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Trap Crops for Insect Pest Management

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This presentation was delivered at the 2011 Gulf Coast Fruit & Vegetable Conference on January 27th, organized by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The presetation disccuses some trap cropping …

This presentation was delivered at the 2011 Gulf Coast Fruit & Vegetable Conference on January 27th, organized by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The presetation disccuses some trap cropping techniques for sustainable vegetable production. Various Extension IPM resources for farmers is also included in the slideshow.

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  • Crop diversity and other listed pillars emphasize the usefulness of above-ground habitat management, plant diversification, and enhancement of beneficial fauna. Choosing right varieties is the first step to EBPM.Reduced tillage and other listed pillars emphasize the usefulness of below-ground habitat management, biota activation and diversified farming
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Innovative Pest Management Techniques Integrating Trap Crops & Insecticides
      Dr. Ayanava Majumdar
      Extension Entomologist (Peanuts, Vegetables)
      State SARE Coordinator (Auburn U)
      Alabama Cooperative Extension System
      Cell phone: 251-331-8416
      bugdoctor@auburn.edu
    • 2. Extension Resources for Farmers & Gardeners
    • 3. THE OVERALL THEME OF THIS TALK IS…
      AGRICULTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY MUST MOVE TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY OF FAMILY FARMS
      ALABAMA EXTENSION PROGRAMS ARE COMMITTED TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE!
    • 4. IPM COmmunicationREsource (IPM-CORE): Providing Thrust to IPM & Sustainable Agriculture in Alabama
      www.aces.edu/go/87
      This website gives access to blogs, presentations, newsletters & other publications, insecticide recommendations & more!
    • 5. Facebook: ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’
      Search for ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ & subscribe for periodic updates on insect & disease issues
    • 6. YouTube Channel: IPMNews
      Recorded Live in Field!
      Search for ‘IPMNews’ channel & subscribe for periodic updates on insect & disease issues
    • 7. The IPM Communicator(A FREE electronic newsletter)
      Six financial gains reports: $3,550 in pesticide saving
      Sign up today at the Exhibit for 2011 series starting soon!
    • 8. Vegetable Production in Alabama
      34 major vegetables produced
      2006: 5700 acres >> 2008: 5,950 acres
      100% fresh market produce
      Value: ~$17 million
      Tomato: ~1300 acres = $12 million
    • 9. Why practice IPM?
      • Based on economic & environmental sustainability principle
      • 10. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold-based decision management system that uses multiple pest control tactics.
      • 11. Average gain from vegetable IPM is $19 for every dollar spent*
      Insecticide usage in AL (all crops): 200,000 to 770,000 lb/year
      *L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.
    • 12. Major Issues with IPM
      • Less emphasis on cultural insect control practices
      • 13. Poor crop selection = stressed plants = more pests
      • 14. Lack of early detection of insects = last minute decision = over dependence on insecticides
      • 15. Insecticide resistance
      • 16. Pest resurgence
      • 17. Environmental impact??
      ….IPM is unsustainable if it is ‘pesticide intensive’
      We need to approach pest management from a holistic or ecological perspective.
    • 18. Ecological Pest Management (EPM)
      From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)
      Ecological Pest Management System incorporates the broad knowledge of the agro-ecosystem to choose pest management tactics that are timely, environmentally friendly and cost-effective.
      Goal of EPM: Maintain Healthy Plants From Root to Foliage
      ‘Pillars’ of EPM:
      Crop DiversityReduce Tillage
      Rotations Maintain Soil Cover
      Cover Crops Add Organic Matter
      Plant Breeding Nutrient Management
      Below ground factors
      Above ground factors
    • 19. Current Research & Extension Focus
      Emphasis on Pest Detection using pheromone traps:
      Use insect traps for improved scouting, early detection of pests
      Trap Catch = Pest Density X Pest Activity (Taylor, 1963)
      Insect Monitoring Project (2009-2010) finding: sustainable agriculture can reduce pest pressures, see subsequent slides.
      Stink bug trap
      Corn rootworm trap
      Sticky wing trap
    • 20. Beet Armyworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B)
      Locations: Clay County (A)
      Dale County (B)
      Numbers indicate moth catches in 12 days.
    • 21. Tomato Fruitworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B)
      Locations: Clay County (A)
      Dale County (B)
      Numbers indicate moth catches in 12 days.
    • 22. On-farm Research: First Net house in Alabama
      Location: Baldwin County, AL
      Dimensions: 150 ft long, 48 ft wide, 17 ft high center, 12 ft high sides
      Entrance: Double door
      Fabric mesh 30-50 as insect barrier.
      Mesh size depends on target insect & cost.
      Height provides air movement, fans can also be installed
    • 23. Does net house block insect pests?
      Yes, it does! Here are the pheromone trap catches for major pests.
      • Only one insecticide spray was needed to control aphid outbreak.
      • 24. Armyworms (<0.2 larvae/plant) & stink bugs were removed manually.
      • 25. Vegetables outside net house were sprayed bi-weekly to control caterpillars.
    • Other Research/Extension Projects(Grant funded)
      Stink bug management with trap crops (2011-2012)
      Pheromone-based monitoring of critical pests (2009 & 2010)
      Inter-row cover crops for reducing disease transmission in peppers & pumpkins (2011-2012)
      Net house vegetable production (continued research)
      Industry-supported research:
      Biological control of aphids/caterpillars: BotaniGard, Molt-X, Suffoil-X (tank mixes)
      Synthetic insecticides: Movento, Belt, Synapse, Radiant, Entrust
    • 26. MAJOR VEGETABLE INSECT PESTS 2010
    • 27. >Half of AL predicted under drought in 2011
    • 28. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
      Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnavarivestis
      Colorado potato beetle
      Leptinotarsadecemlineata(Say)
      Yellowstriped armyworm, Spodopteraornithogalli(Guenee)
      Grasshopper
      Brown stink bug, Euschistusservus(Say)
      Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata(Linnaeus)
      Aphid outbreak on bell pepper
    • 29. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
      Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua
      Spider mites (Tetranychus sp.)
      Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda
      Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea
    • 30. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
      Squash vine borer, Mellitiacucurbitae
      Sugarcane beetle, Euetheolarugiceps
      Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata
    • 31. Emerging Pest on Vegetables: Leaffooted Bugs
      Leptoglossusgonagra
      Leptoglossusphyllopus
      Heavy fruit drop can cause major losses in eggplants and tomatoes
      Leptoglossuszonatus
    • 32. Emerging Crop Pests: Invasive Insects
      Brown marmorated stink bug, Hyalomorphahalys
      Bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria
      Detected in AL in 2010
      Seeks shelter in homes
      Infests kudzu, soybean…what’s next?
      UGA Photos
    • 33. TRAP CROPPING: CONCEPTS & APPLICATIONS
    • 34. What is a trap cropping?
      “Trap cropping is a special case of multiple cropping.”
      Agronomic definition:
      Trap cropping is the planting of an attractive trap crop to protect the main crop (PAN Germany, 2009). Trap crop may or may not be harvestable.
      • Entomological definition:
      • 35. Presence of second crop in the vicinity of principal crop diverts a pest, which would otherwise attack the principal crop” (Van der Meer 1981)
    • How to visualize trap crops?
      Trap Crops
      +
      Mechanical Removal
      Or
      Selective insecticide
      =
      Ecological Pest Management (EPM)
      Trap
      crop
    • 36. Major Principle of Trap Cropping
      Insects are attracted to plant volatiles
      Insects have differential host preference
      Insect may feed and reproduce in preferred host
      How trap cropping works?
      Behavioral theories that may explain success of trap crops!
      Visual camouflage (Smith 1969)
      Masking of host plant odor (Tahvanainen & Root 1972)
      Resource concentration hypothesis (Root 1973)
      Appropriate/inappropriate landings (Finch & Collier 2000)
    • 37. Major Techniques of Trap Cropping
      Selection of a more preferred cultivar or species at the same time as the main crop
      Planting of the same species and cultivar as the main crop timed to be at the most preferred stage of development before the main crop
      Source: Wszelaki and Broughton, UT Extension W235-F
    • 38. Trap cropping arrangements
      Perimeter Trap Cropping
      Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders
      Squash lured 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs
      Trap crop (squash)
      Main crop
      (watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber)
    • 39. Trap cropping arrangements
      Perimeter Trap Cropping
      TRAP CROP
      Trap crop
      Boucher et al. (2003): bell pepper (main crop) + hot cherry peppers (trap crop) for pepper maggots
      Trap crop surrounds the main crop from all sides
      MAIN CROP
    • 40. Trap cropping arrangements
      Perimeter Trap Cropping (contd.)
      • Cook et al. (2006): Rothamsted Research, UK
      • 41. Trap crop = turnip rape (Brassica rapa)
      • 42. Main crop = oilseed rape (B. napus)
      • 43. Target insect = pollen beetles
      • 44. Cook et al (2007) called this the ‘push-pull’ strategy
    • Trap cropping arrangements
      Within-Row Trap Cropping
      Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (cotton)
      Sustainable American Cotton Project, NCAT
      Cotton
      Cotton
      Southern green stink bug
      Alfalfa
    • 45. Trap cropping arrangements
      Within-Row Trap Cropping (contd.)
      Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum!
      Strawberry production in California
      Strawberry
      (34 rows)
      Strawberry
      (34 rows)
      Western tarnished plant bug damage
      Alfalfa
    • 46. Trap cropping arrangements
      Strip Trap Cropping
      • Planting trap crops in a strip along one common border between two or more crops
      • 47. Tillman (2006): integrated trap crops + pheromone traps
      Target: Green stink bugs
      SORGHUM (panicle stage)
      PEANUTS
      COTTON
      High parasitism rates from tachinid fly in sorghum
      Source: USDA-ARS
    • 48. Trap cropping systems
      Dead-end Trap Cropping
      (Shelton & Nault 2004, Badenez-Perez et al. 2004)
      Trap crop is highly attractive to the insect pest, but the trap crop does not support its growth & development.
      Diamondback moths are attracted to yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris) over cabbage
      TRAP CROP
      MAIN CROP
    • 49. Maintain grassy corridors
      Integrate with trap crops
      Have a well managed strip of grassland
      Important for natural enemy conservation
      Monitor pests and beneficials in the corridor
    • 50. Advantages of trap cropping
      • Sustainable technology – many success stories available
      • 51. Allows small startup without investing in large equipment
      • 52. May pay for itself if crop is harvestable (alfalfa, squash)
      • 53. Can be integrated with other technologies: pheromone traps, conservation systems`
      • 54. Reduces dependence on insecticides
      • 55. Conserves or attracts natural enemies to trap crop
      +
    • 56. Benefits of Trap Cropping
      Source: Boucher & Durgy, 2004
    • 57. Disadvantages of trap cropping
      • Growers need knowledge of insect behavior, migration, seasonal abundance etc.
      • 58. Need for additional planning and resources
      • 59. Insecticide may still be needed
      • 60. Results may be inconsistent (moderated by weather events)
      • 61. Timely management of insects in trap crop: otherwise you have a “pest nursery”
    • If you use trap cropping then…
      Choose trap crops that have rapid growth…
      Proportion of land in traps ~10-20%…
      Plant a dense row of trap crop, plant early…
      Choose a simple design – easy to manage…
      Use a well-managed grassy corridor so NEs can move
      Consult with Extension and share info with friends!

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