A brand is a name, sign, symbol, slogan or anything that is used to identify and distinguish a specific product, service, of a particular organization having a substantial competitive advantageDeveloping of a brand Organization develop a brand to attract and keep customers by prompting value, image and prestige or life style
The purpose of branding is to transform the product. Transforming a commodity like product into customer satisfying value added propositions is the essence of branding. Brand must make the product relevant and meaningful for the target consumers. It must enhance the product over and above the basic generic level. •Customers are seekers of value. They expect the products or services to make the appropriate value delivery. •The physical aspect of brand is contained in its physical form which includes the product and the packaging, while the perceptual aspect of brand exists in the psychological space of the consumer.
Product Brands Service Brands E-brands Media Brands Not-for-profit Brands Nation Brands Government Brands Global Brands Organization Brands
Characteristics: Cost Inexpensive. Balance of product to service Almost exclusively tangible product, although service component can be present (eg, customer-care lines). How purchased Mainly through conventional fmcg distribution networks – supermarkets, other shops, vending machines, relatively large volume outlets.
Service brands are characterized by the need to maintain a consistently high level o service delivery throughout hundreds, or even thousands of staff. Although a product component may be involved, it is essentially the service that is the brand.These are more complex than product brands for two reasons: because it is always harder to brand something you can’t touch because they are delivered directly by employees.
Characteristics: Intangibility Service brands can seldom be tried out in advance, which requires the establishment of a greater degree of trust. Inseparability of production and consumption Services cannot generally be stockpiled in advance but are produced and consumed in real time. Inconsistency Since humans are usually instrumental in delivering services.
Classic service brands eg, airlines, hotels, car rentals and banks. Pure service providers eg, member associations Professional Service Brands eg, advisors of all kinds – accountancy, management consultancy. Agents eg, travel agents and estate agents. (This category of a brand has become endangered by the rise of the Internet.) Retail brands ◦ eg, supermarkets, fashion stores and restaurants. ◦ Retail Brands are complex and multifaceted. ◦ Consumers have a much more involved and interactive experience with retail brands. The meanings of retail brands are more heavily ◦ derived from consumer’s direct experience rather than from advertising.
E-brands ◦ The Internet is a medium that presents new challenges for brand owners, but the underlying principles of branding are unchanged. ◦ The Internet is developing a more direct style of relationships between customers and brand owners, and all those interactions ◦ give an opportunity for strengthening the brand identity. A distinction needs to be made between ‘e-tailers’, - e-brands’ primary activity is to deliver physical products like Amazon.com - e-brands focus on delivering a service or experience, like GTA.com In both cases, however, it is the intangibles, the brand values that will attract online customers.
Media brands eg, newspapers, magazines, television channels. Not-for-profit organization brands ◦ Non-profits are often at a disadvantage when it comes to branding. they don’t have the deep pockets of corporations who can afford to hire brand specialists they don’t have staff whose job it is to protect the integrity of the brand, and promote it at every turn. But successful branding can have a great effect on raising awareness of the charity and its mission, and on fund-raising
Nation brands ◦ New ways of thinking lead to countries being positioned as tourist destinations, enhancing status of goods and services produced, and aiding under- developed countries. Global brands ◦ Companies have been marketing their products and brands in different countries for decades. However they were almost always marketed according to local conditions.
What is an organization brand? ◦ It is neither a product/service nor a corporate brand, it is wider than both. - It relates to all stakeholders and in many cases is rarely advertised. The organization brand represents the impression that people inside and outside the organization have.
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