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How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?
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How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future?

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  • 1. How feasible are Electric Vehicles for the future? by Jeremy Horne, Ph.D.Once again we find ourselves debating how electric vehicles (EV) can be a mainsource of transportation in the world. The events putting us on that course havebeen rather tortuous. In 1973 the world, in particular the U.S., was jolted into therealization that its major supply of petroleum could be cut off, leaving dozens ofmillions of vehicles idle on its roads. As the Arab oil embargo through theOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) dragged on, the lines at gaspumps grew longer until 17 March 1974 it ended [1]. At that time, there was muchdiscussion about alternative renewable energy, not only as a source of vehicle fuelbut for power production all across the infrastructure. There were major efforts tobring forth solar and wind, in particular, but other forms of energy production usinggeothermal, hydroelectric, and even very novel ideas like fuel cells. Not only wasthere a heightened awareness of the fragility of petroleum supply but there wererising concerns about the environment, in particular, pollution, land spoilage, andglobal warming. The global warming issue has been around ever since the term wascoined 8 August 1975 in a science paper by Wally Broecker in Science entitled "Arewe on the brink of a pronounced global warming? [2]”. As the embargo crisisreceded, so did all the ideas of the need to conserve petroleum in the collectivesocial memory. Thirty years down the road, we face not so much the threat of anembargo, but peak oil, where it has been found that we may have passed a pointwhere oil consumption surpasses the discovery of new sources [3]. Too, there aregreater environmental issues, made prominent after the Exxon Valdez incident in1989 and more recently with the disastrous British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon”oil gusher” incident in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Middle Eastern wars over oil,------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 2. highlighted the cost of extracting this fuel. As motor vehicles consume the greaterpart of petroleum in the world, it stood to reason that there would be a search foralternative sources of power, in light of the newly perceived need to address thepetroleum issue. Numerous ideas have arisen over the past decade about how tofuel vehicles, some of those innovations involving fuel cells (refined developmentoccurring as a result of space programs), natural gas, and electric. Here, we focuson electric powered vehicles, their problems and prospects [4].Using electricity to drive cars is not a new idea, it originating as far back as 1828,when Ányos Jedlik, a Hungarian inventor of a motor created a model of a vehiclepowered by it. A primitive electric carriage was made in the latter 1830s byScottish inventor Robert Anderson, but it took the development of rechargeablebatteries to bring forth EVs in Europe, staring in the mid 1800s. The U.S. had towait for its electric cars until William Morrison built a six passenger car in 1890.From that point onward electric cars became popular, with Anthony Electric, Baker,Columbia, Anderson, Edison, and Studebaker, among others being favorite brands. Electric vehicle model by Ányos Jedlik [5]In 1900, more cars on the road were electric than steam or gasoline. However, theywere for localized use only, as there were no recharge stations out in rural areas. In------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 3. addition, because the batteries were lead-acid, the range was severely limited, andthe lifespan, because of the numerous recharges required, was not that long.Improvements in the internal combustion engine (ICE) and mass production byHenry Fords automobile plants to drive down costs pretty much demolished theelectric car market. German electric car, 1904, with a chauffeur on top [6]Today, people are back on track in attempting to further the technology of EVs.Mostly everyone is aware of the ubiquitous golf carts that pass by silently, andthese have served well, but the scale them upward to road use has not been easy.How an EV worksOverall, the arrangement of components is rather simple and straight forward,especially in comparison to an ICE car. An electric motor drives a car, just like itdoes in clocks, washing machines, or knife sharpener. Three types of motors exist:direct current (DC) brushless, alternating current (AC) induction, and permanentmagnet (PM). The first gives the highest speed, but the car accelerates more slowly.The AC motor accelerates the vehicle faster but has only an average speed. The PMmotor is in between the DC and AC motors. The DC and PM motors can run directlyfrom the batteries, while the AC motor needs an inverter. Current passes from thebattery to a variable resistor actuated by the “gas” pedal then to a controller that------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 4. regulates current to the motor. There can be just one motor propelling one or morewheels, or each wheel can have its own motor. Mitsubishi i-MiEV [7]To help recharge the battery somewhat, there is regenerative braking, when theinertia of the vehicle drives the generator part of the electric motor duringslowdown. For braking, itself, the vehicle load is used as a way of “backpedaling” toslow down the vehicle. EVs dont need a standard or automatic transmission, but tosimulate driving in a regular car because of peoples force of habit, variousarrangements for “shifting” have been invented. The shifting arm operates as aswitch that sends signals to the controller but has labels, such as “park”, “reverse”,“drive” “neutral”, and “low” (PRNDL) as a transition device. The “park” and “neutral”usually disengages the motor and activates a brake. Some cars allow the motor topull a bit to simulate the feel of an automatic transmission in ICE cars. In an ICEcar, the weight of the car helps slow it down, but an EV car will engage theregenerative brake system to create the same effect. The “low” selection willenhance this [8].------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 5. Limitations of the EVA sad little story emerged in 1990 of General Motors attempt to literally kill electriccars. In 1990 the California Air Resources Board made a ruling called the Zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) mandate which said that in order to continue sellinggasoline vehicles in that state auto manufacturers had to sell electric vehicles, aswell. General Motors (GM), Toyota, Honda, Ford, Nissan, and Chrysler; producedamong them 5,000 EV1s. The oil industry and automobile manufactures wereenraged, and lobbied and filed lawsuits to have the mandate canceled. GM, perhapsthe most upset, recalled all its EV1s and proceeded to destroy them by crushing.Some were donated to universities and museums after being disabled. GM selfishlyrefused to allow owners to pay the lease value on 78 remaining ones, and they toowere crushed. One of their excuses was they didnt want to follow the U.S.government mandate to keep spare parts for the EVs already deployed. Protesters,accompanied by some actresses were arrested in protests to GM about the carsdestruction but their efforts were fruitless. GM claimed that no one really wantedthem, the driving range was too low (80-100 miles), and they were too expensive. EV1s being taken off to the crusher [9]------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 6. However, the EV1 were durable, clean running, and required no tune-ups or muchmaintenance. To highlight the whole controversy and bring home the view that “bigoil” was behind the destruction, a movie was made about this incident, Who Killedthe Electric Car? Want to learn more about current and future developments in Electric Vehicles? Visit our Download Center for more articles, whitepapers and interviews: http://bit.ly/ev-articlesReferences (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 14 October 2011)[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_oil_crisis#Chronology[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming[3] http://www.theoildrum.com/node/5247[4] http://avt.inl.gov/pdf/fsev/history.pdf[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_electric_vehicle[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_electric_vehicle[7] http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech.shtml[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_car[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Who_Killed_the_Electric_Car%3F[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._D._Power_and_Associates[11] http://businesscenter.jdpower.com/JDPAContent/CorpComm/pdfs/DriveGreen2020_102610.pdf[12] Ibid., p. 2[13] Ibid., p. 17[14] Ibid., p. 64[15] http://www.theoildrum.com/node/5247,http://www.pennenergy.com/index/articles/display/0663918147/articles/pennenergy/microblogs/rafael-sandrea/natural-gas-supply--potential-setbacks.html,http://ideas.repec.org/a/eap/articl/v39y2009i2p255-270.html ,http://www.ourbusinessnews.com/natural-gas-supplies-within-5-year-average ,https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.postcarbon.org/reports/PCI-report-nat-gas-future-plain.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true , and http://environmentalheadlines.com/ct/2011/05/12/the-truth-about-natural-gas-supply-costs-environmental-impact/ , as examples------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 7. [16] http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/smart-takes/solar-roadway-that-generates-heat-energy-unveiled/5335[17] http://www.gizmag.com/harvesting-solar-heat-asphalt/16904/[18] http://www.piezo.com/prodproto4EHkit.html, http://www.smart-material.com/Smart-choice.php?from=MFC, http://www.advancedcerametrics.com/pages/contact/,http://www.mide.com/products/qp/qp10ni.php, http://www.newenergytechnologiesinc.com/contact[19] http://www.gizmag.com/google-invests-168-million-in-solar-power-tower/18383/ ], thermaldepolymerization [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CWf9nYbm3ac&feature=related[20] http://www.gizmag.com/enviromission-solar-tower-arizona-clean-energy-renewable/19287/[21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc%E2%80%93air_battery[22] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molten_salt_battery[23] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc-bromine_flow_battery[24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanadium_redox_batteryResources (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 14 October 2011)http://www.cleancaroptions.com/html/battery_electric_vehicles.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_car or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_vehiclehttp://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech.shtmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_carhttp://www.sweethaven02.com/ModElec/electrical01/Lesson0402.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_batteryhttp://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/how_to_prolong_lithium_based_batterieshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlI1duF4K9ohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leyden_jarBatteries for Electric Cars - http://www.bcg.com/documents/file36615.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_vehicle_batteryhttp://www.energyharvesting.net/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piezoelectricity#Mathematical_descriptionhttp://inhabitat.com/new-crash-proof-electric-vehicle-battery-can-be-mass-produced/http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/avta/light_duty/fsev/fsev_batteries.htmlhttp://spinnovation.com/sn/Batteries/Batteries_and_Ultracapacitors_for_Electric_Hybrid_and_Fuel_Cell_Vehicles.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_vehicle_batteryhttp://www.bcg.com/documents/file36615.pdf” -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_car------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  • 8. http://www.iqpc.com/Event.aspx?id=473352http://www.cleancaroptions.com/html/battery_electric_vehicles.htmlhttp://www.howstuffworks.com/electric-car.htm Future Car series------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de

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