capacity Opt 3G ANR (IRAT) Cell Outage Compens.Rel. 10 Minimization of Drive Test Rel. 11 ES Ext (IRAT) Coordination mgmt Rel. 12 Multivendor P&Play Centralized CCO Self-Configuration Self-Optimization Intra-LTE Multi-RAT SON & MDT Drive Test Car ANR Coordinator Evolution
  9. 9. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. SON Coordinator Framework SON Coordination SON coordination definition (3GPP TS 32.522): ”SON Coordination means preventing or resolving conflicts or negative influences between SON functions to make SON functions comply with operator policy” SON architecture without coordinator (for SON functions below Itf-N) SON architecture with coordinator NW operations SON function Network elements CM (e.g. tilt up) CM (e.g. tilt down) PM Itf-N 1 1 Manual change The same parameter change due to automatic SON objective and policy NW operations SON function Network elements CM – prior 1 (e.g. tilt up) Request – prior 2 (e.g. tilt down) PM Itf-N 1 1 Manual change SON coordination CM (e.g. tilt up) 3 Decision (according to priority) 2 • Coordination between each two SON functions need to be decided case by case • SON features may have different approaches / policies depending on e.g. cell purpose (macro / micro / pico / femto)
  10. 10. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. SON Coordinator Framework SON Coordination Function Responsibilities Conflict prevention Permission provision for SON functions before changing params Conflict resolution S-Coord fcn should detect conflicts and resolve them SON Coordination function SON function High level action Asks S-Coord for permision of parameter change 1 Sends decision back to requesting SON fcn (confirm / reject, configure differently) 2 Executes action & sends report to S-Coord about result (success / not success, parameters changed) 3 Parameters SON Coordination function SON Coordination function SON function High level action Parameters SON Coordination function Sends KPIs, decisions 1 SON function Checks conflicts Take corrective actions (stop, suspend, modify) 2 • KPIs • Measurements of SON functions • Unacceptable oscillations in config params • State of SON fcn • SON targets • Possible impacts of param change • Protection time duration • Priority of SONs • SON coordinator policies • Confirm / reject • Use other config • Enable / disable / suspend SON function • Modify config of SON fcns • Modifiy config params
  11. 11. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. Cross-Technology SON Example Cross Technology Approach for MLB MultiRAT LB approach – treat all NWs as global resource (all frequency and RAT layers) Prioritize different RATs / frequency layers according to performance capabilities (treat them in different manner) Example strategy MultiRAT LB approach UE in idle mode • If UE support most advanced system layer (e.g. LTE)  camp at LTE 1 LTE UMTS GSM UE connects to NW • Transfer UE to the most suitable layer in the current moment to maximize capacity / quality or coverage according to operator policy and current status 2 LTE Overload UMTS GSM Example load balancing via cell reshaping UMTS UMTS UMTS LTE LTE GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM LTE UMTS UMTS UMTS LTE LTE GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM LTE
  12. 12. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. SON in 3GPP 3GPP Rel. 12 and Beyond Features HetNet SON MRO for low power nodes (Pico / relay / HeNB) Self-test & S-Heal for low power nodes SON Use Cases Extensions MDT enhancements: • QoS verification (new measurements: e.g. latency & packet loss ratio) • Location info (improve the availability & accuracy of location info for specific zones e.g. indoor, HS train) ES enhancements: • Non overlapping ES scenario • Tradeoff between ES gain & UE experience with considering e.g. UE traffic requirements SON features extensions SON enablers SON Coordination extensions Policy continuum filling (lack of mapping between high level policies and SON feature policies) Gather all SON fcns within coordination framework Interfaces improving SON X2 interface between MeNB and HeNB (with X2 concentrator / X2 proxy) ”X2 kind of” interface between E-UTRAN and UTRAN for IRAT SON improvements
  13. 13. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. SON in 3GPP EPS Architecture for X2-Proxy Functionality SGW MME eNB HeNB GW HeNB S1 SGW MME HeNB X2 S1-U S1-U S1-MMES1-MME S11 S10 S11 X2 X2 X2 X2 proxy: • passes UE-dedicated X2 signalling messages between X2-connected eNBs and HeNBs • supports the establishment of X2-connectivity between eNBs and HeNBs • terminates non-UE-dedicated signaling - both with the HeNB, and with the eNB Source:3GPPTR37.803
  14. 14. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. LTE Introduction HeNB 3GPP Standardization Steps Architecture: • Functional split for CN, H(e)NB-GW, H(e)NBs • U-Plane and C-Plane Handling Rel. 8 H(e)NB security aspectsRel. 9 Study on Enhanced ICIC for HeNB (TDM based)Rel. 10 CSG concept CSG user authentication roaming 3G HNB RF requirements H(e)NB OAM support Mobility: • Hand-in scenario • HO between H(e)NB • Open and Hybrid access mode Mobility: • Hand-out active mode mobility • Idle mode mobility Operator CSG List LTE HeNB RF requirements LIPA and IP traffic offload in HeNB NWs Extended H(e)NB Security features SON for use cases with HeNB H(e)NB mobility enhancements • X2 based for HeNBs • Intra HNB-GW for 3G 3G HNB and LTE HeNB subsystem PMs Rel. 11/12 „X2” for HeNB and MeNB study item I-WLAN HeNB eICIC HeNB Characteristics • Quantity of HeNBs is likely to be large • There may be many HeNB vendors • Location of HeNB could be in a private residence – not accessible for on-site maintanence • Small coverage areas with probably few users per cell • May be turned on and off frequently and may be moved • May operate on a separate frequency or the same as macro network
  15. 15. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. Carrier Aggregation Example Configuration for UEs f 20MHz 10MHz 5MHz20MHz Rel. 10 UERel. 8 UE Rel. 10 UE DL UL
  16. 16. Copyright by IS-Wireless. All rights reserved. E-UTRA Rel. 10 Protocols and Procedures Cross Carrier Scheduling Example PDCCH PDSCH PUSCH CC1 CC2 CC3 CC4 CC5 DCI DCI DCI DCI DCI Not possible (transmission can only be scheduledfrom one CC) Allocation for one UE (for a single TTI) OneCCtomanyCC (manytoone–notpossible)