Vegetable IPM workshop for Home Grounds REAs
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  • 1. VEGETABLE INSECT PESTS Scouting Techniques & Management Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist, ACES Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center 8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532 Cell phone: 251-331-8416 [email_address]
  • 2. Workshop Objectives
    • Take the quiz!
    • Basic concepts of IPM
    • Types of insect injury to plants
    • Tomato insect pests
    • Insect pests of cruciferous crops
    • Common “on-the-shelf” insecticides
    • Commercial insecticides
    • Complete the quality survey
  • 3. First know the definitions… INJURY DAMAGE Damage = injury + economic loss
  • 4. Plant injury by INSECTS
    • Direct injury caused by feeding: chewing mouthparts VS. sucking mouth parts
  • 5.
    • Direct injury caused during oviposition: dimpling on tomato by thrips egg-laying
    Image: UFL IFAS Ext. Image: UFL IFAS Ext. Plant injury by INSECTS
  • 6.
    • Indirect injury from insect products: honeydew causes sooty mold (aphids, whiteflies)
    Image: TopTurf.net Image: Iowa State Plant injury by INSECTS
  • 7.
    • Injury from disease transmission: aphids, thrips
    Plant injury by INSECTS Transmit cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY) Transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Images: U Wisconsin & Queensland Govt., Australia
  • 8. Is it really an INSECT injury? Image: Missouri Bot. Garden
    • Key steps to diagnosis:
    • Define the problem
    • Look for patterns: abiotic problems have patterns!
    • Find a reasonable scouting technique
    • How fast are symptoms spreading? (time-factor)
    • Process of elimination to arrive at a diagnosis
    VS.
  • 9. TOMATO INSECT PESTS
  • 10. Every one loves tomatoes!
  • 11. Scouting for aphids
    • Scout early in season, search under leaves and stem
    • Winged aphids may indicate migration
    • Record the number of leaves with aphids present, then mark the area (distribution is highly clumped)
    • ET = 50% leaves have aphid
    • Watch for presence of ants that feed on honeydew
    • Watch for ladybeetles and lacewings
  • 12. Scouting for thrips
    • Major damage: TSWV (disease)
    • Mid-season damage: feeding in blossoms>>flower drop
    • Late season damage: egg-laying on fruits>>dimpling + whitish spots
    • Scout throughout the season, search terminal leaflets and buds. Carry 70% alcohol in vial or use beating technique.
    • Resistant var. “Amelia”, “BHN 640/602”, Quincy, Taladega
    Tobacco thrips WF thrips
  • 13. Scouting for flea beetles
    • Sample the seedling plants (6-10 inch height)
    • Estimate the level of defoliation
    • Estimate the number of adults with a sweep net and relate it to foliar injury
    • ET = 5-10% foliar injury
  • 14. Scouting for CPB
    • Defoliation is less threatening on mature plants
    • Beetle injury first on field margins
    • Scout the short crop intensely (6 to 10 inch)
    • Estimate the number of CPB on 10 plants
    • ET = 5 beetles in short crop, 10% defoliation
  • 15. Scouting for tomato fruitworm
    • This is a major pest. Mark the location with flag & mark your calendars!
    • Use pheromone traps for monitoring flight
    • ET = scout intensely for eggs/larvae if 7 adults per trap
    • Scout for larvae during fruit set.
    • ET = one larva per plant or one fresh injury per plant
    • Improve scouting technique with experience
  • 16. Emerging problem: Stink bugs Has many host plants Early attack can destroy blooms and late attack destroy fruits
  • 17. Scouting for stink bugs
    • Can you smell them in field?
    • Try sweep netting to sample adults mid-morning
    • Scout intensively when fruit formation begins: 10 plants per location
    • ET: 0.25 stink bugs average per 10 plants during the green fruit stage
    • Much research on trap crops (alfalfa, clover, sorghum)
  • 18. Leaf-footed bugs
    • Related to stink bugs
    • Emerging problem in many states: Lousiana, Florida, California, Alabama
    • Interesting behavioral issues
    • Trap crops may work!
  • 19. Scouting for tomato hornworm Leave these caterpillars alone!
    • Minor problem in commercial production (foliar damage only)
    • Visual location, scout & hand-pick when possible
    • There could be 3–4 generations per year, so late season buildup should be monitored
  • 20. INSECT PESTS of COLE CROPS
  • 21. Crucifer family of crops (list)
    • Cabbage
    • Broccoli
    • Cauliflower
    • Mustard greens
    • Brussels sprout
    • Kale
    • Collard
    • Turnip
    • Radish
    • Horseradish
  • 22. Cabbage looper vs. Imported cabbageworm Cabbage looper (CL) Imported cabbageworm (ICW)
  • 23. Diamondback moth
    • Larvae balloon from plant to plant
    • Larva make shapeless holes, feeding in aggregates
    • Cause head deformation
  • 24. Scouting for caterpillar pests Cabbage looper Imported cabbageworm
    • Look for larvae with 2-pairs of prolegs
    • Look for frass at the base of head
    • Use pheromone traps to monitor pop.
    • ET = 10 % defoliation
    • Look for white/yellow moths early in the season
    • Caterpillars camouflage with leaf midrib
    • ET = 10% defoliation
    Diamondback moth
    • Scout early in season
    • Pheromone traps
    • Ballooning caterpillars?
    • ET = 10% defoliation
  • 25. Beet armyworm Damage to pepper plant
    • Early instars feed voraciously
    • Are attracted to weak plants
  • 26.
    • Damage more plants that they eat (cause early & late season problem)
    • Dry weather is favorable
    Cutworms
  • 27.
    • Scout for egg masses and caterpillars
    • Use a sweep net to sample moths around field edges
    • Use pheromone trap for monitoring moth activity
    • ET = 2-3% plants with egg masses, 1 larvae per 20 plants, 10% defoliated plants
    Scouting for armyworm & cutworm Armyworms
  • 28. Cabbage aphid Natural Enemies
  • 29. CHOOSING THE RIGHT INSECTICIDE (let’s go shopping!)
  • 30. $9.76/pt AI = horticultural oil
  • 31. $7.99 for 24-oz RTU AI = pyrethrin + canola oil or sulfur + pyrethrin
  • 32. General purpose insecticide AI = malathion $21/qt + MANY OTHER INSECTS
  • 33.
    • Not for use on vegetables
    • Good fire ant control in lawn and turf
    • Long residue in soil
    • May be expensive
    AI = bifenthrin
  • 34. Highly toxic to fish AI = rotenone Up to $9
  • 35. Common soil bacterium Best against small caterpillars Apply when caterpillars are small AI = Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki AI = Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis
  • 36. Insecticidal soap
    • Not equal to your dish detergent
    • OMRI approved
    • Do not apply in hot weather
    • Spray on a test area
    $7.85 RTU spray 2.5 Ga jug = $79
  • 37. CHOOSING ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY INSECTICIDES (commercial veg. producers)
  • 38. Spinosyn-based products
    • Entrust is OMRI approved
    • Very expensive ($600 per pound) but also very effective
    • Entrust @ 2oz/A highest protection in Auburn trials against whitefringed beetles
    • Works against many lepidopterans
    • Spinetoram (2 nd gen. spinosyn)
    • Excellent control of leps., thrips
    • Not for organic farming
  • 39. Pyrethrin
    • Natural extract of chrysanthemum flowers
    • OMRI approved
    • PyGanic for organic producers
    • Pyrethrin + PBO formulations are not organic
    • Pyrethrin + Rotenone not for organic markets…
  • 40. OMRI listed AI = pyrethrin + rotenone
  • 41.
    • Natural insect growth disruptor
    • Effective against soft-bodied insects
    Azadirachtin
  • 42.
    • Does not contain azadirachtin
    • 70% neem oil
    • Physical irritant
    • E.g., Monterey 70% (small gardens), Trilogy 70% (large packaging)
    Neem Oil $16 per pint
  • 43. Fungal microbial insecticides $72 per quart 2 quarts/A Beauveria bassiana strain GHA
  • 44.
    • soft-bodied insects such as whiteflies, thrips, aphids, psyllids, mealybugs, scarab beetles, plant bugs, loopers and weevils.
    • Higher spore concentration than BotaniGard, 1 qt/A
    Beauveria bassiana strain GHA Fungal microbial insecticides $399 per 2 gallons
  • 45. Formulations by Certis USA
    • Virus (occlusion bodies)
    • Very host specific
    • Heliothis spp., corn earworm, cotton bollworm, tomato fruitworm, tobacco budworm
    Bt aizawai TRILOGY : NEEM OIL PRODUCT
  • 46. Bio-based controls: are they cost effective? Palumbo 2000
  • 47. Bio-based controls: are they cost effective? Palumbo 2000
  • 48. Synthetic insecticides (old) Conventional products MOA Aphids, flea beetles, whitefly Stink bugs Dimethoate, acetamiprid (Assail), imidacloprid (Admire Pro) Bifenthrin & many pyrethroids Pyrethroid -neonicotinoid (Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, sodium channel modulators) Caterpillars (looper, tomato fruitworm, pinworm) Bifenthrin Beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid) Lambda-cyhalo. (Warrior) Zeta-cyper. (Mustang Maxx) Esfenvalerate (Asana) Fenpropathrin (Danitol) Sodium channel modulators
  • 49. Synthetic insecticides (new) New chemistries MOA Aphids, flea beetles, whitefly Stink bugs Flonicamid (Beleaf) Pymetrozine (Fulfill) Spirotetramat (Movento) Spiromesifen (Oberon) Feeding inhibitors Acetyl CoA caboxylase inhibitor Caterpillars (looper, tomato fruitworm, pinworm) Thrips Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) Flubendiamide (Synapse), Rynaxypyr (Coragen) Indoxacarb (Avaunt) Methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) Spinetoram (Radiant) Chloride channel activators Ryanodine receptor modulators Sodium channel blockers Ecdysone receptor agonist Spinosyn (nicotinic receptors)
  • 50. NEW RESOURCE: VEGETABLE ENTOMOLOGY DYNAMIC WEBSITE Visit http://www.aces.edu/dept/com_veg/ or https://sites.aces.edu/group/commhort/vegetable/default.aspx
  • 51. THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENCE
    • Please fill up and return the anonymous surveys that will be used to improve future workshops. Thank you again!
    QUESTIONS?