Week2b Chpt 3 Learning Objectives

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  • 1. Assessment in Schools Developing Learning Objectives
  • 2. Question (choose the best answer)
    • Content Standards
    • Ensure that what is being taught is tested
    • Specify how well student are expected to perform
    • Identify what should be taught and tested
    • Determine the quality of an assessment
  • 3. Test Maker Troubles
    • What to Measure
    • How to Measure it
      • The quality of an achievement test depends on how well both these problems are solved
  • 4. Revised Blooms Taxonomy Cognitive Domain Outcomes
    • Remembering – recognize & recall
    • Understanding – interpret, classify, infer, explain, compare, summarize
    • Applying – execute, implement
    • Analyzing – differentiate, organize
    • Evaluating – critique, judge
    • Creating – plan, generate, produce
  • 5. Test Planning
    • There should be a direct relationship/alignment between Instructional Goals/Objectives of the course and the planned assessment of students’ learning.
  • 6. Instructional/Learning Objectives
    • When should they be written?
    • What might happen if you don’t?
    [2-3]
  • 7. Selecting Objectives
    • Complete and Comprehensive :
      • Are all important objectives covered? Is each important?
    • Appropriate:
    • Are they in harmony with school goals and societal values?
    • Pedagogically Sound :
    • Considering Age, interests, needs of students.
    • Feasible : (Practical Utility)
    • Are they realistic (ability, time, facilities)?
    [pg. 58-59; 2-25]
  • 8. Behavioral Objectives
    • Focus is on observable action (Mager)
      • Behavior – what the student will do
      • Conditions – of the performance
      • Criteria – the standard of performance
    • What difficulties do you see with these?
  • 9. Instructional Objectives
    • Gronlund’s instructional objectives defined in terms of intended learning outcomes
      • GIO – General Instructional Objective
        • Specific Learner Outcomes (SLO) - examples of what the student might do to provide evidence that GIO has been accomplished satisfactorily
    [pg. 62-63; 2-4]
  • 10. GIOs and SLOs
    • GIOs – Describe intended learning outcome
      • SLOs describe the intended outcomes in terms of explicitly stated, observable performances or behavioral patterns which provide evidence that the instructional goal has been accomplished.
  • 11. GIOs and SLOs
    • GIOs – Provide context (significance & relevance) for the accompanying SLOs
      • Separately, none of the SLOs are ends in and of themselves. They are only a sample of the behaviors, skills, ability, or dispositions that a students is likely to demonstrate.
  • 12. GIOs and SLOs
    • GIOs – Need not be stated in terms of observable behaviors (e.g., understands). They can be somewhat vague (general).
      • SLOs clarify the meaning of the GIO. They provide the operational definition of the GIO and make it measurable.
  • 13. GIOs and SLOs
    • GIOs – Used to communicate main intent
      • SLOs define what we are willing to accept as evidence that the main goal has been achieved. They provide a sample of specific indicators of the main goal. There may be others.
  • 14. General Guidelines for Objectives
    • Objectives should
      • Begin with an action verb
      • Be stated in terms of observable changes in behavior or actions
      • Stated in unambiguous terms
      • Context free
      • Relate to only one process
  • 15. Objectives & Verbs (see Appendix G2)
    • Objectives should begin with a verb
    • Cognitive Domain :
      • Knows, understands, applies, recognizes, formulates, judges
    • Affective Domain:
    • Listens, enjoys, appreciates, accepts, displays
    • Psychomotor Domain:
    • Relates, demonstrates, performs, operates, creates, develops
  • 16. Question (choose the best answer)
    • Learning Outcomes should be stated in terms of
    • what and how the teacher should teach
    • the learning process students will employ
    • the specific content students will learn
    • None of the above
    [pg. 60; 2-5]
  • 17. Guidelines for Writing GIOs
    • Describe what the student should be able to do rather than what the teacher is expected to do
      • Poor: demonstrate how to interpret weather maps, or
      • Increase students ability to interpret weather maps
      • Better: Interprets weather maps correctly
  • 18. Guidelines for Writing GIOs
    • Describe the intended product or result not the process
      • Poor: gains skills in problem solving, or
      • studies various methods for solving algebraic equations
      • Better: Solves basic algebraic equations correctly
  • 19. Guidelines for Writing GIOs
    • Focus the task on what the learner is expected to do or know in general terms rather than specific topics or subject-matter content.
      • Poor: understands photosynthesis
      • Better: Understands basic science principles
  • 20. Guidelines for Writing GIOs
    • Define only one intended goal in each objective.
      • Poor: Knows and understands basic science principles
      • Better: Understands basic science principles
  • 21. Guidelines for Writing GIOs
    • Select an appropriate level of Generality.
      • Too General: Communicates effectively
      • About Right: Writes clear effective English
      • Too Specific: Punctuates sentences properly
  • 22. Guidelines for Writing SLOs
    • Start each SLO with an action verb.
    • The SLOs should provide a representative sample of outcomes students might be expected to demonstrate.
    • Each SLO must be relevant to the GLO.
    • Keep the SLOs context free.
    • Add a third level of specificity to the list if needed.
  • 23. Practice
    • Exercise 1 [handout 18-11]
  • 24. Instructional Objective Example
    • GIO – Students will
      • Prepare written plans for constructing instruments & procedures for assessing instructional outcomes
    • SLO – Students will
      • Create and submit written specifications for constructing an achievement test
      • Provide a well written description of the specific purposes for an assessment
      • Identify appropriate instructional objectives
      • Outline content to be covered in an assessment
      • Create a table of specifications for a test
  • 25. Practice
    • Write 2 or 3 GIOs with appropriate SLOs.
    • Work with those at your table to refine and improve your work.