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World Wind Energy Association

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  • 1. Presentation by Dr. Anil Kane President Emeritus World Wind Energy Association Chairman Emeritus Indian Wind Energy Association At The 3rd Asia Energy Security Summit 2013 At BangApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 1
  • 2. April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 2
  • 3. The World Wind Energy AssociationApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 3
  • 4. 25 % of the People are in DarknessSource: International Energy Agency April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 4
  • 5. “ The Contribution of Wind Energy in the Energy Mix of the World” The fastest growing industry of the world today is the Wind Energy. It had grown at a compound rate of 23.6% for last 10 years. No industry in the history has grown at this rate. Various agencies have projected the demand by using various methods. The wind sector became a global job generator and has created 6,70,000 jobs worldwide. The wind sector represented in 2010 a turnover of 40 billion €.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 5
  • 6. Installed Capacity 2010April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 6
  • 7. Country-Wise Total Capacity installedApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 7
  • 8. Total Installed Wind Capacity 1997 – 2010 (MW) Projection up to 2020 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 8
  • 9. Developed economies take lion’s share in energy consumption Per capita electricity consumption 17,179 13,338 11,126 kWh / year 7,689 5,642 1,900 631 Canada USA Australia France Russia China India Source : International Energy AgencyApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 9
  • 10. Key growth drivers for wind energy - I Concern Demand Catalysts Aggressive global targets Zero  Kyoto Protocol: CO2 emissions to reduce by 5.2% of 1990s levels by 2012 Climate Change carbon and solution  EU declaration: 20% from RE by 2020 Global Warming  US: 21 States with 10% to 20% RPS mandates  China RE law: 20% by 2020 from RE  India: 10 States with 2% to 10% RPO mandatesSource : American Wind Energy Association BTM Consult ApS World Market Update 2006 April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 10
  • 11. Key growth drivers for wind energy - II Concern Demand Catalysts  Hedge against geopolitical risks - local and Local secured supply Energy Security availability  No risk of fuel price volatility  Socially, ecologically and economically sustainable growthSource : American Wind Energy Association BTM Consult ApS World Market Update 2006 April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 11
  • 12. Key growth drivers for wind energy - III Concern Demand Catalysts  Energy - key to economic growth in developing countries (India, China etc. require all sources Increased Abundant quickly to bridge gap) Electricity resource Demand  Wind’s global electricity generation contribution expected to increase from 0.82% in 2006 to 4.04% in 2016Source : American Wind Energy Association BTM Consult ApS World Market Update 2006 April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 12
  • 13. Key growth drivers for wind energy - IV Concern Demand Catalysts  Improvement in yields (cost/ kWh) Cost  Cost / kWh of generation: US$ 0.03 - 0.06 competitiveness  Wind Energy directly competing with Zero fuel and hedging conventional power cost  Frozen lifecycle power cost for utilitiesSource : American Wind Energy Association BTM Consult ApS World Market Update 2006 April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 13
  • 14. CURRENT OPERATING COSTS Though Wind Energy is a capital intensive proposition, you will see from the figure, the operating cost of wind is lower than any other method. Sometimes people think that nuclear is cheaper, but that is not the case. On the contrary, these figures regarding the operating cost of nuclear system will be much higher than shown here since the price of uranium also has skyrocketed like the oil price. While the only steady operating cost is wind since there is no raw material cost.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 14
  • 15. CURRENT OPERATING COSTS 3.69 4 Cost in cents per kilowatt hour 3.5 3 2.13 2.5 1.82 2 1.5 1 1 0.5 0 NUCLEAR COAL FIRED NATURAL GAS WIND POWER PLANTSApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 15
  • 16. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has predicted that the world electrical energy requirement will triple by 2050. The current electrical energy installation is around 3.6 million MW, which will become about 11 million MW. It is unthinkable to imagine this much quantity being produced by fossil fuel. What will happen to the green house gases (including carbon dioxide concentration) is no more a guess work. It will make the world unsuitable for life. We can keep these figures lower only by adopting 18th century life style. But this is not possible. If China and India start consuming per capita electrical energy, as much as what the US consumes, the figures are unbelievably large.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 16
  • 17. The realization through out the world has come that this Earth does not belongs to the present generation; it belongs to our children and we have borrowed it from them. It is our sacred duty that we return the earth in a better shape to our children than what we have received from our forefathers. The fossil fuels are finite and we must use them very judiciously instead of burning them off for generation of electrical energy. We must preserve them for high value added petrochemicals and other important materials. The basic definition of economics tells us “Economics is the science which deals with ends and scarce means which have alternate uses”. The fossil fuels are scarce and they have better alternate uses than burning them off for energy.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 17
  • 18. Another important thing which normally people do not realize is that with increase in the population of the world, the demand for food grains is also increasing. Consequently the demand for chemical fertilizers is also increasing. All the chemical fertilizers, through out the world, are produced by burning fossil fuels. If we exhaust fossil fuel for energy, how are we going to meet the increasing food demand for the inflating population? We will have to resort to natural organic fertilizers and preserve fossil fuels. The recent studies carried out by the California Energy Commission (CEC) mandated with the task of periodically examining the cost of various electricity generation technologies have clearly indicated that most renewable technologies, even solar photovoltaic, will be able to generate electricity at a lower price than the nuclear power in 2018.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 18
  • 19. IOU – Investor-Owned Utility POU – Publicly-Owned UtilityApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 19
  • 20. Is the renewable energy capable of meeting this incredible demand of electrical energy? Intensive researches are going on in photovoltaic and its related fields. The prices of PV cells are slowly dropping, but still they are quite far from commercial viability without governmental supports. It may become possible to economically produce large scale electrical energy by PV within 45 years. The tidal energy has limitations. You need a particular geographic condition to have a tidal power plant. The only sizeable power plant working in France is at a place called La Rance. It produces 240 MW for more than 40 years very successfully. It is estimated that around 200,000 MW can be generated from various places known to have a conducive situation for tidal energy production around the world. The Government of Gujarat in India has embarked upon an ambitious project called “Kalpasar” where 5800 MW of electrical energy will be produced by tidal power.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 20
  • 21. EVALUATION OF GLOBAL WIND POWER EuropeSource : Stanford Edu. - Cristina L. ArcherApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 21
  • 22. EVALUATION OF GLOBAL WIND POWER North America Source : Stanford Edu. - Cristina L. ArcherApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 22
  • 23. EVALUATION OF GLOBAL WIND POWER Asia Source : Stanford Edu. - Cristina L. ArcherApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 23
  • 24. EVALUATION OF GLOBAL WIND POWER AfricaApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 24
  • 25. EVALUATION OF GLOBAL WIND POWER AustraliaApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 25
  • 26. EVALUATION OF GLOBAL WIND POWER South AmericaApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 26
  • 27. The study concludes that if only the areas having an annual average wind velocity grater than 7 m/se are taken into account, wind worldwide could produce approximately 72 trillion watt hours of electrical energy per year. This is equal to about 54,000 million tones of oil equivalent. Even if only 20% of this power is captured, it is more than the total energy requirement of the entire world for all purposes. If we consider just the electrical energy requirement of the entire world, this potential is seven times the world needs, which is 1.6 to 1.8 Trillion Watt hours. If we take into consideration areas which have got lesser than 7m/sec wind velocity, and the offshore potential, the figure will be astronomical.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 27
  • 28. While looking at the World map for the potential of wind energy, it is clear that very large land mass of the earth fall under uneconomical zone, having inadequate wind velocity for economic electricity production. Necessity is the mother of invention. People around the world are working on designs which can produce electricity economically even in these zones. Some such ideas are discussed here. They are; • Air Rotor System – Magenn • Wind Mills in the Sky (Autogyro) - USA • Wind Energy Marine Unit (WEMU) Being Developed in Russia • Ladder Mill (Kiteplanes) - Denmark • Multi-Rotor Shaft • Vertical Axis Turbine • Maglev Wind Turbine • Linear Motor Frame • Dual Rotor Design - Korea • Wind Lens TurbineApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 28
  • 29. Air Rotor System - MagennApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 29
  • 30. April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 30
  • 31. April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 31
  • 32. April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 32
  • 33. Wind Mills in the Sky (Autogyro) - USA Groups working in the US, Netherlands and Canada are readying to set up wind farms 9 kilometers up in the sky. This is where we have the so called jet stream, or corridors of high velocity winds, which high altitude aircraft make use of while flying eastwards.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 33
  • 34. Wind Energy Marine Unit (WEMU) Being Developed in RussiaApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 34
  • 35. Wind Energy Marine Unit (WEMU) Being Developed in RussiaApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 35
  • 36. LADDERMILL (KITEPLANES) - DenmarkApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 36
  • 37. Multi-rotor ShaftApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 37
  • 38. Maglev Wind TurbineApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 38
  • 39. Linear Motor FrameApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 39
  • 40. Linear Motor FrameApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 40
  • 41. Dual Rotor Design - KoreaApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 41
  • 42. Wind Lens TurbineApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 42
  • 43. Power Amplified Upper Level Aerogenerator - PAULAApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 43
  • 44. Additional aspects needing attention- To overcome fluctuation in wind power production on daily as well as seasonal basis, large quantity of electrical energy storage has become necessity. Considerable success has been reported.- It is necessary to make production of small wind turbines in mass so that the current exorbitant prices can be broughtdown to affordable levels If this happens, it is anticipatedthat every roof top will have a small wind turbine/PV hybridsystem to meet domestic electrical demands. This is also avery big portion of electrical consumption.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 44
  • 45. Recent developments have made it possible to store large scale, MW hours, electrical energy. This will enable a) Storing energy in off peak time and supply during peak demand periods. b) Smooth load and grid stability control. c) Frequency and voltage fluctuation control. d) Grid reinforcement.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 45
  • 46. Advances in Technologies and work on R & D FrontApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 46
  • 47. The commercial scale large storage equipment - 1 NAS Battery (Sodium Sulphur Batteries), JapanApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 47
  • 48. NAS Battery (Sodium Sulphur Batteries), JapanApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 48
  • 49. The commercial scale large storage equipment - 3 VANADIUM REDOX FLOW Batteries, CanadaApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 49
  • 50. The modern battery systems consists of Lead Acid Nickel Cadmium Nickel-Metal Hydride Sodium-Nickel Chloride Lithium-Ion, etc. & VANADIUM REDOX FLOW Batteries Sodium Sulphur Batteries (NAS) The specific storage capacity integrated by kWh per kg is given in the table.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 50
  • 51. Techno-economic parameters for Chemical Storage batteries Sodium Nickel Sodium nickel Zinc Polysul Vanadium Technical parameter Lead acid Lithium Ion Cadmium Sulphur chloride bromine de-bromide redox batteryRound-trip efficiency (%) 70-82 60-70 85-98 70-90 85-90 60-75 57-75 60-85Self-discharge (% energy/day 0.033-0.3 0.067-0.6 0.1-0.3 0.05-20 15 0.24 - 0.2Cycle lifetime (no.of cycles) 100-2,000 800-3,500 1,000-10,000 2,500 2,500 2,000 2,000 12,000-14,000Expected lifetime (years) 3-20 5-20 5-15 5-15 10-14 5-10 10-15 5-15Specific energy (watt-hour/kg) 30-50 50-75 75-200 150-240 100-120 30-50 10-50 10-30Specific power (watt-hour/kg) 75-300 150-300 150-315 150-230 150-200 - - -Energy density (watt-hour/litre) 50-80 60-150 200-500 150-250 150-180 30-60 16-60 16-33Power density (watt/litre) 10-400 - - - 220-300 - - -CostPower (S/kW) 175-600 150-1,500 175-4,000 150-3,000 150-300 175-2,500 330-2,500 175-1,500Energy (S/kWh) 150-400 600-1,500 500-2,500 250-500 100-200 150-1,000 120-1,000 150-1,000Balance of plant (S/kWh) 120-600 120-600 120-600 120-600 120-600 120-600 120-600 120-610Operation and maintenance cost 1.8-52 6-32 12-30 23-61 23-61 15-47 18-96 24-65(S/kW year) April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy AssociationSource: Energy Storage Technology Review by Kyie Bradbury, August 2010 51
  • 52. In conclusion, the wind energy is progressing very well and is going definitely to come to the rescue of the mankind. In my opinion, this is the only source, which is in abundance and can be economically exploited without disturbing the balance of nature.April 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 52
  • 53. Thank YouApril 2, 2013 World Wind Energy Association 53