Sustainable vegetable pest management

  • 2,299 views
Uploaded on

This presentation, discussing some concepts of ecological based pest management and vegetable entomology research findings, was given by Dr. Ayanava Majumdar at the Alabama Food and Farm Forum, 2010, …

This presentation, discussing some concepts of ecological based pest management and vegetable entomology research findings, was given by Dr. Ayanava Majumdar at the Alabama Food and Farm Forum, 2010, in Selma, AL (USA). Please acknowledge the author and Alabama Cooperative Extension System when using the data for education and training. The research data is preliminary and should be interpreted with caution. For further information about this or other slideshows contact Dr. A at 251-331-8416.

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,299
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
137
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Crop diversity and other listed pillars (in orange) emphasize the usefulness of above-ground habitat management, plant diversification, and enhancement of beneficial fauna. Choosing right varieties is the first step to EBPM.Reduced tillage and other listed pillars (in pink) emphasize the usefulness of below-ground habitat management, biota activation and diversified farming
  • LCB prefers sandy soil around coastal AL.Host plants: bean, beets, cabbage, peanut, corn, peas, sorghum, tomato, etc.LCB also has a number of weed hosts, such as: nutsedges (Cyperusrotundus), watergrass (Hydrochloacaroliniensis), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), crabgrass (Digitariasanguinalis), wild oats (Avenafatua), Bermudagrass (Cynodondactylon), wiregrass (Aristidastricta), and goosegrass (Eleusineindica) (Isely and Miner 1994, Gardner and All 1982).
  • The cabbage looper feeds on a wide variety of cultivated plants and weeds. As the common name implies, it feeds readily on crucifers, and has been reported damaging broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip, and watercress. Other vegetable crops injured include beet, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, lima bean, lettuce, parsnip, pea, pepper, potato, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, and watermelon. Additional hosts are flower crops such as chrysanthemum, hollyhock, snapdragon, and sweetpea, and field crops such as cotton and tobacco. Surprisingly few common agricultural weeds are frequent hosts; among those that are suitable are lambsquarters, Chenopodium album; wild lettuce, Lactuca spp.; dandelion, Taraxacumofficinale; and curly dock, Rumexcrispus.
  • As the common name implies, it feeds readily on crucifers, and has been reported damaging broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip, and watercress. Other vegetable crops injured include beet, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, lima bean, lettuce, parsnip, pea, pepper, potato, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, and watermelon. Additional hosts are flower crops such as chrysanthemum, hollyhock, snapdragon, and sweetpea, and field crops such as cotton and tobacco. Surprisingly few common agricultural weeds are frequent hosts; among those that are suitable are lambsquarters, Chenopodium album; wild lettuce, Lactuca spp.; dandelion, Taraxacumofficinale; and curly dock, Rumexcrispus.
  • The preferred hosts of the soybean looper are soybean, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, crucifers, pea, tobacco, and cocklebur.
  • The preferred hosts of the soybean looper are soybean, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, crucifers, pea, tobacco, and cocklebur.

Transcript

  • 1. AL FOOD & FARM FORUM
    Sustainable Insect Pest Management
    Speaker:
    Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A)
    Extension Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator
    Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center
    8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532
    Cell phone: 251-331-8416
    Email: bugdoctor@auburn.edu
  • 2. Presentation Layout
    Extension IPM resources for farmers (IPM-CORE project)
    Ecological Based Pest Management (EBPM) concepts
    USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard
    Insect pest detection and monitoring program
    Sustainable management of critical pests
    Nethouse vegetable production
  • 3. MAJOR VEGETABLE PESTS 2010
  • 4. IPM-CORE PROJECT: Integrate Modern & Traditional Communication Channels To Benefit Producers
    CHECK OUT IPM Kiosk & Display, take handouts, newsletter signup & more
    AT HOME CHECK OUT THE AL Vegetable IPM website & Facebook links
  • 5. THE IPM COMMUNICATOR (FREE electronic newsletter)
    22 contributing authors
    400+ subscribers
    18 Weekly Issues (2010)
    SIGNUP AT THE EXHIBIT TODAY!
  • 6. Join ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ on Facebook
  • 7. Organic Approved Insecticides
  • 8. Ecological Based Pest Management
    From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)
    Ecologically Based Pest Management System or EBPM incorporates the broad knowledge of the agro-ecosystem to choose pest management tactics that are timely, environmentally friendly and cost-effective.
    Goal of EBPM: Maintain Healthy Plants From Root to Foliage
    ‘Pillars’ of EBPM:
    Crop DiversityReduce Tillage
    RotationsMaintain Soil Cover
    Cover CropsAdd Organic Matter
    Plant BreedingNutrient Management
  • 9. USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard (NOP)
    Level 1: Systems-based practices (cultural practices, sanitation, mulching, crop rotation)
    Level 2: Mechanical and physical practices (barriers, lures/traps, repellents, hand-picking)
    Level 3: Biorational & other material (OMRI approved insecticides)
  • 10. Starting point for EBPM…
    Insect Detection/Identification:
    Use modern insect detection/scouting tools
    INSECT PHEROMONE TRAPS
    Trap Catch = Pest Density X Pest Activity
    Insect Monitoring Project in Alabama, 2009-2010
    Average trap catches in slideshow (June-Sept.)
    Stink bug trap
    Sticky wing trap
    Corn rootworm trap
  • 11. Insect Pheromone Traps for EBPM
    Advantages :
    • Species specific
    • 12. Detect low insect populations
    • 13. Insect ID not needed
    • 14. Nontoxic, no residue on food
    • 15. Season long monitoring , reusable
    • 16. Develop site-specific IPM Action Plan
    It makes sense to use insect traps for knowing what to look for and when!
    Disadvantages:
    • Weather sensitive
    • 17. No information about actual crop injury
    • 18. Scouting is still needed
    • 19. Some traps are expensive
  • Alabama Insect Survey Locations
    Peanut farm
    Vegetable farm
    2010
    (16,588 insects)
    2009
    (8,500 insects)
  • 20. The numbers in slides indicate trap catches from one of more counties within a region. Only the highest AVERAGE trap catches are reported herein for comparison of pest pressures. Trap catch numbers may not be applicable per se to your farm!
  • 21. Summary of Insect Trap Catches
  • 22. What is it?
    Several outbreaks of these insects occurred in AL, 2009 & 2010
    First seen in pastures
    Part of the midseason caterpillar complex
    Control: Grow early crop, control weeds (pigweed, amaranth), spinosad, Bt & Spod-X
  • 23. Beet armyworm (Outbreak!)
    2010
    2009
    13 moths/trap
    10 moths/trap
    11 moths/trap
    21 moths/trap
    46 moths/trap
    53 moths/trap
    53 moths/trap
    55moths/trap
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 24. Fall armyworm (outbreak!)
    2010
    2009
    18 moths/trap
    20moths/trap
    26 moths/trap
    29 moths/trap
    5 moths/trap
    14 moths/trap
    37 moths/trap
    36 moths/trap
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 25. What is it?
    Numerous host plants
    Body color depends on food
    International pest status
    Part of mid-season caterpillar complex
    Control: Grow early crop, use Bt and virus formulations, spinosad
    Microspines below the big hair
  • 26. Tomato fruitworm/Corn earworm
    2010
    2009
    6 moths/trap
    10 moths/trap
    1 moths/trap
    25 moths/trap
    2 moths/trap
    6 moths/trap
    21 moths/trap
    11 moths/trap
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 27. What is it?
    Emerging concern for diversified farms
    Northward migration of moth
    Mixed moth population with fruitworm
    Appears more fuzzy than fruitworm
    Resistant to pyrethroids
    Spinosad and Bt for control
    Microspines numerous
  • 28. Tobacco budworm (spreading north!)
    2010
    2009
    5 moths/trap
    2 moths/trap
    3 moths/trap
    7 moths/trap
    6 moths/trap
    3 moths/trap
    8 moths/trap
    3 moths/trap
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 29. What is it?
    Severe outbreaks reported in 2010
    Larvae live in silken tunnels/tubes
    Worse in south AL, sandy soils
    Threatens corn, beans and peas + peanuts
    Control by crop rotation, varieties
  • 30. Lesser cornstalk borer (outbreak!)
    2010
    2009
    27 moths/trap
    NA
    90 moths/trap
    142 moths/trap
    140 moths/trap
    119 moths/trap
    90 moths/trap
    143 moths/trap
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 31. What is it?
    Body of larva narrow in front, broad at the end
    No microspines, less hairy than other loopers
    Prefers crucifer vegetables, but will feed on summer vegetables
    Late season buildup is most damaging to crops
    Often large fecal pellets seen sticking to the leaves
    Trichogramma parasitoid effective natural enemy
    Bt is an effective alternative insecticide
  • 32. Cabbage looper
    2010
    2009
    6 moths/trap
    5moths/trap
    4 moths/trap
    3 moths/trap
    5 moths/trap
    10 moths/trap
    13 moths/trap
    9 moths/trap
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 33. What is it?
    Caterpillar has black forelegs (not in cabbage looper)
    Spots on body, fuzzy caterpillar in early stages
  • 34. Soybean looper
    2010
    2009
    3 moths/trap
    14 moths/trap
    6 moths/trap
    2 moths/trap
    4 moths/trap
    6 moths/trap
    6 moths/trap
    15 moths/trap
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 35. What is it?
    Prefer cucumber, squash, gourd.
    Larvae overwinter in soil.
    Females lay 150-200 eggs singly.
    Moths are clear-winged with bright red abdomen.
    Row covers & field sanitation are best management tactics.
    Azadirachtin, diatomaceous earth…
  • 36. Squash vine borer (outbreak!)
    2010
    2009
    19 moths/trap
    NA
    6 moths/trap
    NA
    14 moths/trap
    NA
    20 moths/trap
    NA
    Traps placed near vegetable fields
  • 37. Trap & Lure Suppliers
    TRAPS:
    Great Lakes IPM (MI)
    Arbico Organics (AZ)
    Gemplers
    LURES:
    • Great Lakes IPM – ScentryBiologicals (MT) & Trece, Inc. (OK)
    • 38. APTIV, Inc. (OR)
    Stop by the IPM display for a detailed supplier list!
  • 39. Nethouse Vegetable Production
    (A Preliminary Report on Successes and Challenges)
    Photos: Mike Powell, Polyproductosde Guatemala
  • 40. First Nethouse in Alabama (2010)
    Location: Baldwin County, AL
    Dimensions: 150 ft long, 48 ft wide, 17 ft high center, 12 ft high sides
    Entrance: Double door
    Fabric mesh 30-50 as insect barrier.
    Mesh size depends on target insect & cost.
    Height provides air movement, fans can also be installed
  • 41. Soil preparation with conventional equipment before sealing the structure
    Nethouse, 2010
  • 42. Temperature and Humidity Challenge*
    *Year 2010 was an unusually dry and hot year in Alabama which affected plant growth and increased disease pressure under the insect nethouse.
  • 43. Bell peppers were grown with success (Year 1 Research)
    40% black shade cloth for cooling down the interior
  • 44. Does nethouse block insect pests?
    Yes, it does! Below are the pheromone trap catches for some major pests.
    • Only one insecticide spray was needed to control aphid outbreak in nethouse.
    • 45. Armyworm caterpillars (<0.2 larvae/plant) & few stink bugs were removed manually.
    • 46. Bell peppers outsidenethouse were sprayed weekly to control caterpillars & stink bugs.
  • Insect invasions under nethouse!
    Armyworm eggs on fabric
    Armyworm larva
    Ants in doorway
    Aphid and armyworm were noticeable mid-season problems.
    Weed control critical to remove insect hideout places.
    Aphid outbreak on bell pepper
    Grasshopper resting on sidewall
  • 47. Disease Issues in Nethouse (2010)
    Heat stress and diseases like blight & wilt were observes on tomatoes.
    Total exclusion of beneficials & pollinators is also a concern.
    Overall, the nethouse technology can provide major relief from insect pests and reduce dependence on insecticides. However, disease management is very essential.