Innovative Pest Management Techniques Integrating Trap Crops & Insecticides<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar<br />Extension Entom...
Extension Resources for Farmers & Gardeners<br />
THE OVERALL THEME OF THIS TALK IS…<br />AGRICULTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY MUST MOVE TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY OF FAMILY FARMS <b...
IPM COmmunicationREsource (IPM-CORE): Providing Thrust to IPM & Sustainable Agriculture in Alabama<br />www.aces.edu/go/87...
Facebook: ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’<br />Search for ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ & subscribe for periodic updates on insect & dis...
YouTube Channel: IPMNews<br />Recorded Live in Field!<br />Search for ‘IPMNews’ channel & subscribe for periodic updates o...
The IPM Communicator(A FREE electronic newsletter)<br />Six financial gains reports: $3,550 in pesticide saving<br />Sign ...
Vegetable Production in Alabama<br />34 major vegetables produced<br />2006: 5700 acres   >>   2008: 5,950 acres<br />100%...
Why practice IPM?<br /><ul><li>Based on economic & environmental sustainability principle
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold-based decision management system that uses multiple pest control tactics.
 Average gain from vegetable IPM is $19 for every dollar spent*</li></ul>Insecticide usage in AL (all crops): 200,000 to 7...
Major Issues with IPM<br /><ul><li>Less emphasis on cultural insect control practices
Poor crop selection = stressed plants = more pests
Lack of early detection of insects = last minute decision = over dependence on insecticides
Insecticide resistance
Pest resurgence
Environmental impact??</li></ul>….IPM is unsustainable if it is ‘pesticide intensive’<br />We need to approach pest manage...
Ecological Pest Management (EPM)<br />From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)<br />Ec...
Current Research & Extension Focus<br />Emphasis on Pest Detection using pheromone traps:<br />Use insect traps for improv...
Beet Armyworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B) <br />Locations: Clay County (A)<br /> ...
Tomato Fruitworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B) <br />Locations: Clay County (A)<br ...
On-farm Research: First Net house in Alabama<br />Location: Baldwin County, AL <br />Dimensions: 150 ft long, 48 ft wide, ...
Does net house block insect pests?<br />Yes, it does! Here are the pheromone trap catches for major pests.<br /><ul><li>On...
Armyworms (<0.2 larvae/plant) & stink bugs were removed manually.
Vegetables outside net house were sprayed bi-weekly to control caterpillars.</li></li></ul><li>Other Research/Extension Pr...
MAJOR VEGETABLE INSECT PESTS 2010<br />
>Half of AL predicted under drought in 2011<br />
Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnavarivestis<br />Colorado po...
Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua<br />Spider mites (Tetran...
Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Squash vine borer, Mellitiacucurbitae<br />Sugarcane beet...
Emerging Pest on Vegetables: Leaffooted Bugs<br />Leptoglossusgonagra<br />Leptoglossusphyllopus<br />Heavy fruit drop can...
Emerging Crop Pests: Invasive Insects<br />Brown marmorated stink bug,  Hyalomorphahalys<br />Bean plataspid,  Megacopta  ...
TRAP CROPPING: CONCEPTS & APPLICATIONS<br />
What is a trap cropping?<br />“Trap cropping is a special case of multiple cropping.”<br />Agronomic definition:<br />Trap...
Presence of second crop in the vicinity of principal crop diverts a pest, which would otherwise attack the principal crop”...
Major Principle of Trap Cropping<br />Insects are attracted to plant volatiles<br />Insects have differential host prefere...
Major Techniques of Trap Cropping<br />Selection of a more preferred cultivar or species at the same time as the main crop...
Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping<br />Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on border...
Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping <br />TRAP CROP<br />Trap crop<br />Boucher et al. (2003): bell pe...
Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping (contd.) <br /><ul><li>Cook et al. (2006): Rothamsted Research, UK
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Trap Crops for Insect Pest Management

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This presentation was delivered at the 2011 Gulf Coast Fruit & Vegetable Conference on January 27th, organized by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System. The presetation disccuses some trap cropping techniques for sustainable vegetable production. Various Extension IPM resources for farmers is also included in the slideshow.

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  • Crop diversity and other listed pillars emphasize the usefulness of above-ground habitat management, plant diversification, and enhancement of beneficial fauna. Choosing right varieties is the first step to EBPM.Reduced tillage and other listed pillars emphasize the usefulness of below-ground habitat management, biota activation and diversified farming
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Trap Crops for Insect Pest Management

    1. 1. Innovative Pest Management Techniques Integrating Trap Crops & Insecticides<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar<br />Extension Entomologist (Peanuts, Vegetables)<br />State SARE Coordinator (Auburn U)<br />Alabama Cooperative Extension System<br />Cell phone: 251-331-8416<br />bugdoctor@auburn.edu<br />
    2. 2. Extension Resources for Farmers & Gardeners<br />
    3. 3. THE OVERALL THEME OF THIS TALK IS…<br />AGRICULTURE IN THE 21ST CENTURY MUST MOVE TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY OF FAMILY FARMS <br />ALABAMA EXTENSION PROGRAMS ARE COMMITTED TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE!<br />
    4. 4. IPM COmmunicationREsource (IPM-CORE): Providing Thrust to IPM & Sustainable Agriculture in Alabama<br />www.aces.edu/go/87<br />This website gives access to blogs, presentations, newsletters & other publications, insecticide recommendations & more!<br />
    5. 5. Facebook: ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’<br />Search for ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ & subscribe for periodic updates on insect & disease issues<br />
    6. 6. YouTube Channel: IPMNews<br />Recorded Live in Field!<br />Search for ‘IPMNews’ channel & subscribe for periodic updates on insect & disease issues<br />
    7. 7. The IPM Communicator(A FREE electronic newsletter)<br />Six financial gains reports: $3,550 in pesticide saving<br />Sign up today at the Exhibit for 2011 series starting soon!<br />
    8. 8. Vegetable Production in Alabama<br />34 major vegetables produced<br />2006: 5700 acres >> 2008: 5,950 acres<br />100% fresh market produce<br />Value: ~$17 million<br />Tomato: ~1300 acres = $12 million<br />
    9. 9. Why practice IPM?<br /><ul><li>Based on economic & environmental sustainability principle
    10. 10. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold-based decision management system that uses multiple pest control tactics.
    11. 11. Average gain from vegetable IPM is $19 for every dollar spent*</li></ul>Insecticide usage in AL (all crops): 200,000 to 770,000 lb/year<br />*L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.<br />
    12. 12. Major Issues with IPM<br /><ul><li>Less emphasis on cultural insect control practices
    13. 13. Poor crop selection = stressed plants = more pests
    14. 14. Lack of early detection of insects = last minute decision = over dependence on insecticides
    15. 15. Insecticide resistance
    16. 16. Pest resurgence
    17. 17. Environmental impact??</li></ul>….IPM is unsustainable if it is ‘pesticide intensive’<br />We need to approach pest management from a holistic or ecological perspective.<br />
    18. 18. Ecological Pest Management (EPM)<br />From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)<br />Ecological Pest Management System incorporates the broad knowledge of the agro-ecosystem to choose pest management tactics that are timely, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. <br />Goal of EPM: Maintain Healthy Plants From Root to Foliage<br />‘Pillars’ of EPM: <br /> Crop DiversityReduce Tillage<br /> Rotations Maintain Soil Cover<br /> Cover Crops Add Organic Matter<br /> Plant Breeding Nutrient Management<br />Below ground factors<br />Above ground factors<br />
    19. 19. Current Research & Extension Focus<br />Emphasis on Pest Detection using pheromone traps:<br />Use insect traps for improved scouting, early detection of pests<br />Trap Catch = Pest Density X Pest Activity (Taylor, 1963)<br />Insect Monitoring Project (2009-2010) finding: sustainable agriculture can reduce pest pressures, see subsequent slides.<br />Stink bug trap<br />Corn rootworm trap<br />Sticky wing trap<br />
    20. 20. Beet Armyworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B) <br />Locations: Clay County (A)<br /> Dale County (B)<br />Numbers indicate moth catches in 12 days.<br />
    21. 21. Tomato Fruitworm Moth Activity in Alabama: Conventional Farm (A) vs. Organic Farm (B) <br />Locations: Clay County (A)<br /> Dale County (B)<br />Numbers indicate moth catches in 12 days.<br />
    22. 22. On-farm Research: First Net house in Alabama<br />Location: Baldwin County, AL <br />Dimensions: 150 ft long, 48 ft wide, 17 ft high center, 12 ft high sides<br />Entrance: Double door<br />Fabric mesh 30-50 as insect barrier.<br />Mesh size depends on target insect & cost.<br />Height provides air movement, fans can also be installed<br />
    23. 23. Does net house block insect pests?<br />Yes, it does! Here are the pheromone trap catches for major pests.<br /><ul><li>Only one insecticide spray was needed to control aphid outbreak.
    24. 24. Armyworms (<0.2 larvae/plant) & stink bugs were removed manually.
    25. 25. Vegetables outside net house were sprayed bi-weekly to control caterpillars.</li></li></ul><li>Other Research/Extension Projects(Grant funded)<br />Stink bug management with trap crops (2011-2012)<br />Pheromone-based monitoring of critical pests (2009 & 2010)<br />Inter-row cover crops for reducing disease transmission in peppers & pumpkins (2011-2012)<br />Net house vegetable production (continued research)<br />Industry-supported research:<br />Biological control of aphids/caterpillars: BotaniGard, Molt-X, Suffoil-X (tank mixes)<br />Synthetic insecticides: Movento, Belt, Synapse, Radiant, Entrust<br />
    26. 26. MAJOR VEGETABLE INSECT PESTS 2010<br />
    27. 27. >Half of AL predicted under drought in 2011<br />
    28. 28. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnavarivestis<br />Colorado potato beetle<br />Leptinotarsadecemlineata(Say)<br />Yellowstriped armyworm, Spodopteraornithogalli(Guenee)<br />Grasshopper<br />Brown stink bug, Euschistusservus(Say)<br />Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata(Linnaeus)<br />Aphid outbreak on bell pepper<br />
    29. 29. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua<br />Spider mites (Tetranychus sp.) <br />Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda<br />Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea<br />
    30. 30. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Squash vine borer, Mellitiacucurbitae<br />Sugarcane beetle, Euetheolarugiceps<br />Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata<br />
    31. 31. Emerging Pest on Vegetables: Leaffooted Bugs<br />Leptoglossusgonagra<br />Leptoglossusphyllopus<br />Heavy fruit drop can cause major losses in eggplants and tomatoes<br />Leptoglossuszonatus<br />
    32. 32. Emerging Crop Pests: Invasive Insects<br />Brown marmorated stink bug, Hyalomorphahalys<br />Bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria<br />Detected in AL in 2010<br />Seeks shelter in homes<br />Infests kudzu, soybean…what’s next?<br />UGA Photos<br />
    33. 33. TRAP CROPPING: CONCEPTS & APPLICATIONS<br />
    34. 34. What is a trap cropping?<br />“Trap cropping is a special case of multiple cropping.”<br />Agronomic definition:<br />Trap cropping is the planting of an attractive trap crop to protect the main crop (PAN Germany, 2009). Trap crop may or may not be harvestable. <br /><ul><li>Entomological definition:
    35. 35. Presence of second crop in the vicinity of principal crop diverts a pest, which would otherwise attack the principal crop” (Van der Meer 1981)</li></li></ul><li>How to visualize trap crops?<br />Trap Crops<br />+<br />Mechanical Removal <br />Or<br />Selective insecticide<br />=<br />Ecological Pest Management (EPM)<br />Trap<br />crop<br />
    36. 36. Major Principle of Trap Cropping<br />Insects are attracted to plant volatiles<br />Insects have differential host preference <br />Insect may feed and reproduce in preferred host<br />How trap cropping works?<br />Behavioral theories that may explain success of trap crops!<br /> Visual camouflage (Smith 1969)<br /> Masking of host plant odor (Tahvanainen & Root 1972)<br /> Resource concentration hypothesis (Root 1973)<br />Appropriate/inappropriate landings (Finch & Collier 2000)<br />
    37. 37. Major Techniques of Trap Cropping<br />Selection of a more preferred cultivar or species at the same time as the main crop<br />Planting of the same species and cultivar as the main crop timed to be at the most preferred stage of development before the main crop<br />Source: Wszelaki and Broughton, UT Extension W235-F<br />
    38. 38. Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping<br />Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders<br />Squash lured 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs<br />Trap crop (squash)<br />Main crop <br />(watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber)<br />
    39. 39. Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping <br />TRAP CROP<br />Trap crop<br />Boucher et al. (2003): bell pepper (main crop) + hot cherry peppers (trap crop) for pepper maggots <br />Trap crop surrounds the main crop from all sides<br />MAIN CROP<br />
    40. 40. Trap cropping arrangements<br />Perimeter Trap Cropping (contd.) <br /><ul><li>Cook et al. (2006): Rothamsted Research, UK
    41. 41. Trap crop = turnip rape (Brassica rapa)
    42. 42. Main crop = oilseed rape (B. napus)
    43. 43. Target insect = pollen beetles
    44. 44. Cook et al (2007) called this the ‘push-pull’ strategy</li></li></ul><li>Trap cropping arrangements<br />Within-Row Trap Cropping <br /> Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (cotton)<br />Sustainable American Cotton Project, NCAT<br />Cotton<br />Cotton<br />Southern green stink bug<br />Alfalfa<br />
    45. 45. Trap cropping arrangements<br />Within-Row Trap Cropping (contd.) <br /> Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum!<br />Strawberry production in California<br />Strawberry<br />(34 rows)<br />Strawberry<br />(34 rows)<br />Western tarnished plant bug damage<br />Alfalfa<br />
    46. 46. Trap cropping arrangements<br />Strip Trap Cropping<br /><ul><li>Planting trap crops in a strip along one common border between two or more crops
    47. 47. Tillman (2006): integrated trap crops + pheromone traps</li></ul>Target: Green stink bugs<br />SORGHUM (panicle stage)<br />PEANUTS<br />COTTON<br />High parasitism rates from tachinid fly in sorghum<br />Source: USDA-ARS<br />
    48. 48. Trap cropping systems<br />Dead-end Trap Cropping<br />(Shelton & Nault 2004, Badenez-Perez et al. 2004)<br />Trap crop is highly attractive to the insect pest, but the trap crop does not support its growth & development.<br />Diamondback moths are attracted to yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris) over cabbage<br />TRAP CROP<br />MAIN CROP<br />
    49. 49. Maintain grassy corridors<br />Integrate with trap crops<br />Have a well managed strip of grassland <br />Important for natural enemy conservation<br />Monitor pests and beneficials in the corridor<br />
    50. 50. Advantages of trap cropping<br /><ul><li> Sustainable technology – many success stories available
    51. 51. Allows small startup without investing in large equipment
    52. 52. May pay for itself if crop is harvestable (alfalfa, squash)
    53. 53. Can be integrated with other technologies: pheromone traps, conservation systems`
    54. 54. Reduces dependence on insecticides
    55. 55. Conserves or attracts natural enemies to trap crop</li></ul>+<br />
    56. 56. Benefits of Trap Cropping<br />Source: Boucher & Durgy, 2004<br />
    57. 57. Disadvantages of trap cropping<br /><ul><li> Growers need knowledge of insect behavior, migration, seasonal abundance etc.
    58. 58. Need for additional planning and resources
    59. 59. Insecticide may still be needed
    60. 60. Results may be inconsistent (moderated by weather events)
    61. 61. Timely management of insects in trap crop: otherwise you have a “pest nursery”</li></li></ul><li>If you use trap cropping then…<br />Choose trap crops that have rapid growth…<br />Proportion of land in traps ~10-20%…<br />Plant a dense row of trap crop, plant early…<br />Choose a simple design – easy to manage…<br />Use a well-managed grassy corridor so NEs can move <br />Consult with Extension and share info with friends!<br />
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