IPv6 Made Easy
Don Tan
Regional Director - South Asia & India
dtan@bluecatnetworks.com
BlueCat Networks, Inc.
Saturday, Ma...
We are no longer an IP
enabled world.
We are IP dependent.
Saturday, May 19, 12
The Idea that
Changed the
World
Saturday, May 19, 12
Early 1970s
— ARPA NET (1971)
— FTP (1971)
— TELNET (1972)
Saturday, May 19, 12
1980s
— 1981: TCP/IP
— 1982: SMTP
— 1983: Domain Names
— 1987: RFC 1035 (DNS Protocol)
Saturday, May 19, 12
1990s
— 1991: HTTP
— 1992: Class Structure
Fails
— 1993: CIDR
— 1994: NAT
— 1995: IP-NG (IPv5)
Saturday, May 19, 12
2000 -
— 2000: Dot-com crash
— 2003: BlackBerry Phone
— 2007: iPhone
— 2010: iPad
— 2011: IANA IPv4 Pool Depleted
— ...
It’s a Numbers Game
Saturday, May 19, 12
4,294,967,296
5,000,000,000
7,000,000,000
It’s a Numbers Game
Saturday, May 19, 12
IPv4 RIR Distribution
AfriNIC
2%
LATNIC
5%
RIPE NCC
22%
ARIN
44%
APNIC
27%
Saturday, May 19, 12
IPv4 RIR Distribution
AfriNIC
2%
LATNIC
5%
RIPE NCC
22%
ARIN
44%
APNIC
27%
Pop: 3.8 B
Pop: 0.5 B
Pop: 0.8 B
Pop: 1 B
Pop: ...
RIR IPv4 End Date Predictions
ARIN
APNIC
RIPE NCC
LACNIC
AfriNIC
July 2012?
April 15, 2011
Jan 2014?
Oct 2014?
Dec 2013?
S...
What Next?
Saturday, May 19, 12
Think about change
Saturday, May 19, 12
“By 2015, 17% of global Internet users will
be IPv6, with 28% of new Internet
connections running the protocol.”
Gartner, ...
The World is Changing
17%
419,000,000 Users
(based on 2011 data)
Saturday, May 19, 12
Saturday, May 19, 12
Addresses
Saturday, May 19, 12
340 282 366 920
938 463 463 374
607 431 768 211
456
Saturday, May 19, 12
trillion
decillion
octillion
sextillion
septillion
nonillion
quintillion
quadrillio
n
billion
million
thousand
undecillion...
Subnet Size
— Subnets should always be /64
— Many vendors assume 64 bit boundary
— 18.4 quintillion addresses per subne...
Address Types
Saturday, May 19, 12
Local Link Address
— Bound to local network
— Non routable
— Automatically configured
— Uses MAC address to create uniq...
Unique Local
— Private within organization
— Similar to RFC 1918
— Routable within organization
— 40-bit pseudo-random...
Global Unicast
— Globally unique
— Public address space
— 42 Undecillion address available
— Prefix allocated by RIR/IS...
More Than Addresses
Saturday, May 19, 12
Extension Headers
— IPv6 Uses simplified header
— Chains additional headers onto one another
— QoS, IPsec, TCP, UDP and ...
Neighbour Discovery
— Uses link layer for auto configuration of nodes
— Provides “plug-and-play” network functionality
—...
Path MTU Discovery
— Based on IPv4 feature present in many routers
— Functionality moved into core protocol
— IPv6 does...
Multicast
— Fundamental shift from IPv4’s broadcast mechanism
— Broadcast not part of IPv6
— Allows networks to scale l...
Mobile IP
— Documented in RFC 6275
— Allows forwarding of traffic from a “care of” address
— Maintains session when joi...
Quality of Service (QoS)
— Greater flexibility for managing QoS
— Implemented as an extension header
— Currently QoS in ...
IPsec
— Part of core protocol
— Developed in conjunction with IPv6
— Applications to provide VPN functionality
— Imple...
How good is
your
memory?
Saturday, May 19, 12
10.4.83.72
Saturday, May 19, 12
Saturday, May 19, 12
10.4.83.72
Saturday, May 19, 12
Saturday, May 19, 12
2001:fecd:ba23:cd1f:dcb1:1010:9234:4088
Saturday, May 19, 12
Saturday, May 19, 12
2001:fecd:ba23:cd1f:dcb1:1010:9234:4088
Saturday, May 19, 12
Saturday, May 19, 12
dcb1:1010:9234:408b
dcb1:1010:9234:4a88
dcb7:1010:9234:4088
dcb1:101a:9234:4088
dcb1:1010:9234:5088
dbc1:1010:9234:4088
dc...
dcb1:1010:9234:408b
dcb1:1010:9234:4a88
dcb7:1010:9234:4088
dcb1:101a:9234:4088
dcb1:1010:9234:5088
dbc1:1010:9234:4088
dc...
Management is Key
Saturday, May 19, 12
Addresses are
not human
friendly
Saturday, May 19, 12
Allocation patterns
are sparse
Saturday, May 19, 12
IPAM key
transition
technology
Saturday, May 19, 12
Why do I need to Change?
Saturday, May 19, 12
Maintain
connectivity with
the rest of the world
Saturday, May 19, 12
Killer Apps will
fuel change
Saturday, May 19, 12
Cloud applications
require more addresses
Saturday, May 19, 12
IPv4 will move into legacy status
Saturday, May 19, 12
Challenges
Saturday, May 19, 12
Addresses will
become hidden
Saturday, May 19, 12
DNS will become
more important.
Saturday, May 19, 12
Peer-to-Peer
connectivity
will be difficult
to accept
Saturday, May 19, 12
Security will be
different
Saturday, May 19, 12
Tunnelling can be complicated.
Saturday, May 19, 12
Conclusions
Saturday, May 19, 12
IPv4 will run out
sooner than
expected
Saturday, May 19, 12
Transitioning
to IPv6 will
require a well
thought-out
plan
Saturday, May 19, 12
Peer-to-Peer
will change how
we build
applications
Saturday, May 19, 12
Networks will
become more flexible
Saturday, May 19, 12
Addresses will
no longer be a scarce
resource
Saturday, May 19, 12
Questions ?
Saturday, May 19, 12
About BlueCat Networks
24x7
Coverage
Highest Rating
Possible
5
Hour On-site
Hardware Repair
Go-to Enterprise
Vendor
95%
Cu...
Special Offer for All Attendees
Attend Our Complimentary IPv6 Technical Seminar:
Getting Started with IPv6
‣Instructor-led...
Thank You
Saturday, May 19, 12
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IPv6 Made Easy

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Prepared by Mr Don Tan, Regional Director - South Asia & India, Bluecat Networks Inc

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IPv6 Made Easy

  1. 1. IPv6 Made Easy Don Tan Regional Director - South Asia & India dtan@bluecatnetworks.com BlueCat Networks, Inc. Saturday, May 19, 12
  2. 2. We are no longer an IP enabled world. We are IP dependent. Saturday, May 19, 12
  3. 3. The Idea that Changed the World Saturday, May 19, 12
  4. 4. Early 1970s — ARPA NET (1971) — FTP (1971) — TELNET (1972) Saturday, May 19, 12
  5. 5. 1980s — 1981: TCP/IP — 1982: SMTP — 1983: Domain Names — 1987: RFC 1035 (DNS Protocol) Saturday, May 19, 12
  6. 6. 1990s — 1991: HTTP — 1992: Class Structure Fails — 1993: CIDR — 1994: NAT — 1995: IP-NG (IPv5) Saturday, May 19, 12
  7. 7. 2000 - — 2000: Dot-com crash — 2003: BlackBerry Phone — 2007: iPhone — 2010: iPad — 2011: IANA IPv4 Pool Depleted — 2011: APNIC Last /8 Allocated Saturday, May 19, 12
  8. 8. It’s a Numbers Game Saturday, May 19, 12
  9. 9. 4,294,967,296 5,000,000,000 7,000,000,000 It’s a Numbers Game Saturday, May 19, 12
  10. 10. IPv4 RIR Distribution AfriNIC 2% LATNIC 5% RIPE NCC 22% ARIN 44% APNIC 27% Saturday, May 19, 12
  11. 11. IPv4 RIR Distribution AfriNIC 2% LATNIC 5% RIPE NCC 22% ARIN 44% APNIC 27% Pop: 3.8 B Pop: 0.5 B Pop: 0.8 B Pop: 1 B Pop: 0.6 B Saturday, May 19, 12
  12. 12. RIR IPv4 End Date Predictions ARIN APNIC RIPE NCC LACNIC AfriNIC July 2012? April 15, 2011 Jan 2014? Oct 2014? Dec 2013? Saturday, May 19, 12
  13. 13. What Next? Saturday, May 19, 12
  14. 14. Think about change Saturday, May 19, 12
  15. 15. “By 2015, 17% of global Internet users will be IPv6, with 28% of new Internet connections running the protocol.” Gartner, Dec 2010 Saturday, May 19, 12
  16. 16. The World is Changing 17% 419,000,000 Users (based on 2011 data) Saturday, May 19, 12
  17. 17. Saturday, May 19, 12
  18. 18. Addresses Saturday, May 19, 12
  19. 19. 340 282 366 920 938 463 463 374 607 431 768 211 456 Saturday, May 19, 12
  20. 20. trillion decillion octillion sextillion septillion nonillion quintillion quadrillio n billion million thousand undecillion How Big? 340 282 366 920 938 463 463 374 607 431 768 211 456 Saturday, May 19, 12
  21. 21. Subnet Size — Subnets should always be /64 — Many vendors assume 64 bit boundary — 18.4 quintillion addresses per subnet — Perspective: — 31.5M seconds per year — 2.4 B seconds in average lifetime Interface IdentifierAddress Prefix IPv6 Address Saturday, May 19, 12
  22. 22. Address Types Saturday, May 19, 12
  23. 23. Local Link Address — Bound to local network — Non routable — Automatically configured — Uses MAC address to create unique address — Multi-homed devices use “Zones” Local Saturday, May 19, 12
  24. 24. Unique Local — Private within organization — Similar to RFC 1918 — Routable within organization — 40-bit pseudo-random number for uniqueness — Stateful or Stateless allocation — Can be tunnelled Unique Local Local Saturday, May 19, 12
  25. 25. Global Unicast — Globally unique — Public address space — 42 Undecillion address available — Prefix allocated by RIR/ISP — Stateful or Stateless allocation — Provides peer-to-peer connectivity Global Unicast Unique Local Local Saturday, May 19, 12
  26. 26. More Than Addresses Saturday, May 19, 12
  27. 27. Extension Headers — IPv6 Uses simplified header — Chains additional headers onto one another — QoS, IPsec, TCP, UDP and other protocols implemented as “extension” headers — Protocol can be extended — Future friendly Version Traffic Class Flow Label Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address IPv6 Header Saturday, May 19, 12
  28. 28. Neighbour Discovery — Uses link layer for auto configuration of nodes — Provides “plug-and-play” network functionality — Performs: — Router discovery — Prefix discovery — Address resolution — Parameter discovery — Duplicate address detection Saturday, May 19, 12
  29. 29. Path MTU Discovery — Based on IPv4 feature present in many routers — Functionality moved into core protocol — IPv6 does not like fragmentation — Right-sizes MTU for optimized transmission — Performed dynamically — Increased throughput Saturday, May 19, 12
  30. 30. Multicast — Fundamental shift from IPv4’s broadcast mechanism — Broadcast not part of IPv6 — Allows networks to scale larger than IPv4 — Puts emphasis on the router rather than the switch — Can be used to discover services — Used by DHCP6 and other protocols Saturday, May 19, 12
  31. 31. Mobile IP — Documented in RFC 6275 — Allows forwarding of traffic from a “care of” address — Maintains session when joining new networks — Still experimental status — Currently complicated to implement — Will become more important as everything becomes mobile — LISP might be better alternative for some Saturday, May 19, 12
  32. 32. Quality of Service (QoS) — Greater flexibility for managing QoS — Implemented as an extension header — Currently QoS in IPv6 is same as IPv4 — Has ability to provide better flow control — Future implementations will utilize more effectively Saturday, May 19, 12
  33. 33. IPsec — Part of core protocol — Developed in conjunction with IPv6 — Applications to provide VPN functionality — Implemented as extension header — Changes security in IPv6 — Encrypt IPv6 tunnels Saturday, May 19, 12
  34. 34. How good is your memory? Saturday, May 19, 12
  35. 35. 10.4.83.72 Saturday, May 19, 12
  36. 36. Saturday, May 19, 12
  37. 37. 10.4.83.72 Saturday, May 19, 12
  38. 38. Saturday, May 19, 12
  39. 39. 2001:fecd:ba23:cd1f:dcb1:1010:9234:4088 Saturday, May 19, 12
  40. 40. Saturday, May 19, 12
  41. 41. 2001:fecd:ba23:cd1f:dcb1:1010:9234:4088 Saturday, May 19, 12
  42. 42. Saturday, May 19, 12
  43. 43. dcb1:1010:9234:408b dcb1:1010:9234:4a88 dcb7:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:101a:9234:4088 dcb1:1010:9234:5088 dbc1:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:1010:8234:4088 dcd1:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:7010:9234:4088 dcb1:1011:9234:4088 Needle in a Hay Stack Saturday, May 19, 12
  44. 44. dcb1:1010:9234:408b dcb1:1010:9234:4a88 dcb7:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:101a:9234:4088 dcb1:1010:9234:5088 dbc1:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:1010:8234:4088 dcd1:1010:9234:4088 dcb1:7010:9234:4088 dcb1:1011:9234:4088 Needle in a Hay Stack Saturday, May 19, 12
  45. 45. Management is Key Saturday, May 19, 12
  46. 46. Addresses are not human friendly Saturday, May 19, 12
  47. 47. Allocation patterns are sparse Saturday, May 19, 12
  48. 48. IPAM key transition technology Saturday, May 19, 12
  49. 49. Why do I need to Change? Saturday, May 19, 12
  50. 50. Maintain connectivity with the rest of the world Saturday, May 19, 12
  51. 51. Killer Apps will fuel change Saturday, May 19, 12
  52. 52. Cloud applications require more addresses Saturday, May 19, 12
  53. 53. IPv4 will move into legacy status Saturday, May 19, 12
  54. 54. Challenges Saturday, May 19, 12
  55. 55. Addresses will become hidden Saturday, May 19, 12
  56. 56. DNS will become more important. Saturday, May 19, 12
  57. 57. Peer-to-Peer connectivity will be difficult to accept Saturday, May 19, 12
  58. 58. Security will be different Saturday, May 19, 12
  59. 59. Tunnelling can be complicated. Saturday, May 19, 12
  60. 60. Conclusions Saturday, May 19, 12
  61. 61. IPv4 will run out sooner than expected Saturday, May 19, 12
  62. 62. Transitioning to IPv6 will require a well thought-out plan Saturday, May 19, 12
  63. 63. Peer-to-Peer will change how we build applications Saturday, May 19, 12
  64. 64. Networks will become more flexible Saturday, May 19, 12
  65. 65. Addresses will no longer be a scarce resource Saturday, May 19, 12
  66. 66. Questions ? Saturday, May 19, 12
  67. 67. About BlueCat Networks 24x7 Coverage Highest Rating Possible 5 Hour On-site Hardware Repair Go-to Enterprise Vendor 95% Customer Satisfaction 120 Partners 37% Revenue Growth 2000 Customers Strong Alliances Saturday, May 19, 12
  68. 68. Special Offer for All Attendees Attend Our Complimentary IPv6 Technical Seminar: Getting Started with IPv6 ‣Instructor-led 3-hour virtual seminar ‣Learn the basic concepts of IPv6 ‣Lay the groundwork for IPv6 success Watch your email for an invitation and voucher code to redeem online during registration Saturday, May 19, 12
  69. 69. Thank You Saturday, May 19, 12
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