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    Trap Cropping Techniques Trap Cropping Techniques Presentation Transcript

    • Trap Cropping for Sustainable Crop Production Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist Alabama Cooperative Extension System Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center 8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532 Cell phone: 251-331-8416 PART 3A (discussion on key insect behavioral concepts)
    • Objectives
      • To discuss basics of IPM
      • To help you identify & use cultural control tactics
      • To make a strong case for trap cropping (using published scientific literature)
      • Discuss some basics of insect behavior
      • Provide general trap cropping guidelines
    • Point to Ponder: What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)?
      • IPM is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices .
      • IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment.
      • IPM takes advantage of all appropriate pest management options including, but not limited to, the judicious use of pesticides .
      • Organic food production applies many of the same concepts as IPM but limits the use of pesticides to those that are produced from natural sources , as opposed to synthetic chemicals.
      Source: USEPA http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm
    • Premise for using cultural pest control strategies
      • Set action thresholds: “Sighting a single pest does not always mean control is needed.” Think in economic terms!
      • Monitor and Identify Pests: “… monitoring and identification removes the possibility that pesticides will be used when they are not really needed...”
      • Prevention: “…using cultural methods…that can be very effective and cost-efficient and present little to no risk to people or the environment.”
      • Control: “Effective, less risky pest controls are chosen first, including highly targeted chemicals, such as pheromones to disrupt pest mating, or mechanical control, such as trapping or weeding.”
      Source: USEPA http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm USEPA’s Four-tiered Model of IPM
    • Multiple cropping for Diverse Habitat
      • Host plant quality hypo.: plant species can interact in a way to reduce attractiveness to pest (Theunissen 1994)
      IPM Era (1970-1990s) Natural enemies hypo. (Root 1973): cultural control tactics can conserve or increase natural enemies (Hummel et al. 2002, Peachey et al. 2002, Schmidt et al. 2004, Carmona & Landis 2003) Diverse background moderates insect behavior (1960 – 1985): insects get confused or separated! Post-IPM Era (1990-) Pre-IPM Era (-1970s) Resource concentration hypo.: herbivores (=pests) remain in an area where essential resources are concentrated (Root 1973)
    • What is a trap cropping?
      • Agronomic definition:
        • Trap cropping is the planting of an attractive trap crop to protect the main crop (PAN Germany, 2009). Trap crop may or may not be harvestable.
      • Entomological definition:
        • Trap cropping is a production system that exploits insect behavior by continuously providing food plants in the preferred stage (Grossman 2008)
      “ Trap cropping is a special case of multiple cropping.” “ Presence of second crop in the vicinity of principal crop diverts a pest, which would otherwise attack the principal crop” (Van der meer 1981)
    • Why should you use trap crops? Combined use of cultural control + Insecticides = IPM approach Trap crop New insecticide Corn earworm devastated sunflower (trap crop) but stayed away from peanuts Image source: ICRISAT, India
    • Host finding & oviposition behavior
      • Arrestants:
      • Plant color, odor, shape (acts at a distance)
      • Texture, phytochemicals, treatments (acts after landing)
      Note: Adult females make the decision to oviposit & starts a primary infestation!
    • How trap cropping works? Various behavioral theories that could explain success of trap crops.
      • Visual camouflage (Smith 1969)
      • Masking of host plant odor (Tahvanainen & Root 1972)
      • Resource concentration hypothesis (Root 1973)
      • Natural enemies hypothesis (Root 1973)
      • Physical obstruction (Perrin 1977)
      • Deterrent chemicals (Uvah & Caoker 1984)
      • Interplant interaction alters host quality (Theunissen 1994)
      • Impaired apparency of host plants to insects (Finch & Kienegger 1997)
      • Appropriate/inappropriate landings (Finch & Collier 2000)
    • Trap cropping arrangements
      • Trap crop surrounds the main crop from all sides
      • Feasible on small to medium scale
      • Too resource-intensive on large scale (seed, time, management)
      • Boucher et al. (2003): bell pepper/cherry peppers/pepper maggots
      Perimeter Trap Cropping TRAP CROP Trap crop MAIN CROP
    • Trap cropping arrangements
      • Dr. Sam Pair, USDA-ARS
      • Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders
      • Squash lured 66% cucumber beetles and 90% squash bugs
      Perimeter Trap Cropping (contd.) Main crop (watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber) Trap crop (squash)
    • Trap cropping arrangements
      • Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (cotton)
      Row Trap Cropping Alfalfa Cotton Cotton Sustainable American Cotton Project, NCAT Southern green stink bug
    • Trap cropping arrangements
      • Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) & a using vacuum!
      Row Trap Cropping (contd.) Alfalfa Strawberry (34 rows) Strawberry (34 rows) Strawberry production in California Western tarnished plant bug damage
    • Trap cropping arrangements Strip Trap Cropping
      • Planting trap crops in a strip along one common border between two or more crops
      • Tillman (2006): cotton/sorghum/southern green stink bug…integrated pheromone trap + trap crop
      Also reported high parasitism rates from tachinid fly in sorghum
    • Trap cropping arrangements Strip Trap Cropping (mechanism) Sorghum (trap crop) Cotton Peanut (reservoir for pest) Green stink bugs migration
    • Trap cropping arrangements
      • Tillman (2006): IPM approach to stink bug control
      Strip Trap Cropping (contd.) Sorghum trap crop Picture source: Agricultural Research Magazine, January 2008
    • Trap cropping systems
      • Trap crop is highly attractive to the insect pest, but the trap crop does not support its growth & development.
      • Diamondback moths are attracted to yellow rocket over cabbage, trick is:
        • Trap crop planted in higher densities (more eggs)
        • Trap crop planted earlier than main crop (increase attractiveness)
      Dead-end Trap Cropping (Shelton & Nault 2004, Badenez-Perez et al. 2004) TRAP CROP MAIN CROP
    • NE Conservation System
      • Grass shelters natural enemies
      • Many night-feeding insects hide in grass during day…treat the edges!
      • Sample in grass and keep it under control
      Grassy buffers Grassy buffer zone in temporary agroecosystem Grassy buffer zone in permanent ecosystems
    • How multiple cropping/conservation systems affect natural enemies?
        • Increases spiders (Hummel et al. 2002), increase predatory mites (Peachey et al. 2002), maintains or increases ground predators (Schmidt et al. 2004, Carmona & Landis 2003)
        • Conserves ground-dwelling predators that regulate aphid population (Schmidt et al. 2004)
        • Conservation tillage improves soil persistence of insect pathogens (Hummel et al. 2002)
    • Advantages of trap cropping
      • Sustainable technology – literature review with numerous successful applications
      • Suitable for commercial and noncommercial crop production
      • Allows small startup without investing in large equipment
      • May pay for itself if crop is harvestable (alfalfa, squash)
      • Can be integrated with existing farming/gardening practices
      • Reduces dependence on chemical pesticides
      • Conserves indigenous natural enemies by providing shelter & continuity
    • Disadvantages of trap cropping
      • Knowledge intensive practice (like IPM)
      • Need for additional planning (e.g., early planting), materials (e.g. seeds, land), and labor
      • Trap crop recommendations are unique to the insect (behavior affects efficiency of trap crops)
      • Results may be inconsistent (moderated by weather events)
      • Proportion of cash crop: trap crop = 10%, 20%,?
      • Timely management of insects in trap crop: problem if you miss!
    • Recommendations for trap cropping
      • Try it on a small scale to gain confidence
      • Integrate with biological/chemical i-cides, pheromone trapping, mass trapping, etc.
      • Trap cropping is more management intensive!
      • Trap cropping could manage one or two insect species
      • Works great against sucking pests (plant bugs) and slow fliers (beetles)
      • Could work against generalist feeders like lepidopteran moths (cutworms, diamondback moth, etc.)
    • Recommendations (contd.)
      • Trap crop should be highly attractive to pest!
      • Choose trap crops that have bushy growth habit (alfalfa, grasses, etc.) and/or large leaf area (squash, ornamental plants?)
      • Proportion of land in traps (10-25%)…or choose per your observations & skills
      • Plant a dense row of trap crop, plant early
      • Choose a simple design – easy to manage
      • Keep your main crop well irrigated, prevent plant competition
      • Keep records and maintain a pest calendar
    • What insecticides can be used with trap crops?
      • May use the following regularly and in rotation:
        • Thuricide, Dipel (Bt)
        • Novodor, Foil (Bt)
        • M-pede (soap)
        • Pyganic (pyrethrum)
        • Pyrellin (pyrethrum + rotenone)
      • Contact a nursery for supplies & purchase early
      • Do not use unlabeled insecticides (e.g., RTU home pesticides)
    • Trap Cropping for Sustainable Vegetable Production QUESTIONS? PART 3A