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  • 3 people in Google.2 people in Facebook1 person in RedpillLinpro1 person in Altibox
  • There is no short term economic incentive.
  • What lengths will the network owner then go to to protect the value of this additional investment by locking itself into this “transitional” service model for an extended/indefinite period?
  • Adaptation FunctionPseudowire
  • Which is the solution to all problems in computer science, except those brought on by the indirection
  • NAT at the CPE, at the Provider or at both.Who gets the public IPv4 address?

Ole - Ipv4onlifesupport Ole - Ipv4onlifesupport Presentation Transcript

  • Ole Trøan, cisco EngineeringIP fundamentalist With help from:2011-11-22 Randy Bush (Dr Vision) Dan Wing (Mr NAT) Mark Townsley (Mr Tunnel) Geoff Huston (Dr Doom)© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  • The “inevitability” of technological evolution?© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  • The “inevitability” of technological evolution?© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
  • “I’m driving at 100 kph, and I see a wall 100m ahead of me. I’m not there yet; I’ll worry about that tomorrow…”© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  • • Enthusiasts working in corporations, friendly to “new stuff”• Encouraged by government regulation / procurement requirements• Out of fear (let’s be ready if this IPv6 thing happens…)• New opportunities. If we are early into IPv6 we may have an advantage.• Green field. Let’s not bother with legacy stuff in a new network© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  • “ SAME TIME© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  • The challenge often lies in managing the transition from one technology to another© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  • To get from “here” to “there” requires an excursion through an environment of The CGNs, CDNs,often lies similar middleware challenge ALGs and in „solutions‟ to IPv4 address exhaustion managing the transition from one technology to another IPv6 CGNs IPv4 ALGs CDNs© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  • But will this be merely a IPv6 temporary phase of transition? CGNs IPv4 ALGs CDNs Transition requires the network owner to undertake capital investment in network service infrastructure to support IPv4 address sharing/rationing.© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  • The challenge often lies in managing the transition from one technology to another IPv6 CGNs IPv4 ALGs CDNs The risk in this transition phase is that the Internet heads off in a completely different direction!© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  • 201x? IPv6 ARIN LACNIC AFRINIC CGNs RIPE NCC IPv4 ALGs CDNs APNIC© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  • 128 bits 32 bits© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
  • Service ContinuityThey are NOTTransitioning to IPv6”© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
  • “© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
  • • IPv6 service (to end users) 6rd, L2TP, (IPv6 in IP, GRE, ISATAP, Teredo, Tunnel brokers)• IPv4 exhaustion (IP address sharing) A+P: Mapping of Address and port (Shared IPv4 address over IPv6) CGN / SD-NAT DS-lite• “Interoperate”: IPv6 to IPv4 connectivity NAT64, TRT, Application proxies© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
  • Tunnels act like the layer below that which they are carrying Often not perfectly, but “good enough” for a specific purpose IP tunnels act like Data Link Layers© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
  • All problems in computer science can be solved by another level of indirection… …except for the problem of too many levels of indirection - David Wheeler© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
  • They have awide varietyof uses…
  • Private IPv4 IPv6 Private IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 IPv6 IPv4 IPv4 Private IPv4 IPv6 Subscribers Providers Internet© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  • Source: Shin Miyakawa, NTT Communications© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
  • Obtain IPv4 Addresses (RIR, address broker) IPv4 CGN, N AT44, IPv4 Address Sharing IPv4 SD-NAT Address Run-Out 6rd Dual MAP( + Stack 4rd/ CGN Lite dIVI) IPv6 native 6rd© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
  • IPv4 IPv6 NAT64 IPv4-only hosts IPv6-only hosts• NAT Purpose 2: connect IPv6 to IPv4© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
  • • NAT64 is not perfect• IPv6 and IPv4 are not compatible Fragmentation (IPv4: network fragments, IPv6: hosts fragment) minimum MTU (IPv4: 576, IPv6: 1280) IPv4 options versus IPv6 extensions• Like NAT44: NAT64 can also bring Application Layer Gateway (ALG) issues Complicates troubleshooting and abuse handling© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
  • • Traditional Voice has stupid edge devices, phone instruments, and a very smart expensive core• The Internet has a smart edge, computers with operating systems, applications, …, and a simple stupid core, which just does packet forwarding• Adding an entirely new Internet service is just a matter of distributing an application to a few consenting desktops (until NATs)• Compare that to adding a service to Voice © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
  • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
  • translate tunnel native routing worst best© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
  • IPv4-Only Network Dual Stack NAT Network IPv4-Only Network IPv6-Only PE PE NAT CE CE IPv4-Only Dual-Stack IPv6-Only Users Users Users© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
  • IPv4-Only Dual Stack Dual Stack Dual Stack Network Network Network Network Dual Stack NAT Network 6↔4 I IPv4-Only IPv6 IPv6 Network Only IPv6-Only Only PE PE NAT CE CE CE CE IPv4-Only Dual-Stack Dual-Stack Dual-Stack IPv6-Only Users Users Users Users Users© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
  • • IP address sharing is necessary to keep business running• Necessary to keep end users happy (long tail IPv4)• It is never ideal© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
  • Choose mechanisms whichare progress towards IPv6© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50
  • Prefer Mechanisms Whichare simple, Stateless,Use IPv6 not IPv4, …© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51
  • Keep state at the edge notthe core© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52
  • Use Mechanisms WhichPreserve e2e and theOther Basic Principles asMuch as Possible© 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53