Paragraph 1 simply means that every day, someone somewhere has to defend either themselves or someone else and the decisions that they make will take fractions of a second to make or they will not be effective and that the people called in to determine whether a person who has employed force as a means of defending themselves or another will have little or no understanding of the process involved in making the decision to protect one’s self or someone else.
Welcome to the IPSSC Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course for Semi-Auto Pistols.
This course is intended to impart, upon you, the knowledge required to safely handle, operate, store and transport a semi-auto pistol, to recognize and understand the function of its component parts and to have a complete understanding of how the firearm operates so that you can safely, quickly and effectively clear any malfunction that may occur during normal use.
This course contains a large amount of in-depth information but is not intended as a substitute for practical, hands-on training.
A semi automatic pistol or self loading pistol utilizes a detachable spring-fed magazine that usually holds between 8 and 15 rounds of ammunition depending on caliber.
The weapon is cocked by pulling back on the slide and releasing which causes the bolt to engage the topmost round in the magazine and feed it forward into the chamber – this is called “chambering a round”.
When fired, part of the propellant gases cause the slide to return to the rear where the bolt engages yet another round and makes the weapon ready to fire again.
A semi automatic pistol, once loaded and cocked will fire once every time the trigger is pulled until the ammunition stored in the magazine is depleted or the weapon malfunctions.
Once the magazine is empty the slide normally stays to the rear indicating to the shooter that the magazine is empty and the weapon needs to be reloaded.
The frame of a Semi-Automatic Pistol is a major component that has several operating features and houses several smaller components. It’s main purpose is to provide for a grip allowing the weapon to be held in a manner that will allow for it’s intended operation and to provide a platform to which all the other components can be attached and operated from.
The frame of a Semi-Automatic Pistol usually comprises of the following features:
The slide is the part of the weapon on a majority of semi-automatic pistols that moves during the operating cycle and generally houses the firing pin or striker and the extractor, and serves as the bolt. It is spring loaded so that once it has moved to its rearmost position in the firing cycle, spring tension brings it back to the starting position chambering a fresh cartridge during the motion provided that the magazine is not empty.
Through the principles of recoil or blowback operation, the slide is forced back with each shot. Generally, this action serves three purposes: ejecting the spent casing, cocking the hammer or striker for the next shot, and loading another cartridge into the chamber when the slide comes forward.
Once the magazine is empty, the slide will usually lock back, released only when the slide release mechanism is depressed; if a new magazine is inserted before the slide release mechanism is depressed then a new cartridge will be chambered.
Part 3 Pistol Ammunition IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
Round Nose Lead & Full-metal-jacketed bullets These bullets have a solid nose and as a result they remain fairly intact when they strike soft targets. In a lot of cases they will pass right through a target when they don't encounter something significant like bone. Solid nose bullets are commonly used in target practice and shooting competitions because they are relatively inexpensive and have decent ballistic characteristics, but that's where the use of the solid nosed, non-expanding bullet ends. Lead ‘Wadcutter’ & Semi-Wadcutter bullets Because these bullets have a tendency to pass easily through a target the energy they have left is wasted energy. Let's not misunderstand the purpose of a bullet when used against a living target. The sole purpose of the bullet is to kill or incapacitate that living target, therefore wasted energy is not a desirable characteristic of bullets used by law enforcement or by private citizens for hunting/self-defense. IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
Winchester Black Talon ® Bullets (shown after firing) Federal Hydrashok ® Remington ® SJHP The big focus today in bullet design is creating a bullet that has an expanding point. This expansion is needed to slow down the bullet when it strikes a target. A bullet that expends all of its energy in a target is more efficient and in turn produces more damage. Think of the nose of a bullet as being a parachute. When it strikes a target it is designed to open up expanding its surface area as much as twice the original diameter of the bullet. This expansion is typically called "mushrooming" as the bullet takes on a shape similar to a mushroom. See the example shown above left. Bullets designed to expand usually have a hollow cavity formed into the nose of the bullet. These are referred to as hollow-point bullets. The two cartridges shown above right are amongst the most common hollow-point bullets. IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
Primers: Usually Lead Styphnate – activated by shock / impact
Propellant: Usually smokeless powders (Nitrocellulose) – available in three types: Cylindrical, Flake and Spherical (Ball). Flake type powders are usually used in shotgun ammunition, Cylindrical in rifle and ball in pistol ammunition. Smokeless powders can be “Single Base” (Nitrocellulose) or “Double Base” (Nitrocellulose + Nitroglycerine). Most ball type smokeless powders are double base.
Some older antique pistols may use black powder (75% Potassium Nitrate, 15% Charcoal, 10% Sulphur) – Black powder is a low order explosive which deflagrates when burned in an unconfined space but detonates when confined (pipe bomb).
During the firing cycle, the following reaction, known as an explosive train, occurs:
As the trigger is pressed, the Firing Pin or Striker impacts the base of the Primer.
The resulting shock causes the Lead Styphnate in the Primer casing to ignite.
The resulting hot gases pass through an opening in the Primer casing into the main casing thus igniting the propellant (Nitrocellulose + Nitroglycerin mixture) contained within.
As the propellant deflagrates, a rapid gaseous exchange occurs causing the resulting gases to expand inside the chamber of the weapon.
This expansion of gas increases the original volume of the propellant to approximately 4,700 times its original volume as a solid.
As the propellant ‘deflagrates’ as opposed to ‘detonating’, a pushing effect is achieved (instead of the usual shattering effect that occurs with detonation) thus forcing the projectile part of the round along the barrel, out of the muzzle and along it’s ballistic path until it terminates in an intended (or unintended) target.
In order to predict the likelihood of incapacitation with any handgun round, an understanding of the mechanics of wounding is necessary. There are four components of projectile wounding. Not all relate to incapacitation but each of them must be considered. They are:
Penetration – The tissue through which the projectile passes, and which it disrupts or destroys.
Permanent Cavity – The volume of space once occupied by tissue that has been disrupted or destroyed by the passage of the projectile. This is a function of penetration and the frontal area of the projectile. Quite simply, it is the hole left by the passage of the bullet.
Temporary Cavity – The expansion of the permanent cavity by stretching due to the transfer of kinetic energy during the projectile’s passage.
Fragmentation – Projectile pieces or secondary fragments of bone which are impelled outward from the permanent cavity and may sever muscle tissues, blood vessels, etc., apart from the permanent cavity. Fragmentation is not necessarily present in every projectile wound. It may or may not occur and can be considered a secondary effect.
Projectiles incapacitate by damaging or destroying the central nervous system, or by causing lethal blood loss. To the extent the wound components cause or increase the effects of these two mechanisms, the likelihood of incapacitation increases.
Firearm Safety Part 4 IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
Safe storage of a firearm to prevent access by children & unauthorized adults IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol Simplex type locking box Purpose built pistol vault
When you are not using your firearm, you should insure that it is stored safely (Important Note: Your Carry Weapon is ALWAYS in use!!). Affirmative measures designed to prevent unauthorized access to a defensive firearm by minors, or firearm theft, include:
Use of a simplex-type locking box or purpose built electronic locking pistol vault for securing firearms which need to be kept loaded yet available for ready-access defensive use.
Use of trigger locks or padlocks to secure firearms which don't need to be kept immediately available for defensive use.
Gun security devices which rely solely on physical strength to secure firearms from unauthorized use are generally undesirable since ingenious children can potentially employ leverage or tools to overcome those devices.
"Hiding" a firearm won't secure it from discovery and possible misuse by curious children or intruders.
Metal gun cabinets or gun safes can be used to safeguard firearms from unauthorized access or theft in many circumstances and metal gun cabinets or gun safes are generally preferable to open racks or glass-front cabinets.
Firearms should be stored unloaded and separate from ammunition when the firearm isn't needed for ready-access defensive use.
You may want to store critical components of a firearm (such as the gun's bolt or slide) separately from the rest of the firearm when the gun won't be used in the immediate future.
Consider engraving your firearms with your social security number, driver's license number, or concealed firearms license number to deter theft and facilitate return of stolen firearms which may happen to be recovered.
Explore "gun-proofing" your child by proper training, and by controlled and closely supervised access to firearms to reduce your child's natural unsatisfied curiosity about firearms.
IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol Safe handling and use of firearms
The following is a list of GOLDEN RULES which, MUST BE OBEYED AT ALL TIMES in order to maintain safety when handling and using firearms:
ALL GUNS ARE ALWAYS LOADED !! – ALWAYS TREAT A FIREARM AS IF IT WERE LOADED, EVEN IF YOU BELIEVE THAT IT IS UNLOADED!
NEVER , NEVER , NEVER POINT A FIREARM AT ANYTHING THAT YOU DO NOT WANT TO EITHER KILL OR DESTROY!! (Imagine that a lethal laser beam protrudes from the muzzle of your firearm which kills or destroys everything that crosses in front of it)
KEEP YOUR FINGER OFF THE TRIGGER (AND OUT OF THE TRIGGER GUARD) UNTIL YOU ARE READY TO FIRE!!
Other safety considerations for handling and using a firearm include:
KEEP your thumbs/fingers clear of the slide on a semi automatic pistol when firing – the slide has a very unforgiving habit of creating painful wounds when it strikes the thumbs and/or fingers of the person using it.
BE AWARE of the muzzle flash when using a revolver or ‘compensated’ semi automatic pistol as the flash can cause burns and can cause clothing to ignite if fired in extreme close quarters situations where the firearm is only just clear of the holster and close to the shooters body.
NEVER ‘flag’ any part of your body with a firearm – always be aware of where the muzzle is pointing – especially when drawing from a concealed holster.
If you hear a strange sound when the trigger is pulled or if the expected report is more muted than usual then IMMEDIATELY CEASE FIRE , apply any safety catch, and, in the case of a revolver, open the cylinder to inspect the breech and in the case of a semi automatic, remove the magazine and open the action to inspect the breech – the sound heard could indicate a ‘squib load’ which, may well mean that a projectile is now obstructing the barrel and will result in a breech explosion if the weapon is fired again without removing said obstruction – this can and has many times yielded fatal results.
NEVER ‘cup and saucer’ a semi automatic pistol – this is a mistake that one will only ever make once!!
In order to ensure the safe transportation of firearms, the following points should be observed:
Unless the weapon being transported is your usual ‘carry weapon’ for which you have a valid concealed weapons license or are otherwise duly authorized to carry loaded in your vehicle, all firearms MUST be transported UNLOADED and in a lockable case away from access by the driver or other passengers in the vehicle with the ammunition stored separately.
If carrying concealed and traveling outside of the state where your concealed carry license was issued, always be sure to comply with the state and federal laws for the state in which you are traveling. (It is generally a good idea to check out online resources such as http://www.handgunlaw.us to check on reciprocity of concealed licenses BEFORE traveling to or through a particular state with your concealed firearm).
NOTE: The above rules apply to the United States only… Please be sure to research and comply with all regional and national laws in your country of residence.
KEEP YOUR FINGER OFF THE TRIGGER, and outside the trigger guard, until ready to fire or until the command "Commence Firing" has been given.
KEEP THE ACTION OPEN AND FIREARM UNLOADED UNTIL READY TO USE. On a firing range this means the shooters are in a position on the firing line and the range has been cleared for live firing.
KNOW HOW YOUR FIREARM OPERATES.
BE SURE YOUR FIREARM AND AMMUNITION ARE COMPATIBLE.
CARRY ONLY ONE GAUGE/CALIBER OF AMMUNITION WHEN SHOOTING. When at a shooting range with more than one firearm, use one at a time and when complete, store that firearm and it ammunition before using the next one.
BE SURE OF YOUR TARGET, THE BACKSTOP, AND WHAT IS BEYOND. When on shooting ranges, be mindful also of adjacent areas and act accordingly.
WEAR EAR AND EYE PROTECTION.
DO NOT MIX ALCOHOL OR DRUGS WITH SHOOTING ACTIVITIES.
BE AWARE THAT CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES MAY REQUIRE ADDITIONAL RULES.
All general range rules, whether on indoor or outdoor ranges, should incorporate at a minimum the following:
a. Know and obey all range commands.
b. Know where others are at all times.
c. Shoot only at authorized targets.
d. Ground level targets are not authorized without a proper backstop. See exceptions for Small bore Rifle, High-power and Small bore Silhouette. Maintain the proper target height to ensure that the fired projectile, after passing through the target, hits the desired portion of the backstop. This will reduce the possibility of ricochets and projectiles escaping the range safety fan or property.
BE AWARE THAT CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES MAY REQUIRE ADDITIONAL RULES.
All general range rules, whether on indoor or outdoor ranges, should incorporate at a minimum the following (continued):
e. Designate a range safety officer when none is present or assigned.
f. Unload, open the action, remove the magazine and ground and/or bench all firearms during a ceasefire ( TOUCH NO WEAPONS AT THIS POINT ).
g. Do NOT handle any firearm or stand at the firing line where firearms are present while others are down range.
h. Always keep the muzzle pointed at the backstop or bullet trap. Never allow the muzzle to point in any direction whereby a negligent discharge would allow the escape of a projectile into an outer area.
IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol Selecting a firearm & ammunition for self defense Part 5
IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol Holsters The holster and the gun are two components of one system. Don't cut corners on a holster. A good holster makes the carry much more comfortable and safer. A good holster will allow you to carry a heavier gun with less discomfort and greater concealment. A fine holster will be thin yet strong. It will shield the trigger but not grab it. The choices in holsters can be bewildering, but if you let your common sense, your mode of dress, and logic guide you, the problem simplifies. The best draw is from a belt holster on your strong side. The strong side belt holster provides for a faster draw, better retention, and fewer problems than other styles of holsters. When you select your gun, you will need a holster that works with it so it is important to know if the right holster is available for the gun you intend to carry.
Whenever you discover ANY unattended weapon, you MUST ALWAYS make the assumption that it is loaded and made ready, that is to say it is in “condition zero” or it is loaded with a round in the chamber, the action is cocked and any manual safety catch is in the ‘Off’ position.
To make any such weapon safe, the following actions will need to be carried out:
Point the weapon in a SAFE direction.
Apply any manual safety catch
Remove the magazine (Semi Auto) or open the cylinder (revolver)
Open the action to extract any round in the chamber and apply the slide lock mechanism (Semi Auto) or remove any cartridges from the cylinder & chamber (revolver)
Place the weapon down in a safe location
NOTE: If the weapon is not yours then in reality, unless there is an immediate danger of someone being injured then the weapon should be left well alone – you may well be disturbing evidence at a crime scene.
The most common reasons for handguns to experience a weapon malfunction or failure to fire are listed below:
IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol ‘ Slap’ the back of the slide in a forward motion to put the weapon back in battery. Slide is pushed out of battery by being pushed slightly rearward. Out of Battery Sweep the empty casing out of the receiver and then go through the Tap, Rack, Bang IAD. Spent casing fails to clear ejection port before slide returns, causing the casing to jam and a failure to feed the next round Failure to feed “Stovepipe” DO NOT FIRE THE WEAPON UNTIL THE OBSTRUCTION IS CLEARED. Go through Unload. A squib round is where there is little or no propellant charge inside the round causing the projectile to become lodged in the barrel. It is identified by a “pop” sound and/or reduced recoil. “ Squib Round” Go through Tap, Rack, Bang IAD – ‘cocktail’ rounds to increase the odds that the next round will fire. Round fails to fire altogether, often due to a failed primer (could also be due to a broken firing pin) “ Misfire” Keep the weapon pointed at the target until the round fires or becomes a misfire. A hangfire is a delay in the ignition of the propelling charge. The amount of delay is unpredictable, but in most cases will be a fraction of a second. In some cases, you may not notice the delay. The weapon will function normally. “ Hangfire” Remedy Cause Malfunction
The “Isosceles” is the ideal stance for combat pistol shooting because it requires only gross motor skills, creates a natural and very stable platform and provides maximum effectiveness of body armor (if worn).
To assume the Isosceles stance, one stands with feet slightly over shoulder-width apart, knees (very slightly bent), hips, torso, shoulders and head indexed directly at the target, the entire body should be slightly stooped and leant forward (almost as if riding a horse), with arms out with the firearm in a two-handed grip with wrists locked and elbows very slightly bent to absorb recoil.
This popular shooting stance was developed by Deputy Sheriff Jack Weaver in the late 1950s. Both elbows are bent with the dominant arm bent less than the support arm. The dominant hand (the one holding the pistol) pushes forward while the support hand (wrapped around the pistol) pulls back. The goal of this push/pull technique is to create isometric tension that will control the recoil of the pistol and provide accuracy and control for quick follow up shots. The shooter aligns his/her body at a 45-degree angle to the target and places the dominant hand and foot back.
IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol Part 8 (Bonus) Firearms & The Law NOTE: Only relevant to students residing in he United States. Check with your regional or national laws for information regarding your country of residence
Students will be able to demonstrate a basic understanding of the legal issues surrounding the concealed carriage of firearms, safe transportation and storage of firearms, and the judicious use of lethal force in self defense.
Combat Mindset, Situational Awareness & The Threat Awareness Scale
At the end of this lesson:
Students will be able to explain what is meant by “Combat Mindset”, understand some of the physiological and psychological effects of being exposed to lethal force and describe the different levels of awareness to one’s surroundings in any given situation. Additionally, students will have an elevated understanding of the need to maintain a higher level of awareness in order to avoid encounters which could potentially place one’s self in jeopardy.
Critical Incident & Post Critical Incident Conditions
TUNNEL VISION: Shooter loses all peripheral vision and focuses only on what they perceive as the threat. (Reason for scanning to break up the tunnel Vision) TACYPSYCHIA: The translation is “Speed of the mind”. Gives the effect of slow motion, when in fact everything is happening at normal speed. AUDITORY EXCLUSION: Loss of hearing during confrontation. (Reason: increased Blood supply to the head) IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
Critical Incident & Post Critical Incident Conditions
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE : The inability to correctly recount facts that happened during the incident or immediately afterwards. Memory of the incident may be remembered out of order that the events actually occurred. DISTRACTING THOUGHTS: The shooter may begin to have distracting thoughts about family members or other things not related to the incident. IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
Most people stumble through life, blissfully unaware of the world around them. They remain preoccupied with thoughts of work, or personal problems, or how to get a date, or other trivialities, with no thought to their immediate environment. By not paying attention to their surroundings, they place themselves in needless jeopardy.
Go sit in the intake area in your neighborhood hospital emergency room one evening, as an educational exercise. Observe the unfortunates who come in for treatment, and you will get an excellent illustration of this point. About twenty percent of the customers are actually sick -discount them. The remaining eighty percent are there because they were inattentive to their environment. These will be people who walked off loading docks, or stepped off ladders twenty feet up, or backed into running machinery, or stepped into the path of a vehicle, OR allowed a thug to walk right up to them un-noticed and bean them with a brick. You can be stupid, inattentive, and oblivious in your work environment day in and day out and get away with it until one day the odds catch up with you and you are injured. The same applies on the street. You can be stupid, inattentive, and oblivious and get away with it until your path happens to cross the path of a criminal. The vast majority of criminals are opportunists, who only strike when presented with a viable opportunity.
Remove the opportunity and you remove the risk to you!
By learning to observe your environment, constantly evaluate it, and react appropriately to what you see, you can achieve a large degree of control over your fate. This requires you to learn to shift up and down a scale of readiness, just like shifting gears in a car, so that you can match your level of awareness/readiness with the current requirements of your situation. In a car, you shift gears based on the grade encountered or the speed desired. On the street, you must learn to "shift gears" mentally, to match the threat level encountered. There is a sliding scale of readiness, going from a state of being oblivious and unprepared to a condition of being ready to instantly do lethal violence if forced. One cannot live stuck at either end of this spectrum.
If you try to live at the bottom of the scale, you will fall victim to an accident or to a criminal, eventually. It's just a matter of "when", not "if". On the other hand, you can't go through your daily routine with your hand hovering over your holstered pistol, ready to shoot if anything moves! What you must learn to do is escalate and de-escalate up and down this scale as the circumstances around you dictate. This is an easily learned system, and one that will help you be in the right frame of mind to deal with any conflict you encounter.
If you should find yourself faced with a life-threatening attack by a criminal, as a typical normal person, you will be faced by three enormous difficulties. They are:
Recognizing the presence of the predator in time;
Realizing, internalizing, and accepting that THAT MAN , RIGHT THERE , is about to kill you for reasons you do not understand; if you don't stop him; and
Overcoming your reluctance to do lethal violence against a fellow human being.
Let's look at each of these in turn. First, you have to see him and realize that he is a threat. Thugs are flesh and bone, and are not invisible. Contrary to public opinion, they do not beam down from the mother ship, attack you, and beam back up. They typically walk right up to you un-noticed because of the fog most people operate in daily. Learn to lift that fog and see the warning signs earlier, so you can be prepared.
On a daily basis, defenders find themselves in situations where quick judgments are required during dynamic situations, often leading to life and death decisions. These actions, decided in milliseconds, will later be examined at length. Those conducting these after-incident examinations are often persons who neither understand the dynamics involved, nor the way a critical incident develops.
Whether these incidents occurred 100 years ago or 100 days ago, the dynamics of an urban fight remain amazingly constant. They are oftentimes, unannounced, high-intensity, short duration events characterized by sudden violence after which one or both parties are either down, or have quit the fight. Moreover, these events tend to occur at very close range and often in poor light. Under these circumstances, some points become very clear:
Fighting ability being equal, aggressive, pro-active fighters tend to win, whereas defensive, re-active fighters tend to lose.
It is true that our policies and laws dictate that “Defense” must always be the over-riding concept in our tactical activities. Exactly how this defensive concept is applied, however, remains to be answered. Anyone who understands fighting knows that offense and defense are two sides of the same coin, and that the two concepts complement one another.
Incidentally, let’s be honest with ourselves. Fighting is exactly what is going to happen with an armed adversary who decides to invite himself to dinner. We are going to have to fight him.
The defensive application is simply the actual REASONS we are deploying our resources in the first place, not necessarily the actual tactics used. Once the decision has been made to deploy the use of force for defense, it must be offense all the way. Can you imagine, for example, winning a fist-fight by only blocking your adversary’s punches and never throwing a punch yourself? Not likely is it? Fighting concepts, whether with fists or firearms, remain constant.
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the concept of defensive accuracy and point shooting, and will be able to demonstrate physically, an ability to draw from a holster and engage a target with an Airsoft training pistol and place accurate shots on a target at a distance of 21 feet in the manner prescribed by the instructor.
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the need for active weapon retention methods and for the need to learn and maintain close quarters hand-to-hand combat skills.
At the end of this lesson, students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the need to carry additional defensive weapon systems, identify some of the options available for use as defensive weapons and select a backup defensive weapon system that is legal to carry in their locale and that suits their individual requirements based on their training and level of skill.
The likelihood of getting into Deadly Force Engagement in Low or Reduced Light is Very High (Approx 80%). Even if it is light outside, it does not automatically mean that it is going to be the same inside. IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
There are four main problems that can be encountered in reduced light conditions. The first is: 1. Temporary Night Blindness This is a temporary condition that is caused from going from a well lit environment to a darkened environment. The pupil, which allows light to enter the eye, is controlled by the iris. Moving from a day light environment to a reduced one, causes the iris to open, allowing more light to enter the eye. The eye will normally take up to 30-40 minutes to acclimatize itself to reduced light. IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
4. Cognitive Interpolation A condition that occurs when a person is given a limited amount of visual input due to glance sight or low/reduced light. The mind then takes a limited amount of information, translates it against pre-stored knowledge and experience database of the brain, and interprets the information, providing a conclusion to what was just seen. A glance gave a certain amount of visual input, the mind then translated that information and tells you what you have seen, given the available information that it had. You might have seen clothing colour or facial features. This is interpolation. Your mind uses stored knowledge and interprets the limited visual data and makes a supposition as to what it has just seen. IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
FBI Technique: The flashlight is held away but much higher than the modified technique from the body with the non weapon hand. Disadvantage; The technique is simple but takes support away from the firing hand. IPSSC Firearms Training Courses Online Firearms Safety & Weapons Familiarization Course – Semi-Auto Pistol
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