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Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End
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Modularization Concepts of Automotive Front-End

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Want to learn more about current technologies and developments in automotive front-end? …

Want to learn more about current technologies and developments in automotive front-end?

Visit our download centre for more articles, whitepapers and interviews:
http://bit.ly/oRF4ay

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  • 1. Modularization concepts of automotive front-endsFront-end modules have been around since the early 1990s, with Volkswagen implementingthem in their VWs and Audis, and they have proved to be a significant improvement overearlier automobile assembly methods. A number of European manufacturers have adoptedmodularization, but it has been slow in coming to North America. Because of higher fuelcosts, there has been a need to reduce weight. In order to see what in an automotive front-end can be modularized, we should review front-end systems and assemblies, themselves.What is an automotive front-end?When you go to a shop and ask the mechanic to check your car’s front end, they place thecar on a lift or jack stands and proceed to inspect the suspension, steering, and alignment.If you want to have the brakes checked, normally you specifically have to say “brakes”. Ifwant to have your cooling system checked, you need to say so. Mechanics normally don’tthink of these as “the front-end” but as separate systems.However, automotive designers consider all of these, and more as part of the “front-end”, orfront-end module (FEM), literally meaning everything in front of the windshield, save for thepower train [1]. That means frame, body parts, and electrical system, as well as the otherwell-known systems, such as suspension. Typical front-end [Courtesy of Auto-Steel Partnership] 1------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 2. Historically and for conceptual purposes, we think of systems that respond to a function. Forfront ends, we consider: • Brakes • Steering • Electrical • Cooling • Frame • Suspension • Mobility - Wheels, axles, and bearingsLet’s identify the main systems found in the typical automotive front-end. At such point, wecan discuss modularization.Basic construction of automotive front-endAn automotive front-end consists of suspension steering, part of the braking system,wheel/bearing assembly, electrical, cooling, air conditioning, and frame. Overlaid onto theseare accessory items and systems, such as V belts, fans, tensioners, and the window washersystem (wipers, pump, and reservoir). We present a brief overview of these systems andtheir weight considerations in order to assess what can be modularized and made lessheavy.SuspensionAny part that is involved in holding the car body up and easing its up and down or sidewisemotion is referred to as suspension. Depending upon the type of suspension, there aresprings - usually coil or air, motor mounts, ball joints (upper and lower), stabilizer bar,bushings, knuckle, infrastructure (such as yokes and housings), McPherson struts or shockabsorbers, torsion bars, and control arms. This is one of the heaviest systems in the frontend and a candidate for design with lightweight materials. 2------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 3. Basic front end suspension [2]SteeringThe steering system is everything in between the steering wheel to the wheel being turned.Depending upon the system, this includes the steering wheel, of course, power assistmechanism (if any), Pitman arm, standard, rack and pinion, and linkage (tie rod ends, tierods, idler arm, etc.).There are two major areas: linkage and steering mechanism. Arrangements will vary, butmost linkage systems consist of ball-type joints (tie rod ends, control arms), intermediatelinks (Pitman arm – also called “steering arm”, drag link), threaded adjuster sleeves, andlinks. Major parts of a typical front end linkage system [3] 3------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 4. There are two basic steering assemblies: recirculating ball bearings, and rack and pinion.The recirculating ball bearing system contains an “endless belt” of ball bearings that serve toreduce friction between the steering wheel shaft and the main linkage – through the Pitmanarm - to the linkage assembly and then to the wheels. Rack and pinion consists of a gearrolling against a toothed rack which goes back and forth, in turn, directing the wheels. Apart of most modern steering systems is the power assist unit system, either hydraulic orelectrical. The hydraulic one is made up of a pump, and hydraulic unit attached directly tothe steering gear box, or gear, at the end of the steering column or attached to the rack andpinion assembly. Active front steering (AFS), technology designed to make the front wheelsturn a certain number of degrees in accordance with the speed of the vehicle, is moreinvolved and, of course adds more weight.The typical motor and electromagnetic locking units looks like:and the AFS actuator: Assisted front steering system [4] 4------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 5. BrakesWe are talking about 60% of the braking power being done by this half of a system locatedin the front-end. This system includes the master cylinder with booster, lines, calipers, shoeswith pads, and rotors (or drums in older cars). For an automatic braking system (ABS), weadd an electric motor and planetary gear set, which are not light components. Rotors anddrums – made of dense steel - can be considered candidates for weight reduction.Mobility“Mobility” consists of the parts that allow the car to actually roll on the ground. Although thisis not a standard term in automotive textbooks, such as Stockel [5], it, nevertheless can beidentified as a separate system and with one specific purpose – to allow the vehicle rollingmovement. Constant velocity (CV) joints, axles and axle tube, wheels and wheel bearings,spindle, and hub are included in the mobility part of the front-end. Overall, the mobilitysystem is just as heavy as the suspension or steering systems. CV joints replace what wasbefore the universal joint (UJ), the difference being that the CV joint, as the name indicates,permits the drive shaft to turn at a constant rotational speed, while the UJ has a variedangular velocity. Variations of the CV include Rzeppa and tripod joints, double cardan, andThompson couplings. Wheels on which the tire is mounted and, in turn, are mounted on theaxle (drive axle for front wheel drive, and driven axle for rear wheel drive cars) are, with theaxle, itself sources of medium weight. The spindle, which some consider part of thesuspension [6] is what the brake rotor or hub mounts. The wheel, hub and its bearings, andspindle is often called the “wheel-hub assembly”, and the hub, being solid steel, is quitedense, hence quite heavy. In the CV joint, the spindle is a part of the assembly. In oldermodels, the spindle is a separate part mounted between the upper and lower control arms. 5------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 6. or Old-style spindle Spindle as a part of the CV assembly [7]ElectricalThe wiring harness, computer modules, such as for the engine, brakes, and steering, fusebox, lights, and battery are part of the front end. The alternator (with its internal regulator)and starter usually are mounted on the petroleum-fueled engine. For electric cars,configurations vary, and what is considered as a part of the front-end should be consideredon a case-by-case basis. With electric cars, only the batteries as the main part normally arein the back of the vehicle.CoolingThe cooling system has a radiator, water pump, fans – direct mount and separate (usuallyelectric), low pressure reservoir, thermostat for the fan, and hoses, but usually, only theradiator, external fan, reservoir, and hoses would be considered as part of the front end,since the water pump and internal thermostat normally are part of the engine. In electricvehicles, only the fan is needed.Air conditioningThis system comprises the compressor (quite heavy), condenser, drier, tubing, hoses, ducts,and squirrel cage fans. Usually, this system is scattered throughout the front-end, condenserbeing in front, drier on one side and the compressor on the other. The blowers are attached 6------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 7. to the fire wall, pointing inward to the inside compartment.FrameThe frame includes support members (I-beam, or sheet metal fabricated with a built-ingeometry as a support structure), sheet metal or plastic, fenders, bumper, attachment pointand hardware for attaching, glass, and doors. A central focus of applying new materials hasbeen on the frame. Want to learn more about current technologies and developments in automotive front-end? Visit our download centre for more articles, whitepapers and interviews: http://bit.ly/oRF4ayReferences(Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 22 August 2011)[1] A Survey of Front-End Modularity, http://www.just-auto.com/analysis/review-of-front-end-modules_id104743.aspx[2] http://мбмастер.рф/SsangYongRexton/files/2C.pdf[3] http://autorepair.about.com/library/bl244lib.htm[4] Willy Klier, Gerd Reimann and Wolfgang Reinelt, Concept and Functionality of the Active FrontSteering System, ZF Lenksysteme GmbH, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany, No. 2004-21-0073, 2003 SAEInternational (2003), pp. 1-3[5] http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/617260.Martin_T_Stockel[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindle_%28automobile%29http://www.secondchancegarage.com/public/140.cfmhttp://www.paulstravelpictures.com/GM-Wheel-Bearing-Hub-Assembly-Replacement/index.html andhttp://www.getusedparts.com/auto_parts_guide/S/used_spindle.html[7] Potentials and Limitations of Pre-Crash Systems for Pedestrian ProtectionResources (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 22 August 2011)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caster_anglehttp://www.automotive-frontend.com/Event.aspx?id=578242http://www.broadwaytrans.com/resources/car-care-articles/brakes - smaller sized brake systemhttp://www.stjoesauto.com/course_support/Unit%201%20Introduction%20to%20Brakes.PDFhttp://www.stjoesauto.com/course_support/http://www.iqpc.com/Event.aspx?id=578750http://www.a-sp.org/database/publicationmain.asphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constant-velocity_joint 7------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 8. http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_frontend_module_demand_2/http://www.faurecia.com/expertise-innovation/automotive-equipment/Pages/car-exterior.aspxhttp://wardsauto.com/ar/module_supplier_future_100907/About IQPC:IQPC provides tailored conferences, large events, seminars and internal training programmes formanagers around the world. Topics include current information on industry trends, technicaldevelopments and regulatory rules and guidelines. IQPCs conferences are market leading events,highly regarded for their opportunity to exchange knowledge and ideas for professionals from variousindustries.IQPC has offices in major cities across six continents including: Berlin, Dubai, London, New York, SaoPaulo, Singapore, Johannesburg, Sydney and Toronto. IQPC leverages a global research base of bestpractices to produce an unrivaled portfolio of problem-solving conferences. Each year IQPC offersapproximately 2,000 worldwide conferences, seminars, and related learning programs. 8------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de

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