Trap Crops for Insect Pest Management
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Trap Crops for Insect Pest Management

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This presentation was delivered at the 2011 Gulf Coast Fruit & Vegetable Conference on January 27th, organized by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The presetation disccuses some trap cropping ...

This presentation was delivered at the 2011 Gulf Coast Fruit & Vegetable Conference on January 27th, organized by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The presetation disccuses some trap cropping techniques for sustainable vegetable production. Various Extension IPM resources for farmers is also included in the slideshow.

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  • Crop diversity and other listed pillars emphasize the usefulness of above-ground habitat management, plant diversification, and enhancement of beneficial fauna. Choosing right varieties is the first step to EBPM.Reduced tillage and other listed pillars emphasize the usefulness of below-ground habitat management, biota activation and diversified farming
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.

Trap Crops for Insect Pest Management Trap Crops for Insect Pest Management Presentation Transcript

  • Innovative Pest Management Techniques Integrating Trap Crops & Insecticides
    Dr. Ayanava Majumdar
    Extension Entomologist (Peanuts, Vegetables)
    State SARE Coordinator (Auburn U)
    Alabama Cooperative Extension System
    Cell phone: 251-331-8416
    bugdoctor@auburn.edu
  • Extension Resources for Farmers & Gardeners
  • THE OVERALL THEME OF THIS TALK IS…
    AGRICULTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY MUST MOVE TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY OF FAMILY FARMS
    ALABAMA EXTENSION PROGRAMS ARE COMMITTED TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE!
  • IPM COmmunicationREsource (IPM-CORE): Providing Thrust to IPM & Sustainable Agriculture in Alabama
    www.aces.edu/go/87
    This website gives access to blogs, presentations, newsletters & other publications, insecticide recommendations & more!
  • Facebook: ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’
    Search for ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ & subscribe for periodic updates on insect & disease issues
  • YouTube Channel: IPMNews
    Recorded Live in Field!
    Search for ‘IPMNews’ channel & subscribe for periodic updates on insect & disease issues
  • The IPM Communicator(A FREE electronic newsletter)
    Six financial gains reports: $3,550 in pesticide saving
    Sign up today at the Exhibit for 2011 series starting soon!
  • Vegetable Production in Alabama
    34 major vegetables produced
    2006: 5700 acres >> 2008: 5,950 acres
    100% fresh market produce
    Value: ~$17 million
    Tomato: ~1300 acres = $12 million
  • Why practice IPM?
    • Based on economic & environmental sustainability principle
    • Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold-based decision management system that uses multiple pest control tactics.
    • Average gain from vegetable IPM is $19 for every dollar spent*
    Insecticide usage in AL (all crops): 200,000 to 770,000 lb/year
    *L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.
  • Major Issues with IPM
    • Less emphasis on cultural insect control practices
    • Poor crop selection = stressed plants = more pests
    • Lack of early detection of insects = last minute decision = over dependence on insecticides
    • Insecticide resistance
    • Pest resurgence
    • Environmental impact??
    ….IPM is unsustainable if it is ‘pesticide intensive’
    We need to approach pest management from a holistic or ecological perspective.
  • Ecological Pest Management (EPM)
    From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)
    Ecological Pest Management System incorporates the broad knowledge of the agro-ecosystem to choose pest management tactics that are timely, environmentally friendly and cost-effective.
    Goal of EPM: Maintain Healthy Plants From Root to Foliage
    ‘Pillars’ of EPM:
    Crop DiversityReduce Tillage
    Rotations Maintain Soil Cover
    Cover Crops Add Organic Matter
    Plant Breeding Nutrient Management
    Below ground factors
    Above ground factors
  • Current Research & Extension Focus
    Emphasis on Pest Detection using pheromone traps:
    Use insect traps for improved scouting, early detection of pests
    Trap Catch = Pest Density X Pest Activity (Taylor, 1963)
    Insect Monitoring Project (2009-2010) finding: sustainable agriculture can reduce pest pressures, see subsequent slides.
    Stink bug trap
    Corn rootworm trap
    Sticky wing trap
  • Beet Armyworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B)
    Locations: Clay County (A)
    Dale County (B)
    Numbers indicate moth catches in 12 days.
  • Tomato Fruitworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B)
    Locations: Clay County (A)
    Dale County (B)
    Numbers indicate moth catches in 12 days.
  • On-farm Research: First Net house in Alabama
    Location: Baldwin County, AL
    Dimensions: 150 ft long, 48 ft wide, 17 ft high center, 12 ft high sides
    Entrance: Double door
    Fabric mesh 30-50 as insect barrier.
    Mesh size depends on target insect & cost.
    Height provides air movement, fans can also be installed
  • Does net house block insect pests?
    Yes, it does! Here are the pheromone trap catches for major pests.
    • Only one insecticide spray was needed to control aphid outbreak.
    • Armyworms (<0.2 larvae/plant) & stink bugs were removed manually.
    • Vegetables outside net house were sprayed bi-weekly to control caterpillars.
  • Other Research/Extension Projects(Grant funded)
    Stink bug management with trap crops (2011-2012)
    Pheromone-based monitoring of critical pests (2009 & 2010)
    Inter-row cover crops for reducing disease transmission in peppers & pumpkins (2011-2012)
    Net house vegetable production (continued research)
    Industry-supported research:
    Biological control of aphids/caterpillars: BotaniGard, Molt-X, Suffoil-X (tank mixes)
    Synthetic insecticides: Movento, Belt, Synapse, Radiant, Entrust
  • MAJOR VEGETABLE INSECT PESTS 2010
  • >Half of AL predicted under drought in 2011
  • Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnavarivestis
    Colorado potato beetle
    Leptinotarsadecemlineata(Say)
    Yellowstriped armyworm, Spodopteraornithogalli(Guenee)
    Grasshopper
    Brown stink bug, Euschistusservus(Say)
    Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata(Linnaeus)
    Aphid outbreak on bell pepper
  • Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
    Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua
    Spider mites (Tetranychus sp.)
    Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda
    Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea
  • Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
    Squash vine borer, Mellitiacucurbitae
    Sugarcane beetle, Euetheolarugiceps
    Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata
  • Emerging Pest on Vegetables: Leaffooted Bugs
    Leptoglossusgonagra
    Leptoglossusphyllopus
    Heavy fruit drop can cause major losses in eggplants and tomatoes
    Leptoglossuszonatus
  • Emerging Crop Pests: Invasive Insects
    Brown marmorated stink bug, Hyalomorphahalys
    Bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria
    Detected in AL in 2010
    Seeks shelter in homes
    Infests kudzu, soybean…what’s next?
    UGA Photos
  • TRAP CROPPING: CONCEPTS & APPLICATIONS
  • What is a trap cropping?
    “Trap cropping is a special case of multiple cropping.”
    Agronomic definition:
    Trap cropping is the planting of an attractive trap crop to protect the main crop (PAN Germany, 2009). Trap crop may or may not be harvestable.
    • Entomological definition:
    • Presence of second crop in the vicinity of principal crop diverts a pest, which would otherwise attack the principal crop” (Van der Meer 1981)
  • How to visualize trap crops?
    Trap Crops
    +
    Mechanical Removal
    Or
    Selective insecticide
    =
    Ecological Pest Management (EPM)
    Trap
    crop
  • Major Principle of Trap Cropping
    Insects are attracted to plant volatiles
    Insects have differential host preference
    Insect may feed and reproduce in preferred host
    How trap cropping works?
    Behavioral theories that may explain success of trap crops!
    Visual camouflage (Smith 1969)
    Masking of host plant odor (Tahvanainen & Root 1972)
    Resource concentration hypothesis (Root 1973)
    Appropriate/inappropriate landings (Finch & Collier 2000)
  • Major Techniques of Trap Cropping
    Selection of a more preferred cultivar or species at the same time as the main crop
    Planting of the same species and cultivar as the main crop timed to be at the most preferred stage of development before the main crop
    Source: Wszelaki and Broughton, UT Extension W235-F
  • Trap cropping arrangements
    Perimeter Trap Cropping
    Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders
    Squash lured 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs
    Trap crop (squash)
    Main crop
    (watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber)
  • Trap cropping arrangements
    Perimeter Trap Cropping
    TRAP CROP
    Trap crop
    Boucher et al. (2003): bell pepper (main crop) + hot cherry peppers (trap crop) for pepper maggots
    Trap crop surrounds the main crop from all sides
    MAIN CROP
  • Trap cropping arrangements
    Perimeter Trap Cropping (contd.)
    • Cook et al. (2006): Rothamsted Research, UK
    • Trap crop = turnip rape (Brassica rapa)
    • Main crop = oilseed rape (B. napus)
    • Target insect = pollen beetles
    • Cook et al (2007) called this the ‘push-pull’ strategy
  • Trap cropping arrangements
    Within-Row Trap Cropping
    Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (cotton)
    Sustainable American Cotton Project, NCAT
    Cotton
    Cotton
    Southern green stink bug
    Alfalfa
  • Trap cropping arrangements
    Within-Row Trap Cropping (contd.)
    Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum!
    Strawberry production in California
    Strawberry
    (34 rows)
    Strawberry
    (34 rows)
    Western tarnished plant bug damage
    Alfalfa
  • Trap cropping arrangements
    Strip Trap Cropping
    • Planting trap crops in a strip along one common border between two or more crops
    • Tillman (2006): integrated trap crops + pheromone traps
    Target: Green stink bugs
    SORGHUM (panicle stage)
    PEANUTS
    COTTON
    High parasitism rates from tachinid fly in sorghum
    Source: USDA-ARS
  • Trap cropping systems
    Dead-end Trap Cropping
    (Shelton & Nault 2004, Badenez-Perez et al. 2004)
    Trap crop is highly attractive to the insect pest, but the trap crop does not support its growth & development.
    Diamondback moths are attracted to yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris) over cabbage
    TRAP CROP
    MAIN CROP
  • Maintain grassy corridors
    Integrate with trap crops
    Have a well managed strip of grassland
    Important for natural enemy conservation
    Monitor pests and beneficials in the corridor
  • Advantages of trap cropping
    • Sustainable technology – many success stories available
    • Allows small startup without investing in large equipment
    • May pay for itself if crop is harvestable (alfalfa, squash)
    • Can be integrated with other technologies: pheromone traps, conservation systems`
    • Reduces dependence on insecticides
    • Conserves or attracts natural enemies to trap crop
    +
  • Benefits of Trap Cropping
    Source: Boucher & Durgy, 2004
  • Disadvantages of trap cropping
    • Growers need knowledge of insect behavior, migration, seasonal abundance etc.
    • Need for additional planning and resources
    • Insecticide may still be needed
    • Results may be inconsistent (moderated by weather events)
    • Timely management of insects in trap crop: otherwise you have a “pest nursery”
  • If you use trap cropping then…
    Choose trap crops that have rapid growth…
    Proportion of land in traps ~10-20%…
    Plant a dense row of trap crop, plant early…
    Choose a simple design – easy to manage…
    Use a well-managed grassy corridor so NEs can move
    Consult with Extension and share info with friends!