Presentation ON The Role of Police in Preventing, Defending and Responding to the threat of terror in the 21 st century by collaborating with Businesses and Community SANTOSH MEHRA IPS I.G. RAYALASEEMA 03-12-2010
Terrorism!! What it does?
What We Do?
But, the question is- Is this enough?
Does this reaction ensure our safety and prevent future attacks ?
Bangalore airport resume its operation after runway accident New Delhi, March 28 (IANS) Stray animals on the runways are fast turning into a major safety nightmare in most airports across the country as Thursday night’s incident of a Kingfisher Airlines plane hitting a stray dog on the runway shows. While the bird-hits are a rare phenomenon, animals straying onto the runway are a routine at many airports in India, admitted an official of the Airports Authority of India (AAI). Lucky escape for passengers as flight hits deer on runway (8/3/2008 ) Air India plane hits 'nilgai ' on Kanpur runway (28/2/2008) Naked man enters Delhi airport, detained New Delhi: Police at Delhi airport detained a naked man who...., jumped the periphery wall of the Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) and started moving towards a taxiway, near runway 29. The Air Traffic Controller had to abort at the last moment the landing of a domestic flight coming from Hyderabad because of the man's presence. "The man entered from the T3 construction site .
What does Organised Research say??
Anxiety Index tracks the levels and intensity of consumer anxiety and, importantly, the drivers of anxiety.
The index examines safety and security concerns—the threat of terrorism, potential and current military hostilities, crime, etc.—and economic worries, such as the cost of health care, the cost of living and job security.
What is Anxiety Index?
Research conducted in 10 countries by Millward Brown in conjunction with JWT.
Respondents based in Metros of India were interviewed face-to-face.
India’s anxiety level is high , with close to three-quarters of respondents saying they are nervous or anxious, considering everything going on in the world, country and their family lives.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
INDIA’S CURRENT SECURITY SCENARIO – A MILLION MUTINIES
223 out of 636 Districts affected by Maoist problem.
20 Districts in Jammu & Kashmir – Pakistan backed proxy war.
67 Districts affected by insurgencies in North-East.
Pakistan policy of bleeding India by a thousand cuts – Attacks on places of strategic and economic importance.
EVOLVING NATURE OF TERRORISM
I. Fourth Generation Warfare (4GW) –
Inspired by Mao Tse Tung’s Protracted War Model.
Asymmetric Warfare Strategy.
Disruptive dominance – Prevent state from minimal governance which is protection and security of life and property.
Avoid decisive engagements.
Characterized by use of networks, willingness to accept casualties and it long length of war.
Vietnam and Afghanistan.
II. Fifth Generation Warfare ( 5 GW)
Attacks on symbols of Governance – Twin Towers/ Taj Hotel & VST Railway Station in Mumbai.
‘ Super – empowered’ small cells/Sleeper cells
CBRN Warfare for maximum impact
Use of Technology/ Internet etc.
I. PROFILE OF AN INDIAN CONSTABLE
" Unless the ‘beat constable’ is brought into the vortex of our counter-terrorist strategy, our capacity to pre-empt future attacks would be severely limited." - P.M. Manmohan Singh in September 2006.
An average Police Constable gets around Rs.10,000/-
Only 29.3% have family quarters.
Police Station buildings are worst than cattle sheds.
Police men work 16 to 18 hours on continuous basis – BPR&D study.
Around 75% retire without a single promotion.
Poorly educated and poorly trained”.
“ Police is a convenient lightening rod that attracts the charged fury of our so-called civil society”.
Police operates in "the most degrading conditions that can be humanly inflicted, in one of the most volatile societies in the world".
Can this cop fight 21 st Century Terrorism?
LEADERSHIP IN POLICING 16% deficiency in IPS against sanctioned strength – MHA Report 2007-08. Sample States Sanctioned Strength in Position Percent Deficit Bihar 193 159 17.6 Chhattisgarh 81 70 13.5 Jharkhand 110 82 25.5 Orissa 159 98 38.3 Jammu & Kashmir 135 115 14.8 Assam-Meghalaya 153 133 13.0 Manipur-Tripura 121 101 16.5 India 3886 3234 16.7
POLICE POPULATION RATIOS (PER 100,000 POPULATION)
220 Police personnel per 1,00,000 population – UN norm.
India’s ratio is 126 / 1,00,000.
5.30 lakh vacancies in the State Police forces as on 1-1-2009.
POLICE POPULATION RATIO
IB has a strength of 13,500 officers of which < 3,500 are on Intelligence collection of which around 300 focussed on CT Intelligence.
Italy 559 Portugal 465 Belgium 358 Austria 330 USA 315 Germany 291 South Africa 277 Norway 242 Australia 209 France 205 UK 205 UN Recommended Ratio 222 India 126
According to BPR&D the no. of police men per lakh population has fallen from 135 to 128 over the last decade, while the population has gone up from 97.1 crores to 115.3 crores
POLICE AREA RATIOS No standard norms prescribed. All India average 45 / 100 sq km Delhi 3,953 / 100 sq km Tripura 208/ 100 sq km Punjab 142 / 100 sq km USA 112 / 100 sq km Kerala 59 / 100 sq km Bihar 50 Jharkhand 22 Orissa 24 AP 28
MILITARY CAPACITIES Population – Military Ratio Army short of 11,387 officers (24.5%), Navy of 1512 officers (17%), Air Force of 1400 officers (11.5%). Country Population Active Duty Uniformed Troop Strength Ratio INDIA 1,147,995,904 1325000 866.41 PAKISTAN 172,800,048 620,000 278.71 UK 60,943,912 206,000 295.84 FRANCE 64,057,792 259,000 247.33 CHINA 1,330,044,544 2250000 591.13 US 303,824,640 1625852 186.87
ARMY DEPLOYMENT IN NAXAL AREAS?
Not conversant with local language, culture and terrain.
Limited interaction with local population.
Already heavily deployed in Kashmir and North-East.
Erosion of Army’s Conventional Capabilities.
Need for protracted and massive deployment – not possible !
RATIO OF GOVERNMENT SERVANTS TO POPULATION
90% of Government Employees are at Class-III & Class-IV levels.
USA Federal: 889 USA State & Local: 6314 USA Total: 7203 ALL FIGURES PER 100,000 POPULATION India Union: 295 Less Railways: 171 UP State: 352 Bihar State: 472 Orissa State: 1,007 Chhattisgarh State: 1,067 Maharashtra State: 1,223 Punjab State: 1,383 Haryana State: 1,482 Gujarat State: 1,694 Tamil Nadu State: 1,813 Tripura State: 3,961 Himachal State: 4,598 Nagaland State: 16,084
Doing The American Way – Is it possible? USA India Population 300 million 1.2 billion GDP US $ 14.14 trillion around US $ 1 trillion Police Budget FBI - $ 7.1 billion $ 3 billion DHS $ 44 billion ? Defence Budget US $ 680billion +500? US $ 30 billion
India is one of the world’s fastest growing economies and growth expected to continue at 7.5% - 8% despite the global downturn
Investments of more than $500 billion planned to flow into India's infrastructure by 2012 to sustain a GDP growth rate of 9 percent per annum
Of these, about 30% ($150 billion) are expected to be through private participation(PPP)
UNCTAD declares India as the second most-preferred global location for foreign investments
Projected spending from FY07-FY12 in selected in
• Power: US$167 bn
• Roads and Highways: US$92 bn
• Railways: US$65 bn
• Ports: US$22 bn
• Airports: US$8 bn
Construction, maintenance and operation of Greenfield airports / Brownfield airports
Construction, maintenance and operation of ports, roads and highways
Power generation, transmission and distribution.
Mass rapid transport systems
Huge assets need dedicated security cover
Long gestation periods and need for continued security
High opportunity cost, if lost due to lack of security
Need for well trained security personnel supported by latest technical gadgets to provide security/safety to major infrastructure projects, especially those being developed and managed by Private Sector
Infrastructure projects are vital for the growth of National economy.
Lack of adequate resources of the state.
Homeland Security Business
Global HLS market is expected to be around $50 Bn in 2010
Asia Pacific region contributes to almost 21% of the global HLS market.
Macroeconomic factors influencing the growth of HLS in Asia Pacific region are fastest growing economies, increased public awareness, history of terrorism, huge growth in tourism and technological advancements.
Growing significance of service providers and their expected dominance in the HLS market.
- Frost & Sullivan
Private Security Industry in India
Present size of private security industry in the country is about Rs 21,000 cr. which will reach about Rs 40,000 cr. by 2011-12
Increasing demand from Infrastructure, transportation, services and manufacturing sectors
Private security industry is growing about 25% per annum
CAPSI estimates that India’s US$ 2 bn private security sector will add a million employees this year. Already, private sector employees about 5 million people, 1.3 mn more than the country’s police and armed forces combined.
Private security Today
Primarily from rural background
Last resort/Low priority
Long hours of work
No or inadequate training
Regulations/Acts still not stringent
Inadequate emphasis on professional competence
Design of the project – inbuilt security
Security as an investment, not as an avoidable expenditure
Security system as a part during project stage, not as a retrofit
Trained manpower to use technical equipment
Integration of private security agencies in the security grid of the area
Act as a force multiplier in times of crisis .
Need for review of Private Security Agencies Regulation Act and its implementation.
To Provide Security and/ secure our businesses
Instead of Anytime Anywhere Policing we have Anyhow Policing
We manage crisis after crisis- infact do firefighting not professional policing,
We think of Police only in crisis and forget them when the crisis passes
We need long term policy to deal with emerging crimes like terrorism , Left Wing Extremism, Cyber Crimes, Organised Crimes etc
We need laws to keep in tune with times
Baggage X-ray Screening
Large Cargo Screening (High Energy X-ray & Gamma Rays)
People Screening ( Metal Detectors & Human Body Scanners)
Occupied Vehicle/Car Scanner
Nuclear Material Detection
Individual attribute Screening
X-ray Screening- Baggage/Parcel screening systems with X-ray Voltage typically 140- 200KV
Adapted for scanning hand bags, laptops, lunch box, registered baggage & cargo at Airports, Railways Stations , Metro, Building Entrance etc.
Today’s X-ray scanners are capable of detecting/screening for explosives, narcotics, drugs, currency, liquid explosives
Typical steel penetration of 28-45 mm of steel
Non-intrusive personnel screening system designed to detect metallic and non-metallic objects concealed under a person's clothing.
Low level X-rays are “backscattered ” from the person to X-ray detectors
An image is generated by software and sent to the operator
Technology based security layers add increased deterrent and detection capabilities.
Emergence of new technologies have greatly reduced risks and improve physical security
Now Dual View baggage scanners with liquid explosive threat detection capabilities are commercially available to make flying safer and to eliminate the need for a ban on carrying liquids in hand bags. More and more systems being deployed worldwide.
Human Body Scanners are now being more religiously deployed at major airports across USA, Europe and elsewhere for screening passengers
Container screening has become mandatory for some nations and with the help of a large range of solutions it has become an easy task to screen containers thereby reducing downtime and increasing efficiency
Crime Stoppers International – An example of involving Community in policing
Founded in 1976 by Investigating Officer Mr. Greg MacAleese in Albuquerque, USA.
An international non-profit community program for assisting police in preventing, reporting & detecting crimes.
Tackling crime effectively cannot be done by law enforcement alone.
Support of the public is important.
5. Successes World wide from 1976 – Dec 1, 2010
Arrests Made 860,050
Cases Cleared 1,334,382
Rewards Paid $96,263,265
Property recovered $2,069,098,991
Drugs Seized $7,908,088,215
Total $ Recovered $9,977,187,206
Crime stoppers assist in solving a crime somewhere in the world every 14 minutes.
Over US $ 100million in rewards – an average of US $ 63,000 every week. Over US $ 700,000 worth of stolen property and narcotics recovered worldwide every day.
Security is a thankless job - Targets can’t be quantified, achievements/results may not be tangible & directly measured.
Self esteem and morale of security personnel vital for their effective performance
It is worth extracting a quote from Thorbecke in his 1871 Historical Essays that formed the Introduction to the 1977 Dutch report called “The Changing Police” initiating reforms In Dutch Police.
“ Will we dwell in what our forefathers bestowed upon us; will we not do any thing ourselves, will we resist timely advance; well then, rather than advance, we will face decline. Each era has its own principle of motion; if one lets this lie, the following era will suffer commotion.”