Stevenson entomology at macha 19.07.13

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  • Spatial heterogeneity
  • On a finer scale – mapping breeding sites and house densities
  • Stevenson entomology at macha 19.07.13

    1. 1. Dr Jennifer Stevenson Limonty Simubali Dr Doug Norris
    2. 2.  Macha, Choma – 1 site of southern Africa International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR  Collaboration with Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health  Combined and complimentary studies on malaria epidemiology, vector biology and parasite genetics/genomics  ICEMR Vector Biology ◦ Basic vector biology/bionomics ◦ Vector behavior ◦ Response to interventions ◦ Vector genetics ◦ Insecticide resistance
    3. 3. parasitemia gametocytemia antibodies anemia insecticide treated nets anopheline vectors ecological risk factors knowledge and practices
    4. 4.  CDC light traps - current  Pyrethrum spray catches  Human landing catches  Larval surveys
    5. 5.  Mosquitoes are identified using guides based on their physical appearance  Identities are confirmed using molecular techniques – PCR  The source of the bloodmeal is indentified using PCR  Infection status is determined using ELISA
    6. 6. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Mean no. Anopheles per trap per night Cross-sectional Longitudinal April 2012 - March 2013 Total different households visited: 125 Total traps set 267 Total female Anopheles caught 847 Mean catch per trap 3.17 175 anophelines caught in one house, 70% arabiensis
    7. 7. =Household with Anopheles =Household without Anopheles
    8. 8. Morphological identification n=981 An. gambiae An. squamosus An. coustani An. rufipes An. longipalpis An. pretoriensis An. funestus An.longipalpis An. dureni Molecular identification n= 103 An. arabiensis An. coustani An. leesoni An. longipalpis An. parensis An. pretoriensis An. quadriannulaus An. rufipes ITS2 = 300 bp ITS2 = 350 bp ITS2 = 450 bp ITS2 = 300 bp
    9. 9.  Colonies of An.arabiensis, original collections from Macha area  Used for ◦ bioassays – testing effectiveness of control measures e.g. nets, indoor spraying ◦ studying mosquito behaviour in the lab ◦ training ◦ supply for other insectaries
    10. 10. 11 January –March 2012 Locality Species Insecticide Mean Mortality Macha An. arabiensis Deltamethrin (F1) 100% (27) Namwala An. rivulorum Deltamethrin (Field and F1) 100 % (n=126) DDT (Field and F1) 100 % (n=113) Bendiocarb ( F1) 100 % (n=78) An. arabiensis Deltamethrin (Field) 100 % (n=4) Deltamethrin (F1) 80% (n=10) Namwalinda An. arabiensis Deltamethrin (F1) 100 % (n=27)
    11. 11. 12 An. arabiensis colony: 100% mortality F1 field mosquitoes: 88% mortality Norris L & Norris D, Malaria Journal 2011, 10:254
    12. 12. LLIN efficacy Collection of 19 nets from 16 households. Nets were 2 year old deltamethrin LLINs Norris L & Norris D, Malaria Journal 2011, 10:254
    13. 13. Household ID very small holes (<1 cm) small holes (1-5 cm) mediu m holes (5-15 cm) large holes (15-30 cm) very large holes (>30 cm) HH1-H2 2 1 HH3-H5 2 1 HH3-H8 3 HH4-H5 7 1 HH5-H1 1 HH6-H2 4 3 HH12-H3 HH13-H2 HH16-H2 HH19-H7 10 2 HH55-H8 2 5 2 2 HH58-H1 2 1 HH70-H4 15 10 1 HH75-H4 HH75-H5 HH79-H1 9 2 4 HH81-H1 1 HH90-H1 1 1 HH90-H2 1
    14. 14. Indoor vs outdoor feeding 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Dec07 Jan08 Feb08 Mar08 Apr08 Dec08 Jan09 Feb09 Mar09 Apr09 Seasonality of An. arabiensis Caught by HLC Pairs during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 Rainy Seasons Paired indoor and outdoor HLCs were conducted  2008 - 130 inside, 279 outside  2009 - 61 inside, 96 outside HLCs outside caught roughly 1.7 x as many as indoors
    15. 15. An. arabiensis caught by HLC Pairs December to April Indoor vs outdoor, Biting Times 2008 Season 2009 SeasonOutdoor Biting Indoor Biting Outdoor Biting Indoor Biting • Overall 14% of HLC collections occurred before 10pm
    16. 16.  Entomological surveillance and behavioural studies as part of national activities aimed to make southern Zambia malaria-free  Further evaluation of effectiveness of nets and IRS  Training and support for external projects for molecular assays  Refurbishment of insectary to house a standard global reference strain  Construction of a new insectary for locally caught colonies  Proposal of development of a malaria sphere
    17. 17.  Large insect-proof greenhouses  Mosquitoes released inside or colonies maintained inside  Used to study: ◦ behaviour of mosquitoes ◦ effect of interventions
    18. 18.  The community of Choma  ICEMR Team  MRT Team  Funding: MRT& The Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, NIH ICEMR Program

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