Disasters: Global Scenario•Disasters-natural or man-made are common throughoutthe world.• Threats to people assume serious proportions in theunder developed countries with dense population.• More than 200 worst natural disasters have occurred inthe world during the second half of the 20th Century andclaimed lives of around 1.4 million people.(source MHADoc)• Losses due to natural disasters are 20 times greater (as %of GDP) in the developing countries.
Disaster Mortality By Region Asien Americas Africa Oceania Europa Asia continues to bear the bruntof both natural and man-made disasters Source: CRED March 07 ‘CRED CRUNCH’ Newsletter
EMERGING TRENDS IN DISASTER PATTERNS:•90 per cent of natural disaster related deaths occur indeveloping countries.•Now more disasters occur but fewer people die inproportion.•More population is affected and economic losses areincreasing.•Hazards and vulnerability is constantly shaped bydynamic and complex socio-economic and ecologicalprocesses compounded by stresses felt within individualsocieties.
EMERGING TRENDS continued….•Pace of modern life has also introduced new forms ofvulnerabilities related to technological developments•Population growth and increased rural/urban migration,act as dynamic pressures contributing to changingpatterns.•Phenomena like El Niño/La Niña, climate change andthe potential for rising sea levels pose new threatdimension.•Biological hazards in the forms of pest infestations,human disease epidemics and pandemics on the rise.
58.6% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to high intensity 68% of the cultivable area is vulnerable to Drought Over 40 million hectares (12% of land) is prone to Floods & River Erosion Of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis 12% government revenue spent on relief and rehabilitation 2% GDP loss
Floods, Punjab 1993, 359 lives lost Earthquake, Chamoli March 99, 100 lives lost Cloudburst in Leh – August 2010- 200 Earthquake, Uttarkasshi Oct. 91, 2000 lives lost deaths Heatwave, Uttar Pradesh,Kosi floods 2008, May-June 95, 566 lives lostCyclone Aila 2009 Earthquake, Gujarat Floods, North Bihar & 26th January, 2001 Assam Annual Feature Earthquake, Jabalpur May Cyclone, Gujarat June 97, 39 lives lost 98, 3500 lives lost Super Cyclone, Orissa Oct. 99, Over 10,000 lives lost Cyclone, Andhra Pradesh Andhra, May 90, 962 lives lost Karnataka floods Dec.96, 971 lives lost 2009 Earthquake, Latur Sep. 93, 9475 lives lost MAJOR Cyclone, Tamil Nadu NATURAL Floods, Kerala Dec. 93, 61 lives lost Tsunami, Tamil NaduDISASTERS May- Oct. 94 26th December, 2004
The Disaster Management Act 2005, defines disaster as “a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.” United Nations -“the occurrence of sudden or major misfortune which disrupts the basic fabric and normal functioning of the society or community.”
Geological: Hydro-metrological: Biological: Earthquakes floods Outbreaks of tsunamis tropical cyclones epidemic diseasesvolcanic activity rain/wind/dust storms plant or animal landslides drought contagion desertification avalanches insect plagues and wild land fires extensive infestations. mud flows extreme temperatures cloudburst
• Chemical• Biological• Radiological• Nuclear• Transport (Air/Railways/Road traffic/Marine)• Urban Flooding – One of the major causes• Riots/Civic Disturbances• Terrorism
LEVEL 1 – the local disaster response management is adequate LEVEL 2 – support is required from regional resources – state, province LEVEL 3: support is required from national resources LEVEL 4 – support is required from international resources
A single “all hazards” plan A comprehensive approach ▪ Prevention and mitigation ▪ Preparedness ▪ Response ▪ Recovery Integration of agencies and organizations Community Preparedness
APPROACH Paradigm Shift from Response Centric to a Holistic and Integrated Approach. Backed by – Institutional Framework and Legal Authority. Supported by Financial Mechanism, Creation of new Funds, i.e., Response Fund and Mitigation Fund. DM STRUCTURE NDMA set up as the Apex Body with Hon‟ble PM as Chairperson. DM Structure – At all three levels i.e. National, State and District. National Executive Committee (NEC) - Secretaries of 14 Ministries and Chief of Integrated Defence Staff Function as Executive Committee of NDMA.
POWER & FUNCTIONS OF THE NDMA• Lay down Policies on Disaster Management;• Approve the National Plan;• Approve Plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan;• Lay down Guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the States Plan;• Lay down Guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Department of the Government of India for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects;
….. POWER & FUNCTIONS OF NDMA• Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the Policy and Plan for Disaster Management;• Recommend provision of Funds for the purpose of Mitigation;• Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined by the Central Government;• Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with the threatening disaster situation or disaster as it may consider necessary;• Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management.
Disaster Management is a multi-disciplinary process, all Central Ministries and Departments will have a key role in the field of disaster management. Nodal Ministries and Departments of Government of India will address specific disasters as assigned to them as :- (i) Drought - Ministry of Agriculture. (ii) Epidemics & Biological Disaster - Ministry of Health. (iii) Chemical Disaster - Ministry of Environment. (iv) Nuclear Accidents & Leakages - Dept. of Atomic Energy. (v) Railway Accidents - Ministry of Railways. (vi) Air Accidents - Ministry of Civil Aviation. (vii) Natural Disasters & Civil Strife - Ministry of Home Affairs.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYTASKS ACCOMPLISHED• Guidelines on Pandemic Preparedness Beyond 22 Apr 08. Health.• Cyclones. 24 Apr 08.• Biological. 22 Aug 08.• Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies 24 Feb 09. (Unclassified, Part – I).• Guidelines for Disaster Response Training at the Mar 09. Centre & States – NDRF & SDRFs.• Landslides & Snow Avalanches. 23 Jun 09.• Chemical Terrorism Disasters. 04 Aug 09.• Psycho Social and Mental Health Care. 20 Jan 10.• Incident Response System. 21 Jul 10.• Strengthening of Safety and Security for 26 Jul 10. Transportation of POL Tankers.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYTASKS ACCOMPLISHED• Threats to Municipal Water Supply and Water Reservoirs. 26 Jul 10.• Mechanism to Detect, Prevent and Respond to 11 Aug 10. Radiological Emergencies in India.• Management of the Dead in the Aftermath of Disaster. 17 Aug 10.• Minimum Standards of Relief – Food in Relief Camps. Sanitation & Hygiene in Disaster Relief. 30 Aug 10. Water Supply in Relief Camps. Medical Cover in Relief Camps.• Tsunami. 03 Sep 10.• Drought. Handed over to Secretary Agriculture on 24 Sep 10.• Role of NGOs in Disaster Management Handed over on 24 Sep 10.• Urban Flooding 27 Sep 2010.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYTASKS ACCOMPLISHED• National Policy on Disaster Management (DM) – Approved by the Government on 22 Oct 09.Guidelines Issued 27• Guidelines for NIDM‟s Functioning. 13 Apr 06.• Recommendations on Revamping of CD & Fire Dec 06. Services.• Earthquakes. 16 May 07.• Chemical (Industrial) Disasters. 28 May 07.• Formulation of State DM Plans. 16 Aug 07.• Medical Preparedness and Mass Casualty 14 Nov 07. Management.• Floods. 17 Jan 08.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYONGOING ACTIVITIES AND MAJOR INITIATIVES 1. Guidelines – Under Finalization. • Curriculum for Training of Civil Defence. • Community Based Disaster Management. • National Guidelines on Communication & Information Network. • Nuclear – Radiological – Part II (Classified.) • Micro Finance & Risk Insurance. • Role of NGOs in Disaster Management. • Post Disaster Reconstruction. • Protection of Cultural Heritage & Monuments. • Training Curriculum for Civil Defence. • Fire Services.
LOCAL CAPACITIES NEED REINFORCEMENT AND AUGMENTATIONSo what to do ? ……
???????????????? DO WE HAVE SOME SOLUTIONS ???
Search & RescueFirst AidTransfer/Evacuate to Medical institutionsRestoration of Essential services eg Medical services, Water,Electricity, Communication networks, etcProvision of Minimum Standards of Disaster in Relief Camps eg.Food, Drinking water, Shelter, Sanitation, Medical coverDisposal of Dead bodiesPrevention of EpidemicsDebris Removal
IndividualOrganiz- Enabling environm-ational ent
Community EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTIONARIES (ESFs) Police Fire & Emergency Services Civil Defence Home Guards State Disaster Response Force Youth Organisations National Service Scheme National Cadet Corps Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan NGOs
AREAS FOR TRAINING IN EMERGENCY RESPONSE DRILLS AND PROCEDURES TRAINED DART PREPOSITIONED RAPID STOCKPILES MOBILISATION EFFECTIVE FORCE COMMUNICATIONS EMERGENCY MULTIPIERS FUNDS
ARMED FORCES NDRF TRAININGS BY NIDM TRAININGS BY STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT CENTRES TRAININGS BY NCDC AND NFSC PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGNS EMERGENCY MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS SCHOOL SAFETY COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL/SECTOR SPECIFIC TRAININGS FOR STAKEHOLDERS (HAZARD SPECIFIC) CHEMICAL INDUSTRIAL DISASTER PREPAREDNESS MOCK DRILLS
Armed Forces are called when the situation is beyond the coping capacity of the Civil Administration. Form Core of the Government‟s Response Capacity and tend to be First Responders in addition to the initiatives of NDRF & SDRF Assisting in fields of Capacity Development & Preparedness:- NBC Training Heliborne insertion High Altitude Rescue Diving / Rescue in water Participation in Mock Exercise
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYAREA OF RESPONSIBILITY OF NDRF BNS
• 10 Bns : 3 each from BSF & CRPF and 2 each from CISF & ITBP Each Bn authorized 1150 personnel Each Bn has 18 specialist teams of 45 members to handle natural & NBC disasters Each team of 45 has 1 Doctor, 2 Engineers, 2 paramedics, 1 technician, 1 electrician & 1 dog squad Total No.- 18 teams x 10Bns = 180 teams
NDRF : SPECIAL FEATURES A multi-disciplinary, Multi-skilled high-tech Force capable of responding to all natural disasters & CBRN emergencies Trained & Equipped as per International Standards of INSARAG (UN OCHA, Geneva) Pro-actively available to states
NDRF:SPECIAL FEATURES Dedicated exclusively for Disaster Response No country in the world has such large Force (1100+ personnel/ 180 teams) dedicated for Disaster Response only
. Helislithering :3 IAF Base, Nahan (HQ)4. Under Water Rescue * Life saving society, Kolkata * Sea Explorer Institute, Kolkata5. NBC Emergencies * College of Military Engineering, Pune * DRDE Gwalior * Singapore Civil Def. Academy * Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). The Hague (Netherlands)
Disaster Response: Deployed in 125 operations so far. Saved/ Rescued 2,33,494 lives & retrieved 667 bodies Kosi Flood (Aug 2008): saved/ rescued 1,05,000 people
CAPACITY BUILDING PROJECT IN PARTNERSHIP WITH IGNOU FOR PRIs
AUDIO-VISUAL CAMPAIGNS (HAZARD SPECIFIC) EARTHQUAKE AWARENESS CAMPAIGN CYCLONE AWARENESS CAMPAIGN FLOOD AWARENESS CAMPIAGN INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION (IEC) ACTIVITIES IN ALL STATES AND UTs
Certified Medical First Responders (MFRs) will be :- Fully trained in resuscitation, triage and Basic Life Support; Well-equipped and supported by all emergency services and material logistics; Informed continuously about the dynamics of the disaster, based on indicators; Communication backups at the Incident Response site to handle all kinds of Mass Casualty events within the golden hour .
PRE-HOSPITAL CARE HOSPITAL SAFETY HOSPITAL CONTINGENCY PLANNING SKILL DEVELOPMENT TRAININGS LIKE ATLS, ATCN, PHTLS, BDLS, ACLS, ADLS EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES HOSPITAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT MASS CASUALTY MANAGEMENT PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCIES
Hospital DM Plan will be a part of “all hazard” District DM Plan catering to :- Emergency medicines, Crisis Expansion of Beds, Coordinated structured framework with detailed actions and roles of each health care provider Emergency Support Functions Rehearsed twice a year through Mock Drills Networking with Private Medical establishments
o On-site management of mass casualties.o Self-contained hospital capable of providing advanced life- support facilities at the Incident site having an Operation Theatre, X-ray facilities, Central Sterile Supply Department, Laboratories, and Acute wards.o Capacity of hospital beds can be enhanced.
Integrated Ambulance Network (IAN) including road, rail, aerial and water ambulance networks integrated at various levels. Equipped with :- Personnel trained in Basic Life Support. Basic Life saving equipment and drugs. It will work in conjunction with:- Emergency Response Centres (ERCs), Medical services, and Evacuation Plan of district, based on the Public-Private Partnership model.
TAKING ACTION IN SCHOOLS SCHOOL AWARENESS AND SAFETY PROGRAMME - A step towards school safety Promoting Demonstrating Training and Structural andAwareness and Disaster Risk Capacity Non - Structural Education Management - School Building Risk Reduction activities Disaster Management Plan and Mock drills
Community being the First Responder for any disaster or emergency Mechanism to incorporate community best practices to develop a resilient community Capacity Development of ASHA/VLH&S Committees/RKS/AWW Capacity Development of Railway functionaries at Railway Stations, Security Guards in RWA Capacity Development of Civil Defence volunteers, NCC/NSS/NYKS Development of Certified Medical First Responders
Total Mock Exercises Done so far - 482 States/UT covered - 35 Districts covered - 141 MAH Industries Covered - 101 Petroleum Industries - 22 Industries Sensitized - 196. Industrial workers trained - 1,78,000 Community sensitized - 6.25 (industries)/>23.9 lac (overall) „On-site‟ Plans made/revisited - 1854/1783 „Off-site‟ Plans formulated - 300/190. Extensive coverage by print & electronic media. NDMA conducted mocks for CWG, Hockey World Cup, Cricket World Cup, IPL, DMRC, Kolkata Metro, DIAL, BIAL, Formula 1, INSARAG Regional Exercise on Earthquake. School Safety Demonstration Project Increased demand from States, Public and even from private sector.
CEMEx = Conducted b/w 4th and 8th August 2011 at ChennaiDEMEx - Scheduled for Delhi, HEMEx - Scheduled for HyderabadGEMEx = Scheduled for Guwahati, KEMEx – Scheduled for Kolkata
Urban millions live in an increasingly volatile environmentwhich is susceptible to both manmade and natural calamitiesleading to unprecedented humanitarian crises.Twenty-three urban centers in India have more than a millioninhabitants, and 30% to 40% of urban dwellers are estimated tolive in poverty, even more alarming is the fact that urbanpoverty is often underestimatedThe efforts seek to examine and strengthen UrbanEmergency Response in Cities.
Mass sensitization and public awareness on Urban Emergency Management Services (U-EMS) Capacity enhancement of different stakeholders involved in emergency management and response Test interagency communication, coordination and interoperability. Assess and recommend areas for reinforcement and improvement. Perspective plan (long term) for U-EMS in the city
Around 12-16 different parallel learning tracks are implemented to over 1000 people for about 5 to 6 days followed by two rounds of joint simulations. 5 to 6 days city wide learning exercises followed by development needs assessment within different agencies. Followed up by preparation of a 5 year coordinated perspective plan for U-EMS for the city. (long term)
This multi-disciplinary training and exercise fosters the development of skill sets focused on emergency management during mass casualty events, while providing an opportunity for local agencies to work together and practice a multi- disciplinary, coordinated response to a local disaster. The train-the-trainer approach of the course and drill enables local partners to eventually replicate the training and drill elsewhere in the region. The course and drill helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of the Citys emergency management plans and helps to better prepare the involved city for future events.
1. Strengthening Early Warning Systems2. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into flagship schemes3. Capacity Building within Government and communities.