Vegetable IPM Updates for 2009


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This presentation was delivered at five vegetable production meetings across Alabama and it consisted of various sub-topics such as new insecticides, trap cropping, pheromone-based monitoring systems, and insect identification and scouting techniques.

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Vegetable IPM Updates for 2009

  1. 1. Trap Cropping & Insect Monitoring Techniques Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist Alabama Cooperative Extension System Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center 8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532 Cell phone: 251-331-8416
  2. 2. NEW RESOURCE: VEGETABLE ENTOMOLOGY DYNAMIC WEBSITE Dr. Ayanava Majumdar, Extension Entomologist, ACES, 251-331-8416, Visit or
  3. 3. Conventional chemicals (SE recommen.) Conventional products MOA New chemistries MOA Aphids, flea beetles, whitefly Stink bugs Dimethoate, acetamiprid (Assail), imidacloprid (Admire Pro) Bifenthrin & many pyrethroids Pyrethroid -neonicotinoid (Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, sodium channel modulators) Flonicamid (Beleaf) Pymetrozine (Fulfill) Spirotetramat (Movento) Spiromesifen (Oberon) Feeding inhibitors Acetyl CoA caboxylase inhibitor Caterpillars (looper, tomato fruitworm, pinworm) Thrips Bt (Dipel, Crymax), bifenthrin, beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid), lambda-cyhalo. (Warrior), zeta-cyper. (Mustang Maxx), esfenvalerate (Asana), fenpropathrin (Danitol) Insect midgut membrane disruptors Sodium channel modulators Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) Flubendiamide (Synapse), Rynaxypyr (Coragen) Indoxacarb (Avaunt) Methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) Spinetoram (Radiant) Chloride channel activators Ryanodine receptor modulators Sodium channel blockers Ecdysone receptor agonist Spinosyn (nicotinic receptors)
  4. 4. By Dr. Henry Fadamiro et al. <ul><li>Yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma : </li></ul><ul><li>Tick Ex organic formulation ( Metarhizium anisopliae), Novozymes (VA) – in 7 d causes 67 to 94% mortality, use high rate </li></ul><ul><li>Mycotrol O ( Beauveria bassiana ) – less effective on beetles (LC50: 428-700 conidia/ml) </li></ul><ul><li>Female beetles are harder to kill! </li></ul><ul><li>Entrust (spinosyn, organic form.): effective at 2 oz/A rate, consistent results over season </li></ul><ul><li>PyGanic + Aza-Direct (at 1 pt/A each) more effective than individual products </li></ul>Organic pest management research, Auburn
  5. 5. Objectives (trap crops) <ul><li>To discuss basics of IPM </li></ul><ul><li>To make a strong case for trap cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some basics of insect behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Provide general trap cropping guidelines (based on published literature) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trap cropping & pheromone trapping are encouraged by USEPA! <ul><li>Set action thresholds: Think in economic terms! </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and Identify Pests: “… monitoring and identification removes the possibility that pesticides will be used when they are not really needed...” </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: “…using cultural methods…that can be very effective and cost-efficient and present little to no risk to people or the environment.” </li></ul><ul><li>Control: “Effective, less risky pest controls are chosen first, including highly targeted chemicals, such as pheromones to disrupt pest mating, or mechanical control, such as trapping or weeding.” </li></ul>Source: USEPA Federal Four-tiered IPM Model
  7. 7. What is a trap cropping? <ul><li>Agronomic definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap cropping is the planting of an attractive trap crop to protect the main crop (PAN Germany, 2009). Trap crop may or may not be harvestable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entomological definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap cropping is a production system that exploits insect behavior by continuously providing food plants in the preferred stage (Grossman 2008) </li></ul></ul>“ Trap cropping is a special case of multiple cropping.” “ Presence of second crop in the vicinity of principal crop diverts a pest, which would otherwise attack the principal crop” (Van der meer 1981)
  8. 8. Why should you use trap crops? Combined use of cultural control + Insecticides = IPM approach Trap crop New insecticide Corn earworm devastated sunflower (trap crop) but stayed away from peanuts Image source: ICRISAT, India
  9. 9. How trap cropping works? Behavioral theories that could explain success of trap crops! <ul><li>Visual camouflage (Smith 1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Masking of host plant odor (Tahvanainen & Root 1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource concentration hypothesis (Root 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural enemies hypothesis (Root 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical obstruction (Perrin 1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrent chemicals (Uvah & Caoker 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Interplant interaction alters host quality (Theunissen 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired apparency of host plants to insects (Finch & Kienegger 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate/inappropriate landings (Finch & Collier 2000) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crash course in insect behavior Insect moving over tomato patch >> plant odor, shape, size arrest flying insect >> insect lands on plant surface >> exploratory behavior >> gathering stimulus (feeding, oviposition) >> triggers specific behaviors
  11. 11. Trap cropping arrangements <ul><li>Trap crop surrounds the main crop from all sides </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible on small to medium scale </li></ul><ul><li>Too resource-intensive on large scale (seed, time, management) </li></ul><ul><li>Boucher et al. (2003): bell pepper/cherry peppers/pepper maggots </li></ul>Perimeter Trap Cropping TRAP CROP Trap crop MAIN CROP
  12. 12. Trap cropping arrangements <ul><li>Dr. Sam Pair, USDA-ARS </li></ul><ul><li>Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders </li></ul><ul><li>Squash lured 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs </li></ul>Perimeter Trap Cropping (contd.) Main crop (watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber) Trap crop (squash)
  13. 13. Trap cropping arrangements <ul><li>Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (cotton) </li></ul>Row Trap Cropping Alfalfa Cotton Cotton Sustainable American Cotton Project, NCAT Southern green stink bug
  14. 14. Trap cropping arrangements <ul><li>Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum! </li></ul>Row Trap Cropping (contd.) Alfalfa Strawberry (34 rows) Strawberry (34 rows) Strawberry production in California Western tarnished plant bug damage
  15. 15. Trap cropping arrangements Strip Trap Cropping <ul><li>Planting trap crops in a strip along one common border between two or more crops </li></ul><ul><li>Tillman (2006): cotton/sorghum/southern green stink bug…integrated pheromone trap + trap crop </li></ul>Also reported high parasitism rates from tachinid fly in sorghum
  16. 16. Trap cropping arrangements Strip Trap Cropping (mechanism) Sorghum (trap crop) Cotton Peanut (reservoir for pest) Green stink bugs migration
  17. 17. Trap cropping systems <ul><li>Trap crop is highly attractive to the insect pest, but the trap crop does not support its growth & development. </li></ul><ul><li>Diamondback moths are attracted to yellow rocket over cabbage, trick is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap crop planted in higher densities (more eggs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap crop planted earlier than main crop (increase attractiveness) </li></ul></ul>Dead-end Trap Cropping (Shelton & Nault 2004, Badenez-Perez et al. 2004) TRAP CROP MAIN CROP
  18. 18. Advantages of trap cropping <ul><li>Sustainable technology – literature review with numerous successful applications </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for commercial and noncommercial crop production </li></ul><ul><li>Allows small startup without investing in large equipment </li></ul><ul><li>May pay for itself if crop is harvestable (alfalfa, squash) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be integrated with existing farming/gardening practices </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces dependence on chemical pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves indigenous natural enemies by providing shelter & continuity </li></ul>
  19. 19. Disadvantages of trap cropping <ul><li>Knowledge intensive practice (like IPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for additional planning (e.g., early planting), materials (e.g. seeds, land), and labor </li></ul><ul><li>Trap crop recommendations are unique to the insect (behavior affects efficiency of trap crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Results may be inconsistent (moderated by weather events) </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of cash crop: trap crop = 10%, 20%,? </li></ul><ul><li>Timely management of insects in trap crop: problem if you miss! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Recommendations <ul><li>Choose trap crops that have bushy growth habit (alfalfa, grasses, etc.) and/or large leaf area (squash, ornamental plants?) </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of land in traps (10-25%)…or choose per your observations & skills </li></ul><ul><li>Plant a dense row of trap crop, plant early </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a simple design – easy to manage </li></ul><ul><li>Keep records and maintain a pest calendar </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATE, INTEGRATE, INTEGRATE! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Monitoring insects with PHEROMONE TRAPS Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist Alabama Cooperative Extension System Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center 8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532 Cell phone: 251-331-8416
  22. 22. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss types of insect traps </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss application of pheromone traps </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss integration with other tactics </li></ul>Insect trapping is easy, fun, & practical!
  23. 23. Types of Insect Traps <ul><li>Passive traps: do not use a lure of any kind, e.g., pit-fall traps, ground sticky traps, water traps, flight interception trap (beat sheet) </li></ul>Pit-fall trap with a metal sheet as hood Interception trap (can be used with or without light)
  24. 24. Types of Insect Traps <ul><li>Active traps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use a lure of some kind, e.g., food, color, shape, light…PHEROMONES </li></ul></ul>Dome Fly Trap with liquid bait Light trap (can be constructed from cheap materials) Yellow sticky trap: use many traps for accuracy
  25. 25. What are insect pheromones? <ul><li>Pheromones are chemicals released into environment in small amounts by special abdominal glands in insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Pheromones are species specific, may stimulate one gender or all genders. </li></ul><ul><li>Male moths detect pheromones with antennae. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic sex pheromones are manufactured & used as lures. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Parts of a Pheromone Trap Wing Pheromone Trap Top section (fixed) Bottom section (replaceable sticky card with grid) Metal support Lure with lure holder
  27. 27. Types of Pheromone Traps Wing Traps Lure supply: Trece, Scentry, APTIV; trap supply: Great Lakes IPM, Arbico Organics, Gemplers, APTIV Wing trap with grid on sticky bottom Wing trap with baffles These are very popular in IPM due to their easy assemblage, large trap bottom, & low cost of kits! Suitable for large moths: armyworm, cutworm, fruitworms Problem: servicing trap is cumbersome, animals could ruin trap
  28. 28. Types of Pheromone Traps Lure supply: Trece, Scentry; trap supply: Great Lakes IPM, Gemplers Delta Traps >> These are very popular in IPM due to their easy assemblage, maintenance, less weather damage, & low cost of kits! Suitable for small moths: diamondback moth, loopers Problem: small trapping surface, wind damage
  29. 29. Advantages & Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages of Pheromone Traps: </li></ul><ul><li>Are affordable </li></ul><ul><li>If used wisely, can detect low insect populations </li></ul><ul><li>Insect ID not needed </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to install & manage </li></ul><ul><li>Nontoxic, no residue on food </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used season long </li></ul>
  30. 30. Advantages & Disadvantages <ul><li>Disadvantages of Pheromone Traps: </li></ul><ul><li>May be cumbersome to handle </li></ul><ul><li>Take precautions when handlings (gloves) </li></ul><ul><li>Several traps could difficult to manage </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge intensive – may need tech support </li></ul><ul><li>Weather sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Does not tell about plant injury </li></ul>
  31. 31. How to choose the right pheromone traps? <ul><ul><li>Goal: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitoring? Yes, traditional use of pheromone traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mass trapping? May be for small production units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insect species: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pheromone trap for all species are not available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consult & work in a group (neighbors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the Insect: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traps come in all sizes, choose large trap for large moths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your convenience: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traps must be checked weekly (weather is a major issue) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t commit if you can’t monitor long-term </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Trap & Lure Suppliers <ul><li>TRAPS: </li></ul><ul><li>Great Lakes IPM (MI) </li></ul><ul><li>Arbico Organics (AZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Gemplers </li></ul><ul><li>LURES: </li></ul><ul><li>Great Lakes IPM – Scentry Biologicals (MT) & Trece, Inc. (OK) </li></ul><ul><li>APTIV, Inc. (OR) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Monitoring insects with PHEROMONE TRAPS QUESTIONS? Trap Cropping
  34. 34. EXTENSION SURVEY <ul><li>Why participate in surveys? </li></ul><ul><li>Formula funding era for IPM is ending! </li></ul><ul><li>All funding is competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Written feedback is more imp. than anecdotes </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable crop prod. res. needs thrust >> your feedback </li></ul>PLEASE HELP BY PROVIDING WRITTEN FEEDBACK!