Tires: Current and future status of tire monitoring
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Tires: Current and future status of tire monitoring

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To appreciate how far and fast tire technology has been advancing, it is worthwhile to see where tires started and what they looked like even a couple of decades ago. Robert William Thompson invented ...

To appreciate how far and fast tire technology has been advancing, it is worthwhile to see where tires started and what they looked like even a couple of decades ago. Robert William Thompson invented and patented the pneumatic tire in 1846, but it was not until the 1880s that John Boyd Dunlop literally taped these tires to bicycle wheels…

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Tires: Current and future status of tire monitoring Tires: Current and future status of tire monitoring Document Transcript

  • The current and future status of tire monitoring, performance, and recycling technologyWe take tires for granted, perhaps too much, but if we learn that tires are at least part andparcel the cause of an accident in which we are involved, we suddenly become veryinterested. Both from the designer’s point of view and the one servicing them, it is anexcellent idea to be aware of recent developments in tire technology.In this article the following topics are presented: - Trends and future possibilities of direct tire-pressure monitoring system (TPMS) - From direct TPMS to the Intelligent Tire - Electric vehicles: New requirements for tires’ rolling resistance - Environmentally-friendly or green tires - Requirements for heavy duty vehicle tires (embedded in other sections) - Test methods for rolling resistance, rolling noise & wet gripTo appreciate how far and fast tire technology has been advancing, it is worthwhile to seewhere tires started and what they looked like even a couple of decades ago. RobertWilliam Thompson invented and patented the pneumatic tire in 1846, but it was not untilthe 1880s that John Boyd Dunlop literally taped these tires to bicycle wheels. Sosuccessful was this that he produced these tires in1888 and patented the product in 1889.Numerous developments in clincher rim technology, cotton reinforcing rods, and rim beadsoccurred, resulting in the first automobile tire in 1895. In 1904 one could get a mountabletire that included cord reinforcement. By 1924, pneumatic tires had completely replacedthe solid ones. Synthetic tires came on line in 1937, followed by radial tires in 1946 forEurope, and rayon belted ones, along with tubeless tires the following year. Through the1960s, other materials were introduced, such as nylon and fiberglass. Regulations startedcatching up with these advances, with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)mandating an identification code be stamped on each tire. Since then, information hasbecome quite detailed, showing the load range, type of tire, size, conditions under which itcan be used, and so forth [1]. The basic tire was about to under much further change,starting in the mid-1990s, especially with respect to how tires were to be monitored. -1----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • Trends and future possibilities of direct tire-pressure monitoring system (TPMS)Current (2011) state of TPMSTo appreciate what the future holds for tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), we needto review what exists now. When the first TPMS was developed for Porsche in the mid-1980s, it used a sensor-battery-receiver system, where sensors were mounted some placeon the tire, such as the valve stem, rim, or tire cavity. The receiver would be inside thecar and be connected to appropriate display equipment. Radio frequency (RF) unitsreceived the data created by the sensor and sent it to the receiver, which, in turn,activated a warning light. More modern versions have four to five transmitters (includingone for the spare), and the receiver can be integrated with other electronic equipment,such as remote keyless entry units or body control devices. Commercial unlicensedultrahigh frequency (UHF) normally is used (315 or 434 MHz in Europe). Some receiversget information from tires having a unique serial number, thus avoiding confusion inpicking up signals from sensors mounted on surrounding tires. When the warning light ison in a steady state, the tire is under-inflated or not inflated at all. There also could be afault in the TPMS system, itself, if the tire does have the proper pressure.Several issues arise in sensor design and location design. First, if the sensors are mountedon the outside of the tire in plain view, such as on the valve stem, thieves can steal them,and they also are the source of unevenly distributed weight, making the tire subject toshimmying, vibration, or other malfunction. Mounting the sensor on the back of the valvestem eliminates the theft problem, and the balancing issue can be reduced withminiaturization, such as in the development of micro mechanical systems and systemsusing nanotechnology. Sensors also can be incorporated into a band mounted on theinside part of the tires rim. However, RF can be blocked or negatively affected by carbonor ferrous content in a tire, making specially manufactured tires necessary. This also limitsa car owners range of choice in tires, making it more expensive, as is the case with mostspecialty items.Alternatives to a TPMS have more than one receiver or antenna that enables the vehicle todiscern the particular wheel transmitting data. The vehicles computer contains in its -2----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • database information on the tires pressure at the time of manufacture, as well as serialnumber. Other systems have a radio frequency identification tag (RFID) mounted on eachtire that uses 125 KHz to send information at any time to the TPMS. When the ignitionswitch is turned on, each tire is polled sequentially for information so the driver can identifyany tire with problems. This sending of data obviates the signal collision problemsassociated with the “low-end” systems described above. This “high line” system uses amagnetic field detected by the low frequency (LF) antenna in the TPMS. On-boardcomputers will “re-learn” the data for each tire that may be changed or if there is sensorreplacement. While the high line systems tend to be more expensive, they save batterypower and give information right at car start-up. Still, other systems use the intensity ofthe UHF signal (such as the sensor being mounted in the front set of tires or the rear set)as a basis for unique tire identification and other data transmission.Sensors, themselves, transmit data regarding information not about only the tires pressurebut also its direction, temperature, tire identification number, and speed of rotation, aswell. The pressure, temperature, and tire rotation data are sent as analog signals, whichthen are converted to digital data for processing. As a note on pressure, it is not reporteddirectly (hence, “direct tire pressure sensors” is somewhat of a misnomer), but as a resultof a computation from data obtained about the slow or rapid changes in pressure,indicated by the tires state, such as rotation and temperature. Measuring the pressuredirectly has been deemed too complex and possibly risky, such as issues with the instabilityof sensor locations.The environment in which the sensor is placed is one of changing temperature, moisture,and contamination levels, thus placing stress on sensors and batteries. Using batteriespresents a number of problems associated with the use of these power storage devices, ingeneral. Battery saving devices, such as improved materials and computer chips that canoptimize power usage (commonly about 250µW), have improved, but the problem stillremains not only of battery life, which is about 7-10 years, but the disposing of the hugenumber of batteries produced each year for the TPMS systems. Changing a tire can betraumatic to the sensors and the batteries, as well, so the more times the tire is extractedfrom the rim, the greater chance the apparatus can be damaged, hence necessitating -3----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • repair or replacement. Coupled with the usual problems resulting from dead batteries,such as the tire going flat “old style” without the driver being warned, are liability issues.If a driver is dependent upon the system and it fails due to battery problems, the resultingdamage can be subject to litigation.The fact that the sensors and receiver can be made as an independent TPMS system makeit amenable to being an after market package that can be installed on older vehicles. Thisis in line with TPMS being mandatory in the United States for all vehicles manufacturedfrom 2007, onward, as specified by 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle SafetyStandards (FMVSS) [2]. Europe is mandating TPMS in car models from 2012-onward.Starting in 1 January 2013, all South Korean passenger cars will have to have a TPMS, butall existing vehicles will have after 30 June 2014 a TPMS, even if it is retro-fitted. Japan isexpected to follow Europe.In contrast to direct pressure measurement, indirect measurement of tire pressure isaccomplished through the characteristics of the tire, itself, such as speed of rotation. Anunder-inflated tire has to rotate faster than a properly inflated one to maintain vehicularspeed, as the covered distance is the same. On a newer TPMS, tire under-inflation can bedetected by whether and how the tire vibrates. These systems can be integrated with anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and have the distinct advantage of eliminating sensors in thetires. However, the driver must recalibrate the system by pressing a button on thedashboard. If the tire is under-inflated, the TPMS will not give an accurate report. Theregulatory status is mixed, it complying with some laws but not others.Problems are in store for heavy vehicles, as TPMS doesnt work well. Not only are therestandardization issues, but the very length of trailers raises problems with long-distancetransmissions. Battery life is compromised because of the complexity in repairing flats.That the truck loads have to be distributed safely requires more tires, thus raisingequipment costs. Retreading is done more on tractor-trailers, another factor limitingsensor life. Truckers will allow for slow leaks, thus affecting accurate tire pressuremonitoring. Currently a lot of monitoring is done by pass-through truck stations thatreport issues to truck drivers. -4----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • An issue with TPMS is how accurate it will be with “run-flat” tires, those on which a vehiclecan be driven at greatly reduced speeds and distances – enough to get to a repair station.How accurate will the TPMS be in reporting the need for tire repair? Research is ongoingwith respect to this question.Future of TPMSA primary development will be more countries adopting regulations requiring vehicles havea TPMS system as well as strengthening existing ones [3]. Aside from regulations andstandardization, work will proceed in making batteries more efficient, as well as extendingthe power and range of transmitters so as to guarantee accurate data transmission. As topower requirements, batteries have been a stumbling block, but there is nothing to saythat solar power cannot be used. Properly mounted cells can supply that power directly orrecharge the batteries. RFID tags are found everywhere and are easily mass produced atlow cost. Hence, it can be expected that they will supplant sensors whenever possible, orsensor technology will be further miniaturized and integrated with RFIDs.To date, the primary emphasis on TPMS has been on passenger vehicles. TPMS will workon heavy vehicles, and systems are marketed, but tire changing complexities andconditions reduce sensor life. Increasing the range of receivers because of the length ofthe trailers involves more efficient power generation and battery life. Research isprogressing on how to make TPMS more amenable to heavy vehicles [4]. However, theredoes not seem to be a rush for truckers to fit TPMS because of the cost versus benefit [5].The primary focus on new development of TPMS is energy efficiency and self-regulating, or“intelligent” tires, covered in the next section.From direct TPMS to the Intelligent TireWe have alluded to intelligent tires above in describing the detection of tire conditionsother than pressure. In fact, it is common to find “TPMS” equated with the term“intelligent tires”. TPMS is a special aspect of intelligent tires – pressure monitoring,although people will include other functions, such as tire speed as a part of the system.Hence, there is an overlap in the concepts. Part of the issue is when TPMS started -5----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • emerging in the latter part of the last century; it was thought that any self-monitoring wasregarded as “intelligent”, way far removed from manually measuring pressure.Strain, temperature, wheel loading, acceleration, friction, tire wear, and shape are otherfactors that researchers intend to monitor with emerging technology. Ideally, not onlyevery condition of the tire would be known but there would be ways of correcting oradjusting the tire to make it last longer. A tire that grows on its own, however, seemsrather out of the question.Sensors, power sources, data transmission, and data processing and analysis are the coreof TPMS development and improvement. For indirect measurement, there are straingauges, fuzzy logic, and Kalman filters. (Kalman filters predict a value, and estimate itsuncertainty. There is a computation of the weighted average of the initial and predictedvalue and the measured value [6].) Wheel slip, tire load, and velocity, wheel vibration,concentrically of the tire, and rotational speed to measure tire-road friction aremeasurement aspects that can be integrated with sensors already in the ABS.Measurements of engine torque (such as with an injection time or manifold pressuregauge) can be used to help determine road surface conditions. Global Positioning System(GPS) and velocity data have been proposed as a way of determining vehicle positionmovement, as in slip angles [7]. Acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors are othertechniques to measure tire conditions. Acoustic waves travel across surfaces and conformto surface features. The wave will change, for example, when it encounters an object onthe surface or a hole or dip. Both surface features, as well as mass can be detected.Acoustic energy can be transformed into electrical energy by piezoelectric devices. Innature certain materials, such as quartz and even cartilage in bones develop an electriccharge when placed under pressure. Acoustic waves create pressure and can causepiezoelectric material to create electrical energy. Conversely, the electrical energy cancause these substances to produce acoustical energy from the mechanical forcing of airwaves. Sound travels across the surface of a tire and other parts of a car body, and thiscan activate a sensor which, in turn can transmit an appropriate amount of electricalenergy to be processed and interpreted by a computer. Embedding sensors within thematerial, itself, can enable not only tread wear but integrity of tire construction by -6----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • detecting irregularities such as cracking, holes, and deformities. The more irregular thesurface there is, the more irregular the wave will be. Wave irregularity, then, meansirregularity in material [8].Some considerations in future intelligent tire directionsSo, we have gone some distance from the original TPMS, basically a way of continuouslymonitoring tire pressure from inside the vehicle, to measuring tire condition – tread wear,balance, and even condition of construction. It is only a matter of being able to adjust thetire itself or its environment – an adaptive system - to make a system completely“intelligent”. Adaptive systems are a major hallmark of higher intelligence. Of course, wemust think about what can be changed to extend tire life. Certainly, changing fromsummer to winter tires should involve a way that sensors can detect the change and alertthe driver accordingly [9]. If a tire is not robust, then we have to ask what can be done soas not to place undue strain on it.For example, in considering how to create an adaptive system, if an increase intemperature is detected, can a cooling system be activated to alleviate the heat? Claimsare being made that tire pressure can be maintained while the vehicle is moving by an on-board tire pump [10]. Balance may be achieved by physically adjusting weights alongslides embedded in the tire. Research is progressing in that direction [11]. Changingengine speed via gearing in automatic transmissions or through regulating the enginespeed which is more amenable to better tire wear might be in order. Toe-in can beadjusted to extend tire life [12]. One might consider controlling wheel slip via the brakingsystem so as to extend tire life [13]. As a wild speculation, self-sealing technology mightbe extended so as to have a reservoir of organic material, or the tire, itself (in the mannerthat a wound heals itself in an animal), grow into a puncture in an already organic tire.Below, we will see that already such tires are on the horizon.Electric vehicles: New requirements for tires’ rolling resistanceGasoline-powered vehicles ultimately will have to be replaced by an alternative method ofpower, as the worlds supply of oil is following Hubberts Peak Oil model [14]. A tiresrolling resistance becomes an even more critical factor, simply because any increased -7----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • resistance means more of a power drain on the batteries, thus limiting the driving rangeeven further.Rolling resistance essentially is how the tire and surface on which it rolls interact to slowdown the speed of rotation. According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 5-15% ofthe fuel consumed by a light duty vehicle is traceable to rolling resistance [15]. Words like“drag” or “friction” are also used to describe the retardation. Numerous factors can affectrolling resistance, (more about which will be said further down in this article): - road surface condition – affected by road materials, weather, liquids on surface, etc. - surface of tire – smooth to rough (tread depth and design as major factors) - tire width – naturally or caused by tire pressure - tire composition – types of rubber – smooth, hard, degree of flexibility - speed of rotation - tire/wheel radius.Obviously the smoother the surfaces of the road and tire, the less friction there willbetween the tire and surface, thus lessening friction and increasing the possibility of thetire sliding across the surface. Rough or soft surfaces increase friction, let alone noise forthe former. On one hand, the greater the drag, the more fuel or battery power isrequired by the vehicle. On the other hand, of course, there is an optimum amount offriction to be able to control the vehicle. Terry Gettys, director of the research anddevelopment process of the Michelin Group, stated: “Fundamentally, designing tires forelectric vehicles is not different than for engined vehicles [16].” While, there are certainfactors that need to be taken into account, such as thermal regulation, the general thrust isto reduce the rolling resistance as much as possible [17]. Rolling resistance of tires forelectric vehicles is about .055 [18].As all these factors affect the manageability of a vehicle, it can be expected that there is aplethora of legislation worldwide to address the situation. While automobile manufacturerswill install low rolling resistance tires to meet U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) -8----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • standards, there is no requirement concerning what tires a motorist must use to replacethem. However, installing tires that have a low rolling resistance, according to the DOE,can save 1.5%-4.5% in fuel consumption [19]. States like California are investigating waythat tire manufacturers and distributors need to inform the consumer about ways ofselecting tires that offer the best fuel economy. Already, they have a rolling resistance tireregulation, one that went into effect July 2008, and more may be on the way [20]. As of14 January 2010, heavy trucks and trailers were required to have rolling resistance tires[21]. Europe has followed suit [22], and in November 2012 a rolling resistance ratingsystem will be mandatory [23]. China, seeing the need to conform to these regulationsmay opt to follow, as it not only deems safety important but wants to be able to sell tiresoverseas.Environmentally-friendly or green tires“Green” tires can mean many things, such as making them contribute to fuel efficiency byreducing rolling resistance and being integrated into an intelligent tire system, describedabove. It also refers to re-cycling them into objects or using them in the construction ofother things, such as in buildings and roads. Hence, to be clear, one should specify whatthey mean by “environmentally friendly” or “green”. Otherwise, these are just catch ormarketing phrases designed to placate persons concerned about how tires are contributingto environmental degradation.It does not take much imagination to think of all the billions of worn out tires aboutlandscapes throughout the world. Since the time they were made in the last decade or soof the 19th century, people have thought of ways of recycling them, ranging from flowerpots to fences. We see them used to make buildings, sandals (such as the well knowncases of the Vietnamese during mid part of the last century), and other articles of hardrubber. They are ground up, melted and mixed with asphalt to make longer lasting roadsthat reduce sound. The deleterious part of tires, besides their inherent cluttering of thelandscape and inability to biodegrade comes in the form of hazards, such as tire fires,which not only produce great volumes of harmful smoke but can last years. They are idealbreeding grounds for insects, and their filling up landfills is legend. Aside from makingobjects from old tires, an early way of re-using them was re-treading. This was anacceptable solution for tires used a lower speeds and temperatures, but for heavier -9----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • vehicles and in hot weather, the adhesive would not be strong enough to hold the newtread. Even with more modern bonding techniques, there are still problems, as one cansee simply by driving along any major highway in the world. Nevertheless, whatever re-treading that does occur does recycle some of the tires. Rather than producing tires of thesame material that does not meld back into the environment in a “friendly way”,manufacturers have sought to create them from other materials.Tires were originally made from natural rubber, but just before World War II syntheticrubber was produced by BF Goodrich, and since then, to make tires more durable and withbetter quality (including reducing rolling resistance), other materials, such as silica havebeen mixed in. Vegetable processing oil, as well as plant fibers is replacing the petroleumbased substances in tire manufacture. By 2013 Sumitomo Tire is hoping to produce a tirewith no petroleum content. Yokohama and Michelin are following suit. Goodyear is usingmicro-organisms to create isoprene, which is chemically the same as the petroleum-basedvariety, thus eliminating a dependence upon oil. Oregon State University is working onorganic substances to replace the silica [24].Does using a vegetable-based material to get away from petroleum mean that the tires arebiodegradable? Apparently, if they are made from potatoes, as students at WarwickUniversity had them made, they are [25]. However, an internet search under“biodegradable tires” will indicate that everybody is not rushing to make tires that aredemonstrated to be biodegradable. Yet, the option apparently exists, based on theWarwick project. Want to learn more about current technologies and developments in tire technology? Visit our Download Centre for more articles, whitepapers and interviews: http://bit.ly/tire-technology - 10 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • References (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 11 June 2011)[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tire_code_-_en.svg[2] http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title49/49cfr571_main_02.tpl, http://www.autos.ca/auto-product-reviews/product-review-nvision-tire-pressure-monitoring-system-tpms,http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/rulings/tpmsfinalrule.6/tpmsfinalrule.6.html[3] https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/automotive/files/safety/presentation_tyres_en.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[4] https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/esv/esv21/09-0551.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[5] http://www.iru.org/cms-filesystem-action?file=en_Resolutions_Technical%20affairs/010_tyre-pressure-monitoring-systems.E.pdf[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalman_filter[7] http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/8/12/8123/pdf, p. 8[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_acoustic_wave[9] http://www.yesanswer.com/intelligent-tire-pressure-sensors-facilitate-changing-a-tire.html[10] http://www.wheelpumpcorp.com/[11] http://www.patents.com/us-7814781.html[12] e.g., http://www.indiamart.com/company/2251343/products.html[13] http://us.linkedin.com/pub/dir/Bharat/+/us-28-Cleveland%2FAkron,-Ohio-Area,http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1174058 ,https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.itk.ntnu.no/ansatte/Johansen_Tor.Arne/thesisIdarPetersen.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubbert_peak_theory, http://www.hubbertpeak.com/,http://www.princeton.edu/hubbert/the-peak.html[15] http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/fuel_economy_tires_light.html[16] http://green.autoblog.com/2010/06/02/challenge-bibendum-michelin-execs-explain-why-the-company-cares/[17] http://evaosd.fartoomuch.info/library/design.htm[18] https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://hal.archives- - 11 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • ouvertes.fr/docs/00/52/75/46/PDF/ICEM_2006_HADDOUN.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[19] http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/fuel_economy_tires_light.html[20] http://www.nrdc.org/media/pressreleases/031002.asp,http://koleso.topof.ru/en/news.php?pID=4689http://www.energy.ca.gov/transportation/tire_efficiency/index.html ,https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.energy.ca.gov/transportation/tire_efficiency/documents/2009-04-08_workshop/presentations/5%2520-%2520Rating%2520System%2520Presentation%25204-8-09%2520-%2520Tim%2520Robinson.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[21] http://www.truckinginfo.com/news/news-detail.asp?news_id=69025&news_category_id=3[22] http://www.etrma.org/public/activitiestyreg.asp[23] http://www.bettertyres.org.uk/why-better-tyres/eu-legislation ,http://www.ityre.com/en/main/news/item/8378/[24] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/automobiles/20TIRE.html ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tire#History , http://www.autotropolis.com/driving-smart/worlds-first-green-tires-on-sale-now.html , http://www.technewsdaily.com/green-tires-could-slash-oil-needs-0353/[25] http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/03/potato_car_make.phpAbout IQPC:IQPC provides tailored conferences, large events, seminars and internal training programmes formanagers around the world. Topics include current information on industry trends, technicaldevelopments and regulatory rules and guidelines. IQPCs conferences are market leading events,highly regarded for their opportunity to exchange knowledge and ideas for professionals fromvarious industries.IQPC has offices in major cities across six continents including: Berlin, Dubai, London, New York,Sao Paulo, Singapore, Johannesburg, Sydney and Toronto. IQPC leverages a global research base ofbest practices to produce an unrivaled portfolio of problem-solving conferences. Each year IQPCoffers approximately 2,000 worldwide conferences, seminars, and related learning programs. - 12 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de