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How autonomous vehicles work
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How autonomous vehicles work

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    How autonomous vehicles work How autonomous vehicles work Document Transcript

    • How autonomous vehicles workAutonomous vehicles, otherwise known as uninhabited autonomous vehicles (UAV), autopilotvehicles, driverless cars, auto-drive cars, or automated/autonomously guided vehicles (AGV),are regarded as intelligent machines. Alan Turing in his classic 1950 paper, ComputingMachinery and Intelligence , asked “Can Machines Think?”. Of course, this begs the questionof what it means to think. Yet, if we set apart mental activity not done by humans and by anartificial device but upon which we rely to take action that normally would follow from ourown thoughts, then we have at least some elements of artificial thinking. Recall (memory),computation, and pattern recognition are activities that can be done better with computersthan by humans, and we traditionally have regarded these as thinking. Navigating a car canbe done entirely by a human thinking but often better by a computer, simply because of theprecision.A system of systems – design goalsNo one component of a system that drives such a vehicle is responsible but a collection of components. Since the 1950s rapid development of “intelligent systems” has occurred, including tire monitoring, human- machine interfaces, assisted steering, brake management, navigation, and now semi-autonomous and Typical basic autonomous vehicle configuration using lasers, radar, and camera [1] autonomous driving. Numerous and differentsystems have been deployed, giving drivers directions through the global positioning system(GPS) as to the best routes both audibly and by text [2]. -1--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • The only step remaining was to coordinate the cars with each other, and full automationappeared to be the optimal way of doing this. In 1997, the California Partners for AdvancedTransit and Highways 2006 (PATH) demonstrated that a row of cars could be driven automatically down the highway at normal speeds with close spacing [3] A very wide network and interconnected solutions is needed, however. Vehicles can be treated as parts of a large organism when viewed all at once, rather than as individuals in isolated personal units. That means there has to California PATH Project [4] be an integrated transport system that coordinates traffic flow in order to make thesystem work optimally. Drivers may have the choice to override the recommendations of acars computer, but such could cause grave complications the integrated system might not beable to handle, as the change in one component, a car, may well affect how the others willnavigate. Perhaps research from swarm theory will be able to guide us, but at this stage, anintegrated transit control system operates not unlike a packet of information being routedover a communications network by sophisticated management software or like a power grid,where one disruption can cause the whole network to go down. How much independence adriver should have will have to be assessed in such contexts. People may perforce have lessof a choice about being in total charge about where and when they will navigate. We see theemergence of mesh networks, where cars communicate with each other, much in the sameway people do by walking in crowded spaces, keeping spaced by selecting the mostappropriate routes. For traffic management, it may be a matter of necessity to have a personentering a crowded area being switched to a network and driven according to the needscomputed by the traffic management software. Such is not much different than an air trafficcontrol system, where each airliner lands in turn, given the configuration of airport traffic.High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are a precursor to what we may expect in selectiveautonomous traffic control. At this juncture, it appears almost necessary to have a fully -2--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • autonomous vehicle that can respond to such a system. How feasible is this, and how wouldsuch work? Want to learn more about current technologies and developments automotive navigation? Visit our Download Centre for more articles, white papers and interviews: http://bit.ly/automotive-navigationReferences (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 2 August 2011)[1] http://www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/citr/Demo97/osu-av.html[2] http://reviews.cnet.com/best-gps/[3] https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.ece.gatech.edu/~magnus/Papers/UGCPaper.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[4] https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.ece.gatech.edu/~magnus/Papers/UGCPaper.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=trueResources (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 2 August 2011)https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.spacetech.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/Faculteit/LR/Opleidingen/SpaceTech/Central_Case_Project/doc/ST3_Worldwide_Inter-Modal_Navigation_System.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=truehttp://e2af.com/trend/080212.shtmlhttp://www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/citr/Demo97/osu-av.htmlhttp://wn.com/automobile_navigation_system - compares different types -3--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • Autonomous Cars and Society -https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-043007-205701/unrestricted/IQPOVP06B1.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=truehttp://www.intempora.com/en/projects/automotive/adas/carsensehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controller_area_networkhttp://www.transport-research.info/web/projects/project_details.cfm?id=15260&page=outlineStanford robot car "Junior" in action, DARPA Urban Challengehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSS0MZvoltwhttp://www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/citr/Demo97/osu-av.htmlhttps://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://husky.if.uidaho.edu/pubs/2011/IJCNN11_RavMan_HWNeuralAutonVehPathTracking.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=trueTransponder use - http://www.mikechiafulio.com/RIDE/system.htmlPath selection method -http://ftp.utcluj.ro/pub/docs/imaging/Autonomous_driving/Articole%20sortate/TUBraunschweig/iv980304.pdfLane change algorithm for autonomous vehicles via virtual curvature method- http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5CYM/is_1_43/ai_n31126282/Multi-Sensor Lane Finding in Urban Road Networks -https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.roboticsproceedings.org/rss04/p1.pdf&embe -4--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • dded=true&chrome=trueAutomating Acceptance Tests - https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.se-rwth.de/books/Diss-Berger.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=truehttp://www.eetimes.com/design/embedded-internet-design/4214506/Speech-recognition-in-the-carhttp://www.bosch-presse.de/presseforum/details.htm?locale=en&txtID=5156https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www2.selu.edu/Academics/Faculty/ck/paps/JFR.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=trueneural networks -https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://husky.if.uidaho.edu/pubs/2011/IJCNN11_RavMan_HWNeuralAutonVehPathTracking.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=trueCollision avoidance - http://e2af.com/trend/080117.shtmlhttp://www.intempora.com/en/projects/automotive/adas/carsenseExcellent history summary of UAVs –http://faculty.washington.edu/jbs/itrans/bishopahs.htmhttp://www.ivsource.net/archivep/2000/jul/a000731_carsense.html -5--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de