Englisch für Mediziner von Medical Tribune

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Medical Tribune hat eine schöne PDF mit Tipps für Englisch speziell für Mediziner zusammengestellt. Mehr zu Medical Tribune gibt es unter: http://www.medical-tribune.at

Medical Tribune hat eine schöne PDF mit Tipps für Englisch speziell für Mediziner zusammengestellt. Mehr zu Medical Tribune gibt es unter: http://www.medical-tribune.at

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  • 1. 16 Medizin ENGLISCH Medical Tribune • 37. Jahrgang • Nr. 46 • 16. November 2005 FÜR MEDIZINER MITKompetent bei Internationalen KongressenBringen Sie Ihr Wissen ein!BASEL/WIEN – Geht es Ihnenauch so? Sie lesen regelmäßigwissenschaftliche Lektüre aus False Friends Find the right termdem angelsächsischen Sprach- Words�or�expressions�which�look�alike�or�almost�look�alike�in�� German�words�can�be�translated�differently�into�English:raum und fahren gerne auf German�and�English.�They�may�even�sound�similar,�but�differ�in�� Einfluss/beeinflussen: meaning:�internationale Kongresse zur � � nfluence = Wirkung, IFortbildung. Ihr passiver eng- e.g. Drugs have a major influence on the body. German English English Germanlischer Wortschatz ist weit- � To influence = beeinflussen/(ein)wirken, Akademiker a person with academic Universitäts-reichend und auch die medi- e.g. This medication influences the body in a decisive way. a university lehrkraftzinischen Fachausdrücke sind � Impact = (heftige) Wirkung, educationIhnen geläufig. Doch wenn e.g. The treatment had little impact on the problem. (Arzt-)Rezept prescription recipe, Kochrezept, � To affect = beeinträchtigen, beeinflussen,Sie sich selbst zu Wort melden receipt Quittung e.g. Smoking and drinking affect the human body.möchten, gelingt es oft nicht, sensibel sensitive sensible vernünftigdie Frage so elegant wie ein Studie :„native speaker“ zu formulie- � Study = wissenschaftliche Untersuchung,ren. Also lassen Sie es lieber e.g. Several studies on this subject have been publishedbleiben. Schade! Wir möchten recently.Ihnen nun aber das Rüstzeug � Survey = Gutachten, (Prüfungs)bericht,vermitteln, sich kompetent zu e.g. We will not include these figures in our survey. � Trial = Versuch(sstudie),Wort zu melden. Frau lic. phil. e.g. One version of these peptides has been shown inDominique Battegay aus Ba- clinical trials.sel, hat viel Erfahrung mit den � � eport = (Studien)bericht, RSchwierigkeiten deutschspra- e.g. A 2005 report of the National Science Foundationchiger Teilnehmer an ihren noted that…Business-English-Kursen undhat diese in einem Kurzlehr-gang für die Medical-Tribune-Leser zusammengestellt. Ma-chen Sie mit! Bessern Sie IhrBusiness und Medical Englishmit der Medical Tribune auf. The language of meetings The�language�of�meetings�follows�defi �nite�patterns.�Effective�commu- nication�in�meetings�and�conferences�is�partly�a�matter�of�knowing� certain�special�expressions.� Make�sure�that�what�you�say�is�clear�and�understandable.�In�order�to� guarantee�that�native�and�non-native�speakers�will�listen�to�you�and� respect�what�you�say,�it�is�advisable�to�use�short�and�simple�sentences,� Say it in style to�articulate�clearly�and�to�speak�with�enough�volume�and�at�an�ap- It’s�not�just�what�you�want�to�say�that�counts,�but�also�how you�say� propriate�speed.� it.�In�the�following�you�will�fi �nd�suggestions�in�expressing�yourself� Be�sensitive�to�cultural�differences�in�how�people�express�and�com- clearly,� politely� and� effectively� in� English.� First� we� will� look� at� re- municate�their�opinions�and�views.� quests.�Make�sure�you�use�the�right�words�when�you�ask�someone�to� do�something�for�you.�As�German�speakers�we�tend�to�be�very�direct,� Use�diplomacy�to�disagree:�The�use�of�direct�phrases�such�as�“I dis- sometimes�imperative�when�we�want�something.�In�English,�requests� agree”�or�“You are wrong”��is�too�direct�and�may�sound�offensive�and� impolite.�Begin�your�disagreement�with�a�positive�sentence:� are�usually�“softenend”�by�an�introductory�sentence: � Yes, but… � This�is�a�bit�diffi�cult.�I�would�appreciate�it�if�you�could�help�me. � You may be right, but… � I�have�got�this�report�to�fi �nish.�Would�you�mind�waiting? � I see what you are saying, but…  � o�you�have�a�minute?�I�wonder�if�I�could�ask�you�to�proof-read� D Use�would,�could�or�might.�These�modal�auxiliaries�are�often�added� to�make�what�you�say�more�tentative.�It�takes�away�the�dogmatic�tone� this�for�me. English of�many�statements.�Here�are�some�examples: � � t’s�my�son’s�birthday�today.�Would�it�be�possible�for�me�to�� I pronunciation! � That is unacceptable = That would be unacceptable. leave�an�hour�earlier? � I don’t agree = I wouldn’t agree. Psychology = “seikologi” We�can�also�“warn”�the�listeners�that�a��disagreement�will�follow�by�an� Pneumonia = “nemonia”, Tipp: you don’t pronounce the “p”! introductory�phrase,�such�as: Actually, in fact, as a matter of fact, frankly, to put it bluntly, with Be�careful�with�the�expression�„would�you�be�so�kind�as�to…...”.�It�can� Knee= “ni:”, respect, to be honest.�The�last�four�introductory�phrases�introduce� sound�arrogant�and�sarcastic.�„I�was�wondering”�is�a�little�less�direct� you don’t hear the letter “k”. even�a�warning. and�more�formal�than�„I�wonder“.
  • 2. Englisch16 Medizin Medical Tribune • 37. Jahrgang • Nr. 46 • 16. November 2005 für Mediziner mitKompetent bei Internationalen KongressenBringen Sie Ihr Wissen ein!BASEL – Dass Sie ohne Angstzum Mikrofon greifen oder False Friends Find the right termsich in kleineren Workshops in Words or expressions which look alike or almost look alike in German words can be translated differently into English:die Diskussion einbringen, das German and English. They may even sound similar, but differ Methode:sind die Ziele unserer Serie in meaning:  Method = Art und Weise, System/Planmäßigkeit,„Englisch für Mediziner”. Sie e.g. The methods used for detecting prostate cancer disease German English English Germanlernen in diesem Kurzlehr- in daily practice are not very efficient. Meinung opinion, meaning Bedeutung,  Technique = (Arbeits-)Verfahren/Art der Ausführung,gang zielgerichtet den Wort- point of view Sinn e.g. The proposed techniques are regarded as suitable.schatz, den Sie für die Diskus- Schema diagram scheme Plan, Entwurf  Procedure = Vorgehen/Verhalten,sionen auf internationalen sparen to save to spare übrig haben, e.g. This procedure is adopted in order to avoid ambiguity.Kongressen brauchen. Aber verschonen  Process = Vorgehen/Verlauf e.g. This process can be carried out by any of several methods.auch die kulturellen Unter-  Way = Mittel und Wege,e.g. The experiments were performedschiede kommen zur Sprache. in the same way as described above.Personen deutscher Mutter-  Approach = Annäherung/Versuch, e.g. This approach can be used in many situations.sprache kommen oft direktzur Sache. Im Englischen gibt Theorie:es aber „ungeschriebene  Theory = Lehre, e.g. Many of these theories were false.Gesetze“ der Etikette der  Concept = Begriff/Auffassung,Kommunikation, die wir Ih- e.g. Cardiologists have adopted the concept of globalnen in der Rubrik „Say it in cardiovascular risk assessment.style“ näher bringen wollen.  Idea of = Vorstellung von, e.g. The idea of a global pandemic is scary.Verfolgen Sie diese Serie, die  Philosophy = praktische Lebensweisheit/Weltanschauung,nun regelmäßig in der Medi- e.g. From all the details presented, a philosophy emerges, namelycal Tribune erscheint. Frau lic. that patients can decide about the extent of their care.phil. Dominique Battegay ausBasel hat für Sie eine weitereLektion zusammengestellt. The language of meetings How do you ask for somebody’s opinion or give one yourself? Find out about the options you have:  What’s your position/view on …?  What’s your opinion of …?  I wonder if you’d like to comment, Ms Lang?  I was wondering where you stood on this question? Giving strong opinions:  I firmly/sincerely believe that …  I’m absolutely convinced that …  There is no doubt in my mind that … Giving moderate opinions:  In my opinion, we need to … Say it in style  It seems to me that we should … English-speakers often begin a complaint by using „softeners“. For Giving tentative opinions: example, they may use words such as seem or appear in order to  As far as I’m able to judge ... look less confrontational. Note the following examples: Grammar hints:  I would say that … Also, avoid using „you“ at first (e.g. „but you said ...“). It helps the Be careful with the spelling of  I think it would be fair to say … other person to save his/her face when dealing with your problem. the indefinite article. When the  Tipp: Using „would” gives more flexibility in case you need to change The more personally attacked someone feels, the more defensive following noun starts with a your view later. It is more diplomatic and avoids offending the liste- – and unhelpful – he or she is likely to become. vowel, you have to use „an” ners.  There appears to be a problem with my registration for the mee- instead of „a”: If you want to bring somebody in to present a point, you could say: ting. I have sent an email to the registration office two weeks ago.  An appropriate method  Mr. Bean, would you like to come in here?  I wonder if you could clarify something for me. The receptionist  An effort / influence / under-  Allow me to give the floor to Mrs Ingram. tells me there is no record of my reservation. standing  I’d like to call on Mrs Davis to present her views on …  There seems to have been an error with my order. I asked for a But: If the following word starts If your opinion includes a suggestion, present it in question form or steak and not for a lobster. with the vowel „u” pronounced even add „n’t” to it:  I think there must have been a mistake with my bill. I have been as „ju”, the indefinite article  That is too late. = Isn’t that too late? charged for the entire doctors group instead of myself only. remains „a”:  We could cancel. = Couldn’t we cancel?  I don’t quite understand this question. It looks as if the listeners  A university These examples sound more tentative and negotiable if they are gram- totally misunderstood my talk.  A unique opportunity matically negative.
  • 3. Englisch16 Medizin Medical Tribune • 37. Jahrgang • Nr. 46 • 16. November 2005 für Mediziner mitKompetent auf internationalen KongressenDie richtigen Wörter finden!WIEN – Bereits die dritte Lek-tion unserer Serie „Englisch False Friends Find the right termfür Mediziner” können wir German words can be translated differently into English: Words or expressions which look alike or almost look alike inIhnen in dieser Ausgabe der German and English. They may even sound similar, but differ in Begriff:Medical Tribune anbieten. Das meaning:  Notion = Vorstellung/Idee,heutige Kapitel dreht sich um e.g. The notion of „fatigue“ is quite vague. German English English German  Idea = Idee/Gedanke,das Thema „Fragen stellen”. e.g. Health insurers pursue the idea of reducing health care cost.Gerade auf wissenschaftlichen Formula form formula Formel  Conception = Begriffsvermögen/Vorstellung,Kongressen, ist es wichtig, bei Labor laboratory labor (US) Arbeit e.g. The conception of children about disease depends on their age.Unklarheiten während eines (lab) labour (UK)  Term = Ausdruck/Bezeichnung,Vortrages in der Diskussion um Rationell efficient rational logisch, e.g. The term SARS was still totally unknown just five years ago. rational Beziehung:Aufklärung zu ersuchen. Die  Relationship = Verhältnis/Verwandtschaft,Fragen sollten möglichst klar e.g. The relationship between Dr. Miller and her nurses is excellent.und präzise erfolgen, denn oft  Relation = Bezug,ist wenig Zeit, weil sich viele e.g. The relation of treatment and outcome should usually beKongressteilnehmer zu Wort studied in randomised trials.  Correlation = Wechselbeziehung/gegenseitige Abhängigkeit,melden. Gleichzeitig kommt e.g. Our research has shown little correlation between serumes, wie wir in den beiden vor- cholesterol levels and bone density.herigen Kapiteln schon gese-  Connection = Verbindung,hen haben, in der englischen e.g. This study shows a close connection between eating habits of mice and the XYZ gene.Sprache oft auf Feinheiten  Link = (Ketten)Glied/Bindeglied,an. Direkte Fragen, wie sie in e.g. Our website offers many links for evidence-based medicine.unserem Sprachkreis durchaus  Linkage = Verkettung,üblich sind, gelten bald als e.g. The linkage between humour and politics is not always apparent.  Association = Zusammenhang,unhöflich. Wie Sie diesen Ba- e.g. The association of heart failure and the increased number oflance-Akt am besten meistern traffic accidents is not easy to explain.können, lernen Sie in diesemKapitel unseres kleinen „Eng-lischkurses”. The language of meetings Politeness is very important in English (and probably in other langua- ges, too). Therefore we must use certain phrases which may sound prim (= geziert) to a German speaker, but are perfectly all right in Eng- lish. The most common phrase in England is „I’m afraid”. It may warn of disagreement, but its general meaning is wider and indicates that the speaker recognizes his or her reaction as unhelpful or unwelcome. So, the question „Could I speak to Tom, please?“ could be answered:  I’m afraid, he is out of town. Or: „Would next Monday be convenient?“ Say it in style  I’m afraid, I’m tied up all day. If you owe somebody an apology for something that has gone wrong, you have the following options: Avoiding direct disagreement increases the chance of a successful  I understand that you are upset. I do apologise. I’ll see who can communication. Therefore, good negotiators often restrict general help you with your enquiry and then get back to you immediate- statements by qualifiers (= ein einschränkendes, milderndes Adjektiv ly. oder Adverb).  Please excuse me for having kept you waiting so long. Can I offer Here are some of the most common qualifiers in English: you anything to drink? Grammar hints:  There seems to be a slight misunderstanding.  I’m so sorry about forgetting your order. I will take care of it right Be careful with the spelling of  I have some reservations about your kind offer. away. words that sound the same or  The airplane will arrive with a short delay (of three hours!). similar:  We have a bit of a problem with our rented car. Tipp: In British English, „sorry“ is used after something has hap-  We need a little more time to finish that project. pened, for example after you have done something wrong. „Excuse  Lose = verlieren (verb) me“ is used before you intend to do something. If you want to inter-  Loose = locker, lose (adjec- Often, the English language avoids negative adjectives and prefers rupt somebody during a meeting say: „Excuse me, could I comment tive) using not very followed by a positive equivalent. Look at the follo- on your remarks?“ wing examples: In American English the expressions „excuse me“ and „sorry“ are  Prove = beweisen (verb)  The hotel was not very clean = The hotel was dirty. not necessarily differentiated.  Proof = Beweis (noun)  The food was not very hot = The food was cold.
  • 4. Englisch 16 Medizin Medical Tribune • 37. Jahrgang • Nr. 46 • 16. November 2005 für Mediziner mitKompetent bei internationalen Kongressen„Wie bitte?“ oder „Hmh?“WIEN – Sicher haben Sie dasbei einem internationalen Kon- False Friends Find the right termgress auch schon erlebt: Sie Words or expressions which look alike or almost look alike in Ger- Ansicht/der Ansicht sein:haben etwas nicht verstanden man und English. They may even sound similar, but differ in mea-  Opinion = Meinung, ning. e.g. In my opinion this approach seems sensible.und möchten den Referenten  View = Auffassung,um eine Wiederholung bitten, German English English German e.g. Man’s view of illness has changed over the centuries.  Viewpoint = Gesichtspunkt,oder Sie wollen gekonnt Ihre rentabel profitable rentable mietbar, e.g. A variety of viewpoints is presented in the book. mietfähigMeinung kundtun. Wie ma-  Point of view = Standpunkt, spenden to donate to spend ausgeben, ver- e.g. From this point of view, this procedure may be considered unnecessary.chen Sie das am besten? In bringen  Perception = Wahrnehmung/Vorstellung/Erkenntnis,dieser Lektion „Englisch für Direktion management direction Richtung e.g. Biotechnologists must counter the perception that their industry isMediziner“ bekommen Sie not adequately regulated.  Mind = Meinung/Ansicht,wieder gute Tipps, wie Sie Ihr e.g. There was a tendency in the public mind to deny the progress of research.Anliegen elegant formulieren Verbesserung:können. Und wie gehen Sie  Improvement = im Sinne von Fortschritt,vor, wenn Sie jemanden an ei- e.g. Various improvements have been made in order to overcome these problems.nen wichtigen Termin oder ein  Refinement = im Sinne von inhaltlicher Verbesserung,Meeting erinnern wollen? Die e.g. Later refinements by the editor have improved the style of the chapter.Rubrik „Say it in style” gibt Ih-nen die richtigen Anweisungendazu. Unsere Autorin, Frau Do-minique Battegay, lic.phil., hatwieder ein paar Lernhäppchenfür Sie zusammengestellt. The language of meetings One way of avoiding misunderstandings during meetings is by cla- rifying what someone has said. By rephrasing the other’s position, you show that you have not only listened to him/her, but that you also attach importance to what he/she has said. Say it in style Asking for information: It is not always easy to remind people of deadlines, meetings or ap-  Would I be correct in saying that ...? pointments. It is therefore best not to give them the feeling that you  Am I correct/right in assuming that ...? don’t trust them to remember something. Avoid starting sentences with „Have you forgotten …?“ or „May I remind you that …“. In- Asking for repetition: stead, mention the date in the context of what needs to be done  I’m afraid I didn’t quite get your last point. Could you go over it before that: again?  I just wanted to check whether you have got all the informati-  I’m sorry, I didn’t quite follow/get/understand what you said about … on you need for the meeting next week. Tipp: Asking for repetition helps in three ways:  Is everything set for our appointment on Friday?  If you don’t understand somebody who is not clear, but it is impo-  The deadline is coming up in a few days, so I wanted to make lite to say so. sure that everything is all right.  If you don’t understand because of your own or the speaker’s limi- When you think that a person may have forgotten something, use tations in English, you get a second chance to understand. an indirect question or comment, such as „weren’t you…“ or „I  If you have understood, but need time to think. Grammar hints: thought“:  Weren’t you meeting Tom today? The following nouns can be used Correcting misunderstandings:  I thought you had mentioned having an appointment with the in the singular only:  I’m afraid there seems to have been a slight misunderstanding. board this morning.  I guess I have not been entirely clear on that point. When it is clear that someone has forgotten something important,  This information is very useful. you can simply state what has been forgotten: Rephrasing:  Don’t forget your glasses.  He gave me a good piece of  Sorry, I’m probably not making myself clear. Let me put it another  Are those your glasses? advice. way…  Our project was a good  To be more specific … When something that has been promised is not done, it is best to experience. Tipp: These phrases can either be used in reply to a request for cla- avoid direct blame which can be counterproductive. In that case  Much progress has been rification or as a way of reinforcing your point by putting it in other you could express your request by using an introductory sentence: made over the last few years. words. Notice that it is more polite and diplomatic to say that it is your  I was wondering about the confirmation you were going to  No news is good news. fault even if it isn’t. Avoid phrases like „you didn’t understand“. send me.
  • 5. Englisch16 Medizin Medical Tribune • 37. Jahrgang • Nr. 46 • 16. November 2005 für Mediziner mitKompetent auf internationalen KongressenNach Informationen fragenWIEN – Will man „Lektüre“oder „Arztrezept“ ins Engli- False Friends Find the right termsche übersetzen, muss man German words can be translated differently into English: Words or expressions which look alike or almost look alike in Ger-aufpassen, dass man nicht man and English. They may even sound similar, but differ in mea-in die „False Friends“-Falle ning: Bedeutung:tappt. Auch in dieser Lektion  Meaning = Sinn/Bedeutung, German English English German e.g. This word has no meaning.„Englisch für Mediziner” hat Lektüre reading lecture Vortrag  Sense = Sinn(esorgan); Sinn/Verstand,Frau Dominique Battegay, lic. (material) e.g. His argument makes sense to us.phil., für Sie ein paar „False Protokoll minutes protocol Vorgehensweise  Signification = (bestimmte) Bedeutung/Bezeichnung,Friends“ zusammengestellt. (diplomatische Regeln) e.g. Could you tell me the signification of this symbol?Was im Deutschen als „Fehler“ selbstbewusst self-confident self-conscious unsicher Fehler:gilt, hat im Englischen ganz un- Arztrezept prescription recipe Kochrezept  Mistake = Fehler, den man macht,terschiedliche Begriffe, wie Sie e.g. He made many mistakes in his test.in der Rubrik „Find the right  Error = Irrtum, e.g. These new methods unveiled small errors in the experiments ofterm“ sehen können. previous researchers.  Defect = Fehler im Sinn eines Makels, e.g. Women who took thalidomide during their pregnancy had children with birth defects.  Failure = Fehlschlagen/Scheitern, e.g. The acute failure of the aortic valve may lead to very rapid deteri- oration.  Malfunction = Funktionsstörung/Versagen, e.g. We checked the apparatus for possible malfunctions.  Misconception = Missverständnis/falsche Auffassung, e.g. There is a widespread misconception that smoking is not dangerous. The language of meetings This chapter will deal with the techniques of persuading at meetings; how to make an argument more convincing or to show that I myself am not convinced. Say it in style There are different ways in English to ask for information. Here you Asking questions: find the options you have:  Wouldn’t it be a good idea to …?  What/where/who/when/which-questions are used in informal con-  Have you taken into account …? versations with colleagues you work with regularly. In other situa- tions, this type of questions may be considered impolite as they are Adding information: very direct.  If we look at it in another light …  Could you tell me-questions can be used when asking for general  I wonder if you have considered … information in public places, e.g. „Excuse me, could you tell me Grammar hints: which bus runs to the airport?“ In written English, the German Challenging: This part is more direct than the previous two. Be careful  I was wondering … is a standard opening when you meet somebody word weniger has got different with these phrases as they can cause offence. in an impersonal situation. It often comes in response to „May I help translations:  I wonder if that view is justified in the light of … you?“ „Less” is used before nouns in the  I would be inclined to …, if I were you.  Do you know (by any chance) …? If you add „by any chance“ you singular, „fewer” before nouns in are showing that you don’t necessarily expect your colleague to the plural: Expressing reservation: know the answer.  Less information, money, re-  I’m afraid such a decision might lead to …  Do you happen to know …? Is a variation of the previous type of search.  I can’t help feeling that … questions and is used when asking something that is out of con-  Fewer atoms, data, people.  I’m rather worried about ... text. It can be introduced by saying „By the way …“ In colloquial English, on the other Tipp: Be careful with the expression „would you mind”! This phrase hand, the combination of „less” Reassuring: is neutral as in the sentence: „Would you mind shutting the win- and the plural form is acceptable:  We share your concern about this, and you may rest assured dow?“ But when you use it with the verbs tell and say, such as „Would  We have less students enrolled that … you mind telling me where you have been?“, it sounds patronizing than last year.  Let me assure you straight away on that point. and like a parent speaking to a naughty child.
  • 6. Englisch16 Medizin Medical Tribune • 37. Jahrgang • Nr. 46 • 16. November 2005 für Mediziner mitKompetent auf internationalen KongressenBringen Sie Ihre Meinung einIn einer englisch geführtenDiskussion fühlt man sich oft False Friends Find the right termhilflos, wenn man einen Red- Words or expressions which look alike or almost look alike in German German words can be translated differently into English:ner unterbrechen bzw. die and English. They may even sound similar, but differ in meaning:eigene Meinung einbringen Resultate:möchte. In dieser vorläufig German English English German  Result = Ergebnis,letzten Lektion unserer Se- e.g. Preliminary results have been presented in abstract form. konsequent consistent consequent daraus folgend (conse-rie „Englisch für Mediziner”  Finding = Fund/Entdeckung, quently = folglich)bekommen Sie Tipps, wie Sie e.g. Their finding indicates that this drug reduces depression. stationär in hospital, as stationary ortsfest,  Outcome = Ergebnis/Folge,höflich, aber bestimmt den an in-patient (still)stehend e.g. The outcome of his extensive research showed that cancer isRedeschwall unterbrechen und prägnant succinct, pregnant schwanger partially preventable by increased fruit intake.sich wirkungsvoll ins Gespräch concise  Product = Erzeugnis,bringen. Diese und alle bisheri- e.g. Products of several companies have been marketed extensively.gen Folgen finden Sie ab sofort  Yield = Ertrag,als zusammenhängendes PDF e.g. We had an excellent yield of this project.in unserem Downloadcenterauf www.medical-tribune.at.Wir schicken Ihnen fehlendeTeile aber auch gerne zu. RufenSie uns an: 01/54600-321 Say it in style English native speakers are usually very careful not to be too direct or The language of meetings „bossy“ when they are making suggestions. There are different styles depending on who you are addressing. In most discussions and meetings interrupting is very common. How can you make it clear that you want to say or comment on something  „You should talk to your boss”, is a direct suggestion, almost a or stop somebody interrupting you? Here you find some suggesti- command. It is not impolite and possibly appropriate when you ons: talk to a friend. However, it is rather inappropriate in business situations. Therefore, use it only with colleagues you know on a In most Nordic countries (including Great Britain and America), it is closer and intimate level. very impolite to interrupt somebody while he/she is talking. There- fore, never interrupt somebody in mid-sentence. The right moment  „Maybe we should call a meeting to discuss these issues”, is for an interruption is during a pause in what the speaker is saying. an appropriate sentence for many business situations, even when This may be when the speaker hesitates or when he/she is changing talking to somebody of a higher rank. It is less direct and „con- from one subject to another. Then you could say: frontational“ than the first example.  I don’t want to interrupt, but …  May I interrupt you for a moment ...  „Have you thought about talking to the other colleagues?”  Sorry to interrupt/break in, but ... Instead of implying that the other person has done something Tipp: In contrast, interrupting somebody in a more southern country wrong, the suggestion is being wrapped into a neutral question. Grammar hints: such as Italy may be more positively received because interrupting The listener is free to take the advice or not. This phrasing is ap- The noun difficulty is used in the may show the listener that you are interested in what he/she is propriate when you don’t know the other person well or when you singular only in connection with the saying. want to be careful. prepositions of and in: If you would like to take the floor, you have the following options:  „How about dropping in this afternoon so I can help you with  Universities encounter difficulty  Can/may/could I come in at this moment? your presentation?” This is a very positive and friendly phrasing in attracting top scientists.  I have a point to make here. which is used mainly for suggestions in an informal context. A  We were confronted with the dif-  If nobody objects, I’d like to say a few words about … person that begins a suggestion in this manner, expects a positive ficulty of raising enough money answer because he/she is trying to offer help. for this project. Many interruptions are clarifications. As soon as you have given the necessary information, you return to what you were saying by using  „You may/might think about finishing this project first before The plural „difficulties” is possible one of these phrases: you start another one.” This is probably the most popular type without a preposition:  Coming back to what I was saying … of suggestion in business contexts. It implies that the speaker is  A number of difficulties arose at  As I was saying ... in a position of knowing better than the listener. However, the the beginning of the study.  If I could continue … phrasing is so indirect that it is suitable for most situations.