Need for Advanced Suspension SystemsSuspension systems have significantly contributed to vehicle’s safety as well as inthe...
any discussions on suspension systems brings forth the essence of driving safetyand driving comfort, it would be optimal t...
3) A larger deflection in suspension can be sought by using road disturbances to        effect sprung mass to isolate bett...
8) However, the mechanism of active suspension system requires an addition        or input of extra force to the already e...
Ensuring safety through the concept of Brake-friendly SuspensionControllable suspension and advanced brake control systems...
The mere tradeoff between comfort and road handling are satisfied by currentvehicle suspension designs. Active and Semi-ac...
With European commission striving to make Europe a zero carbon society by 2050,vehicle manufacturers will have to adhere t...
of air systems which along with air bags can be susceptible to break downs. Airsuspensions are termed essentially to be hi...
manufacture, thus aiding in reducing the manufacturing costs. This innovativetechnique is used for manufacturing lighter w...
References:http://www.carbibles.com/suspension_bible.htmlwww.frost.comwww.benthamscience.comhttp://autoshepherd.com/catego...
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Article need for advanced suspension systems

  1. 1. Need for Advanced Suspension SystemsSuspension systems have significantly contributed to vehicle’s safety as well as inthe enhancement of its life span. A good suspension system protects vehicle fromundue wear & tear, which in turn increases the life-span of the vehicle. In thiscontext, vehicle’s application is very useful for providing its availability. Moreover, itproactively plays an active part in rendering comfort to vehicle occupants. Inmodern times, the significance of suspension systems is much valued than it wasdecades ago. Today, the manufacturers have certainly prioritized incorporatingadvanced suspension systems in its vehicles, in order to render controllability,stability and many other component attributes onto its vehicle occupants. Also,patenting of its suspension system design is carried out by certain vehiclemakers. Future trends of advanced suspension systems could be reflected fromrepresentative patents and innovations in the arena of suspension systems.Achieving State of Art Suspension systemsDriving comfort and safety is one of the functionalities of vehicle suspensionsystem. A good suspension system is the efficient carrier of the vehicle body orits framework, so as to proportionately distribute all forces between the road andthe vehicle body. In order for the suspension system to suit any drivingconditions, introduction of active and semi-active components is mandatory. Fixedsetups of suspension should be technically enhanced by making alterations invariable shock absorber or springs so attached to it. For instilling efficacy in vehiclesuspension systems, the control behavior of its components ought to be studied.Also, adapting to certain parameters in relevance to driving excitations must beunderstood. It is equally pertinent to identify as well as detect if any faultycomponents persist, in order to accommodate design of suspension system. As------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  2. 2. any discussions on suspension systems brings forth the essence of driving safetyand driving comfort, it would be optimal to elaborate these two widely used terms.Driving SafetyIt is meant to signify an optimal suspension design with harmonious combination ofspringing, braking, and steering as well as wheel suspension. A quantitative value ofsafety can be evaluated by variation in Tire load indication.Driving ComfortA quantitative value of Driving comfort can be evaluated by car’s quantity formotion and vibration of its body. Moreover, in determining Driving comfort level ofany suspension system, it is optimal to keep the external values such as climateconditions, external noises and vibrations to lowest possible limit, so as to effect anoptimal evaluation of its quantitative value.The following depict key pointers so as to achieve optimal performance fromsuspension systems: 1) It is essential to decrease the frequency sensitive to human body by decreasing sprung mass peak to near 1 Hz. while attempting to isolate the sprung mass from other road disturbances. In doing so, suspension system can achieve greater scalability in the ride quality. 2) For improving stability of the ride, it would be optimal to decrease resonance frequency of the wheel to around 10 Hz., while essentially keeping the contact between the road and the tire intact.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  3. 3. 3) A larger deflection in suspension can be sought by using road disturbances to effect sprung mass to isolate better in relevance to a suspension spring. 4) It is necessary to note that unnecessary suspension deflections, if prevented with appropriate damping, could enable achieve better road contact. 5) Driving stability and quality thus demand criteria which are pretty conflicting to each other. It is suggested that for any set of data input in specific stress and road conditions, comfort and safety will always be compromised where the passive suspension system is fixed 6) It is also suggested that active or semi-active suspension systems strive to lessen the conflict. 7) Semi-active suspension systems are based on the theory of meeting the actual demands by making stiffness of spring and/or damping adapting to them------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  4. 4. 8) However, the mechanism of active suspension system requires an addition or input of extra force to the already existing passive systems. Thus, active suspension system is based on mechanism of addition, rather than adaptation unlike semi-active suspension systems. 9) Any unnecessary loss in performance of active or semi-active suspension can be prevented by taking changes in parameters such as wear & tear, temperature, variation in certain other external factors, during process of designing controller for the aforesaid suspensions. This can also be prevented by adapting a robust controller by which changes in system behavior could be controlled by its signals------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  5. 5. Ensuring safety through the concept of Brake-friendly SuspensionControllable suspension and advanced brake control systems are incorporated inmost of the vehicles in higher segments. Semi-active dampers are the chosencontrollable suspension systems for these purpose. The switching betweenemergency modes and normal operative is the presumption in active safety chainfor effectuating real integration of suspension controls. The comfort objectives shallbe the parameters considered to control vehicle suspension in operative mode. Theapplication of specialized optimized algorithms has to be considered for control ofsuspension in emergency mode. Advanced algorithms which have ability to tracethe full potential of vehicle controllable suspension will be used for manoeuvres asemergency braking.Concept of Brake-Friendly SuspensionEmergency braking manoeuvre includes Tires which play intermediary or as ainterface between the road and the vehicle. The nonlinear attribute of the couplingdictates its dependence on varied parameters. The vertical load Fz and thelongitudinal slip κ: µ = µ(Fz,κ), which carries the coefficient between tire and agiven road, causes fluctuation in vertical tire to have influence on breaking distance.The extension of stopping distance arises as a result of nonlinearity from theoscillations of vertical force. In the case where braking is completely interrupted,the decrease in scenario of losing contact between tire and road is effectuated bycontrolled suspension. ABS algorithms depict these undesirable situations in worstscenarios. That the vehicle has not braked during the interval of losing and gainingcontact, is the direct consequence of ABS algorithm and its sampling.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  6. 6. The mere tradeoff between comfort and road handling are satisfied by currentvehicle suspension designs. Active and Semi-active systems are suggested toincrease performance in suspension systems, considering that passive suspensiondesign has been almost pushed to its limits. Semi-active systems propose the use offail-safe and low energy demands. Certain undesirable vibrations and shortening ofbraking distance can be suppressed by optimization of braking manoeuvre and withthe aid of efficiently controlled vehicle suspension system. This is what brake-friendly suspension can mean to be, so achieved by eradicating the vertical forces offluctuation between road and tire. This objective has to be achieved in order toensure safety via advanced suspension systems.Global Trend towards vehicle weight reductionThe EU regulatory authorities have proposed that 2020 vehicle manufacturingtargets fulfil requirement of having lighter cars. The regulatory authorities haveendorsed one of the technical requirement of 2020 fleet of passenger cars would beto have emissions of not more than 95g CO2/km. This restriction in carbon emissionwould in fact set trend for every manufacturer indirectly lower the weight of the car.Manufacturers have adhered to the proposed regulatory requirement by bringinginnovative tools to effect weight reduction in cars. In the process of doing this, CFRPstructures are going to replace metal structural components in car’s seatingarrangement, thereby effecting 20% reduction in weight via polyamide structuresused in seats. Moreover, plastic and certain other materials which are suggested toreplace PU foams will further reduce weight in overall seating. Along with innovativematerials, the market is pampered with innovative designs such as TU Delft andBMW massage system in order to adhere with weight reduction requirement.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  7. 7. With European commission striving to make Europe a zero carbon society by 2050,vehicle manufacturers will have to adhere to certain stringent regulatory targets,which in fact would enable production of lighter cars by using innovative materialsand design. This is sure to benefit the consumers who will get the best of both theworlds - Quality and Performance.Determinants of Advanced Suspension systemsVehicle manufacturers are constantly striving new ways to quench their customerneeds in advanced suspension systems, by optimizing manufacturing standardsand improve applications of manufacture. In fact, the type of suspension to be usedon vehicle will be decided by the application of the vehicle. Moreover, whethersuspension would be a spring or an air will be determined by different performancemetrics, roll stability and durability aspects as well.Although application of vehicle is one of the determinants in choosing suspensionsystem, it is unanimously agreed that the key determinant of suspension systemis their ability to handle pressures of different environment. For e.g. springsuspensions are optimal for highway trailer but could be not so useful on a BMW.Different company manufacturers think of different priorities in manufacture ofadvanced suspension systems. For some it is still the old process manufacturingsuspensions that is important, so long as the suspensions are proven to fulfil theircustomer needs. While for some others, the manufacturing line focuses onproductivity and zero maintenance to its end users. Such manufacturers makesuspensions which offer its customers minimal initial investment and almostnegligible long term maintenance. Yet for some others, it is the type of suspensionwhich makes important part of its customer’s choice. For instance, certainmanufacturers thrive on manufacturing Air suspensions on the basis of it comprising------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  8. 8. of air systems which along with air bags can be susceptible to break downs. Airsuspensions are termed essentially to be highway applications, which areappropriate for fast cars to render comfort to its passengers and drivers preferringhigh speed dynamics from suspension. Moreover, irrespective of whatever thechassis load is, Air suspension with its optimized spring rate assists vehicleoptimally on on-highway trail. However, for vehicles that have high center of gravityand which are more or less of off-road nature, Air suspension may not suffice.Certain manufacturers prefer manufacturing suspensions that would enableeliminate the need of certain other components within suspension systems. Fore.g. the mechanics involved in spring suspensions, eradicate the necessity for shockabsorbers via process of self-damping. Moreover, these suspensions maintain aconstant spring rate. Irrespective whether the vehicle is loaded or not, the springrate will be constant. However, for some spring suspensions lack good roll stabilityattributes for enabling a free flowing smooth ride. The maintaining of constantspring rate is not always good as this attribute of spring suspensions causes anuncomfortable or stiff ride for operators. Therefore to overcome this problem itsmanufacturers have introduced rubber spring suspensions. As these provide highlyvariable spring rate, the ride provided by them is better than the ordinary springsuspensions.Lighter weight suspensionsSuspension companies are now optimizing their product line by introduction oflighter weight suspension systems. For doing this, the use of higher strength steelis made. Higher strength steel enables the same durability and desired carryingcapacity from manufactured suspension systems. In fact the use of higherstrength steel saves the company of the amount of steel being used in suspensions------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  9. 9. manufacture, thus aiding in reducing the manufacturing costs. This innovativetechnique is used for manufacturing lighter weight suspension springs as well as theframe.The weight of suspensions can also be reduced by using rubber spring technology.In fact, the rubber springs weigh much less, although they have the endurance tocarry the same weight as higher steel suspensions. While a rubber spring weighsless than 900 lbs., a steel spring could weigh between 1200 to 1400 lbs.Reduction in suspension weight can be also effected by post vulcanized bondingprocess as well. The PV bonding process eradicates the need for clamps or bolts,thereby causing in overall reduction of suspension weight.Future trends in Suspension systemsSuspension design will continue to face optimization and innovation frommanufacturers. For e.g. efforts taken by manufacturers to reduce weight is due tobenefits derived from weight reduction as well as compliance with regulatoryauthorities. Likewise, suspension systems will continue to face investigations forentry of new technologies or to aid existing technologies enables other processapplications. As aforesaid, advanced suspension systems does not necessarilymean new innovative technologies or its applications, but also mean to perceivewhat the manufacturers or the end users perceive it to be. However, it is essentialto find the right suspension for particular applications enable its function rather thansearching for a new technology suspension system without reference to vehicleapplication or its end user. It will although be optimal for a manufacturer to producesuspension system providing safety, comfort, durability, with minimum costs andweight.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
  10. 10. References:http://www.carbibles.com/suspension_bible.htmlwww.frost.comwww.benthamscience.comhttp://autoshepherd.com/category/Steering-Suspension/1072 Want to know more about suspension systems? Check out our Download Centre, where you will find more articles, white papers and interviews regarding this topic: http://bit.ly/suspension-articles------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- IQPC GmbH | Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germany t: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de

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