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Autonomous Vehicle Navigation
 

Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

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    Autonomous Vehicle Navigation Autonomous Vehicle Navigation Document Transcript

    • Autonomous vehicle navigation – current status, issues, and prospectsScope of autonomous vehicle navigationThere are three ways a car may be navigated: totally in autonomous mode – without anydriver intervention, semi-autonomously with some driver intervention, and completely drivercontrolled. A vehicle may be guided autonomously by the Global Positioning System (GPS),cameras, laser detectors, radar, wires in or lines on the road, or by transponders strategicallylocated along a route. While road sensors or wires provide a more accurate navigation thereare practical limits to installing them, given the number of roads involved. Navigationalsoftware includes pre-programmed routes, driving rules (such as stopping for red lights andlane changes), and user interfaces. Mechanical control is done by servo motors, relays,sensors, automated steering and braking, throttle management, and so forth.With the improvement of automotive systems aided by computers and artificial intelligence, itshould not be surprising to see the emergence of vehicles that drive themselves. Variousnames have been given to autonomously driven vehicles: uninhabited autonomous vehicle(UAV), autopilot vehicle, driverless car, auto-drive car, or automated/autonomously guidedvehicle (AGV). An autonomously-driven vehicle is a true automobile, i.e., mobile on its own –self-propelled and navigated. A semi-autonomous vehicle can use any navigational method,but the driver intervenes to determine the routing and otherwise control the car. A person ina completely driver-controlled vehicle most often uses a map interfacing with GPS or a handheld device, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA) that displays locations via GPS. Routesultimately are determined by the driver and may be charted by means such as on-boardmaps, web interface, or PDAs. Assisted navigation already is a reality. Smart cars have thecapability of detecting empty parking spaces, thus obviating having to drive a long timesearching. Already, in many cities there are timed traffic lights, where by maintaining anoptimal speed, a driver can “make” every light without stopping. With forward-looking trafficcontrol (automatic positioning), a driver is warned via a human-machine interface (HMI) ofaccidents, congestion, and construction, and is given the choice of different routes. A finalstep is intelligent and automated street or highway systems, where cars are integrated into -1--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • an overall system and coordinated to result in a smooth and optimal traffic flow. HighOccupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are precursors to this.Feasibility of autonomously-driven vehiclesPilotless vehicles are not new. Hydrogen balloons were guided by spark transmitters towardsthe end of the 19th century, and the British flew a monoplane called the Larynx [1] in the 1920s. During World War Two, radio controlled planes came more into vogue. Today we see remotely operated tractors tilling and seeding fields using the GPS, or even a cell phone. We have remotely monitored and controlled systems such as OnStar for Chevrolet cars and Qualcomm for semi-trucks. Mostly everyone has heard of the Predator drones used by the Tractor driven by student in India using a cell phone [2] U.S. military as “state-of-the-art”, although there are numerous problems of errors intargeting [3]. Especially since 1977, when Tsukuba Mechanical engineering lab built the firstself-driving vehicle, development and sophistication has continued for autonomous groundvehicles. Another example of autonomous vehicle development was Carsense a projectsponsored from 2000-20002 by the European Commission consisting of twelve European carmanufacturing companies to illustrate the efficacy of autonomous vehicles. Long and shortradar, cameras, and various sensors were used to pilot the vehicle.The Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense(DoD), sponsored three DARPA challenges to build autonomously driven vehicles in March2004, October 2005, and November 2007. The 2004 and 2005 ones involved vehiclesrunning overland in off-road desert environments up to 240 km and up to 80 km per hour. Inthe first, only five vehicles traveled more than a couple of kilometers. Three vehiclescompleted more than 212 km in the second. The third challenge was in an urbanenvironment and six vehicles traveled 60 miles. -2--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • From 26 July to 28 October 2010 four vehicles drove themselves 15,000 km from Parma Italyto Shanghai, China [4]. In the same year Google had seven driven for a total of 140,000miles between Los Angeles and San Francisco with humans intervening only occasionally [5].Routes were reprogrammed, along with essential data like speed limits. Google has gone sofar as to ask Nevada to allow autonomous vehicles and texting in them [6]. As late as themiddle of June 2011 Nevada approved the use of autonomous vehicles on its roads [7].Volkswagen is testing vehicles in Europe, as the following video displays so graphically:http://techie-buzz.com/tech-news/google-approval-self-driving-cars-nevada.html. Stanford University, one of the winners of the U.S. Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) urban challenge in 2007, is carrying forth research on LIght Detection And Ranging, or Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDER) to create maps of a cars environment and use that to navigate. Maps with locations of people and objects are Stanford Autonomous Vehicle Project [8] continuously generated from this withcentimeter accuracy and the data are used to determine an actual path.Sequence of events in a typical UAV tripA typical trip in an autonomous vehicle would be similar to the following. A driver hasselected a destination, turns the ignition key to start the motor, and inputs the location into acomputer in the car. If the car is connected to a network in a highly congested area, routeselection might be determined by that network, the driver, at this point being a merepassenger. Otherwise the driver will have more independence in overriding the vehiclescomputer system. A power on self test (POST) is done by the computer, with sensors,instruments, and circuitry being tested for integrity. At such point, the computer activatesthe controllers of the power train, steering, and braking. Physical turning is done by servomotors which receive signals from the computer, which, in turn has received signals from thesensors. The vehicle backs or pulls out of its parking spot and the trip begins. Sensors inconjunction with navigation by GPS and maps generated by satellite in real time enable the -3--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • car to maintain a correct trajectory. Over the years, computer assisted braking, steering,engine control, and navigation have been evolved to a point where all of these are beingintegrated into the autonomous vehicle. These systems now work in conjunction with eachother – at least in theory - to provide a safe and economical trip.Assessing the desirability of autonomously-driven vehiclesIt is said trivially that “necessity is the mother of invention”, so it is not out of place to ask thequestion whether there should be autonomously-driven vehicles. Some major reasons in favorof such technology are: Coordinated vehicle control may be used to manage traffic congestion. It is worthy to note that Bill Ford, executive chairman of Ford Motor Company speech at Technology, Entertainment, Design (TED) conference in March 2011 stated we need “smart cars, “smart” roads, public transport, and other measures that will address the overcrowding of cars on the highways in order to have the freedom of mobility. He cited a 100 mile traffic jam in China during the summer of 2010 that took 11 days to clear. With most people living in cities world wide in the near future, people will not have the freedom to drive just anywhere they want at any time. High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are a partial response to this, but certainly not sufficient. It will be problematical at best whether drivers will have as much control as they do now about routing, and driving very well may be determined by traffic flow. [9] A carefully controlled vehicle is safer, as it navigates more precisely and is not fraught with the human errors that are sources of transit problems, such as accidents, poor route selection, and inefficient driving practices. A major cause of accidents is tailgating and failing to keep distance, but cars that are autonomously driven are more accurate as they have not only precise navigation and monitoring equipment but devices exist to physically slow down or stop the car before it crashes [10]. Autonomous vehicles are more fuel efficient, as fuel use and route selection result from careful computations, rather than from the rough estimates by a driver [11]. In addition, we may not have much choice about fuel use, given the mounting problem of Peak Oil [12]. Peak Oil will not only force the deployment of transportation using non- petroleum -based fuel, but there will have to be a more efficient flow and regulation of -4--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • traffic to maximize fuel efficiency, and that can come about by the precision of autonomous vehicles. Autonomous navigation is more convenient in eliminating the “work aspect” of driving. A would be driver can become a passenger freed of the worry of the consequences of inefficient or generally poor driving. Very aged citizens, highly medicated, intoxicated, and blind people may be able to drive.There are disadvantages to autonomous vehicles, some being: There is less choice of routing and general control over the vehicle. Even if the option exists of switching from autonomous driving to driving by a person, the problem arises of integrating the switchover from a planned route to one that is determined by the driver and may not be compatible. There is the failure of systems and the consequences. One small disruption in a very large and integrated system may have disastrous effects. There is a continued dependence upon individual vehicles in face of looming constraints of diminishing fuel supplies and congestion. A false security arises in thinking that the increased efficiency and safety of autonomous systems is sufficient in overcoming these problems. The issue of hacking the software running autopilot looms. No further comment should be necessary here. Want to learn more about current technologies and developments automotive navigation? Visit our Download Centre for more articles, white papers and interviews: http://bit.ly/automotive-navigationReferences (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 31 July 2011)[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-controlled_aircraft#History -5--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • [2] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAFw0L-E4hc&NR=1[3] http://thebureauinvestigates.com/2011/07/18/washingtons-untrue-claims-no-civilian-deaths-in-pakistan-drone-strikes/[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VisLab_Intercontinental_Autonomous_Challenge[5] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html[6] http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/11/science/11drive.html[7] http://techie-buzz.com/tech-news/google-approval-self-driving-cars-nevada.html[8] http://people.csail.mit.edu/kolter/lib/exe/fetch.php?media=pubs:levinson-iv2011.pdf[9] http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/robin_chase_on_zipcar_and_her_next_big_idea.html[10] https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-043007-205701/unrestricted/IQPOVP06B1.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[11] https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-043007-205701/unrestricted/IQPOVP06B1.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true[12] http://www.theoildrum.com/Resources (Subject is indicated by URL – accessed 31 July 2011)https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.spacetech.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/Faculteit/LR/Opleidingen/SpaceTech/Central_Case_Project/doc/ST3_Worldwide_Inter-Modal_Navigation_System.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=truehttp://e2af.com/trend/080212.shtmlhttp://wn.com/automobile_navigation_system - compares different typesAutonomous Cars and Society -https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-043007-205701/unrestricted/IQPOVP06B1.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=true -6--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
    • http://www.intempora.com/en/projects/automotive/adas/carsensehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controller_area_networkhttp://www.transport-research.info/web/projects/project_details.cfm?id=15260&page=outlineStanford robot car "Junior" in action, DARPA Urban Challengehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSS0MZvoltwhttp://www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/citr/Demo97/osu-av.htmlhttps://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://husky.if.uidaho.edu/pubs/2011/IJCNN11_RavMan_HWNeuralAutonVehPathTracking.pdf&embedded=true&chrome=trueTransponder use - http://www.mikechiafulio.com/RIDE/system.htmlPath selection method -http://ftp.utcluj.ro/pub/docs/imaging/Autonomous_driving/Articole%20sortate/TUBraunschweig/iv980304.pdfhttp://www.intempora.com/en/projects/automotive/adas/carsenseExcellent history summary of UAVs - http://faculty.washington.edu/jbs/itrans/bishopahs.htmhttp://www.ivsource.net/archivep/2000/jul/a000731_carsense.html -7--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de