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AL  FOOD & FARM FORUM<br />Sustainable Insect Pest Management<br />Speaker:<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A)<br />Extensi...
Presentation Layout<br />Extension IPM resources for farmers (IPM-CORE project)<br />Ecological Based Pest Management (EBP...
MAJOR VEGETABLE PESTS 2010<br />
IPM-CORE PROJECT: Integrate Modern & Traditional Communication Channels To Benefit Producers<br />CHECK OUT IPM Kiosk & Di...
THE IPM COMMUNICATOR (FREE electronic newsletter)<br />22 contributing authors<br />400+ subscribers<br />18 Weekly Issues...
Join ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ on Facebook <br />
Organic Approved Insecticides<br />
Ecological Based Pest Management<br />From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)<br />Ec...
USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard (NOP)<br />Level 1: Systems-based practices (cultural practices, sanitation, m...
Starting point for EBPM…<br />Insect Detection/Identification:<br />Use modern insect detection/scouting tools<br />INSECT...
Insect Pheromone Traps for EBPM<br />Advantages :<br /><ul><li>  Species specific
  Detect low insect populations
 Insect ID not needed
 Nontoxic, no residue on food
  Season long monitoring , reusable
 Develop site-specific IPM Action Plan</li></ul>It makes sense to use insect traps for knowing what to look for and when!<...
   No information about actual crop injury
   Scouting is still needed
   Some traps are expensive</li></li></ul><li>Alabama Insect Survey Locations<br />Peanut farm<br />Vegetable farm<br />20...
The numbers in slides indicate trap catches from one of more counties within a region. Only the highest AVERAGE trap catch...
Summary of Insect Trap Catches<br />
What is it?<br />Several outbreaks of these insects occurred in AL, 2009 & 2010<br />First seen in pastures<br />Part of t...
Beet armyworm (Outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />13 moths/trap<br />10 moths/trap<br />11 moths/trap<br />21 moths/trap<...
Fall armyworm (outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />18 moths/trap<br />20moths/trap<br />26 moths/trap<br />29 moths/trap<b...
What is it?<br />Numerous host plants<br />Body color depends on food<br />International pest status<br />Part of mid-seas...
Tomato fruitworm/Corn earworm<br />2010<br />2009<br />6 moths/trap<br />10 moths/trap<br />1 moths/trap<br />25 moths/tra...
What is it?<br />Emerging concern for diversified farms<br />Northward migration of moth<br />Mixed moth population with f...
Tobacco budworm (spreading north!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />5 moths/trap<br />2 moths/trap<br />3 moths/trap<br />7 moths/...
What is it?<br />Severe outbreaks reported in 2010<br />Larvae live in silken tunnels/tubes <br />Worse in south AL, sandy...
Lesser cornstalk borer (outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />27 moths/trap<br /> NA<br />90 moths/trap<br /> 142 moths/trap...
What is it?<br />Body of larva narrow in front, broad at the end<br />No microspines, less hairy than other loopers<br />P...
Cabbage looper<br />2010<br />2009<br />6 moths/trap<br /> 5moths/trap<br />4 moths/trap<br />3 moths/trap<br />5 moths/tr...
What is it?<br />Caterpillar has black forelegs (not in cabbage looper)<br />Spots on body, fuzzy caterpillar in early sta...
Soybean looper<br />2010<br />2009<br />3 moths/trap<br /> 14 moths/trap<br />6 moths/trap<br />2 moths/trap<br />4 moths/...
What is it?<br />Prefer cucumber, squash, gourd.<br />Larvae overwinter in soil.<br />Females lay 150-200 eggs singly.<br ...
Squash vine borer (outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />19 moths/trap<br />  NA<br />6 moths/trap<br /> NA<br />14 moths/tr...
Trap & Lure Suppliers<br />TRAPS:<br />Great Lakes IPM (MI)<br />Arbico Organics (AZ)<br />Gemplers<br />LURES:<br /><ul><...
APTIV, Inc. (OR)</li></ul>Stop by the IPM display for a detailed supplier list!<br />
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Sustainable vegetable pest management

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This presentation, discussing some concepts of ecological based pest management and vegetable entomology research findings, was given by Dr. Ayanava Majumdar at the Alabama Food and Farm Forum, 2010, in Selma, AL (USA). Please acknowledge the author and Alabama Cooperative Extension System when using the data for education and training. The research data is preliminary and should be interpreted with caution. For further information about this or other slideshows contact Dr. A at 251-331-8416.

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  • Crop diversity and other listed pillars (in orange) emphasize the usefulness of above-ground habitat management, plant diversification, and enhancement of beneficial fauna. Choosing right varieties is the first step to EBPM.Reduced tillage and other listed pillars (in pink) emphasize the usefulness of below-ground habitat management, biota activation and diversified farming
  • LCB prefers sandy soil around coastal AL.Host plants: bean, beets, cabbage, peanut, corn, peas, sorghum, tomato, etc.LCB also has a number of weed hosts, such as: nutsedges (Cyperusrotundus), watergrass (Hydrochloacaroliniensis), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), crabgrass (Digitariasanguinalis), wild oats (Avenafatua), Bermudagrass (Cynodondactylon), wiregrass (Aristidastricta), and goosegrass (Eleusineindica) (Isely and Miner 1994, Gardner and All 1982).
  • The cabbage looper feeds on a wide variety of cultivated plants and weeds. As the common name implies, it feeds readily on crucifers, and has been reported damaging broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip, and watercress. Other vegetable crops injured include beet, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, lima bean, lettuce, parsnip, pea, pepper, potato, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, and watermelon. Additional hosts are flower crops such as chrysanthemum, hollyhock, snapdragon, and sweetpea, and field crops such as cotton and tobacco. Surprisingly few common agricultural weeds are frequent hosts; among those that are suitable are lambsquarters, Chenopodium album; wild lettuce, Lactuca spp.; dandelion, Taraxacumofficinale; and curly dock, Rumexcrispus.
  • As the common name implies, it feeds readily on crucifers, and has been reported damaging broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip, and watercress. Other vegetable crops injured include beet, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, lima bean, lettuce, parsnip, pea, pepper, potato, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, and watermelon. Additional hosts are flower crops such as chrysanthemum, hollyhock, snapdragon, and sweetpea, and field crops such as cotton and tobacco. Surprisingly few common agricultural weeds are frequent hosts; among those that are suitable are lambsquarters, Chenopodium album; wild lettuce, Lactuca spp.; dandelion, Taraxacumofficinale; and curly dock, Rumexcrispus.
  • The preferred hosts of the soybean looper are soybean, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, crucifers, pea, tobacco, and cocklebur.
  • The preferred hosts of the soybean looper are soybean, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, crucifers, pea, tobacco, and cocklebur.
  • Transcript of "Sustainable vegetable pest management"

    1. 1. AL FOOD & FARM FORUM<br />Sustainable Insect Pest Management<br />Speaker:<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A)<br />Extension Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator<br />Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center<br />8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532<br />Cell phone: 251-331-8416<br />Email: bugdoctor@auburn.edu<br />
    2. 2. Presentation Layout<br />Extension IPM resources for farmers (IPM-CORE project)<br />Ecological Based Pest Management (EBPM) concepts<br />USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard<br />Insect pest detection and monitoring program<br />Sustainable management of critical pests<br />Nethouse vegetable production<br />
    3. 3. MAJOR VEGETABLE PESTS 2010<br />
    4. 4. IPM-CORE PROJECT: Integrate Modern & Traditional Communication Channels To Benefit Producers<br />CHECK OUT IPM Kiosk & Display, take handouts, newsletter signup & more<br />AT HOME CHECK OUT THE AL Vegetable IPM website & Facebook links<br />
    5. 5. THE IPM COMMUNICATOR (FREE electronic newsletter)<br />22 contributing authors<br />400+ subscribers<br />18 Weekly Issues (2010)<br />SIGNUP AT THE EXHIBIT TODAY!<br />
    6. 6. Join ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ on Facebook <br />
    7. 7. Organic Approved Insecticides<br />
    8. 8. Ecological Based Pest Management<br />From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)<br />Ecologically Based Pest Management System or EBPM incorporates the broad knowledge of the agro-ecosystem to choose pest management tactics that are timely, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. <br />Goal of EBPM: Maintain Healthy Plants From Root to Foliage<br />‘Pillars’ of EBPM:<br />Crop DiversityReduce Tillage<br />RotationsMaintain Soil Cover<br />Cover CropsAdd Organic Matter<br />Plant BreedingNutrient Management<br />
    9. 9. USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard (NOP)<br />Level 1: Systems-based practices (cultural practices, sanitation, mulching, crop rotation)<br />Level 2: Mechanical and physical practices (barriers, lures/traps, repellents, hand-picking)<br />Level 3: Biorational & other material (OMRI approved insecticides)<br />
    10. 10. Starting point for EBPM…<br />Insect Detection/Identification:<br />Use modern insect detection/scouting tools<br />INSECT PHEROMONE TRAPS<br />Trap Catch = Pest Density X Pest Activity<br />Insect Monitoring Project in Alabama, 2009-2010<br />Average trap catches in slideshow (June-Sept.)<br />Stink bug trap<br />Sticky wing trap<br />Corn rootworm trap<br />
    11. 11. Insect Pheromone Traps for EBPM<br />Advantages :<br /><ul><li> Species specific
    12. 12. Detect low insect populations
    13. 13. Insect ID not needed
    14. 14. Nontoxic, no residue on food
    15. 15. Season long monitoring , reusable
    16. 16. Develop site-specific IPM Action Plan</li></ul>It makes sense to use insect traps for knowing what to look for and when!<br />Disadvantages:<br /><ul><li>Weather sensitive
    17. 17. No information about actual crop injury
    18. 18. Scouting is still needed
    19. 19. Some traps are expensive</li></li></ul><li>Alabama Insect Survey Locations<br />Peanut farm<br />Vegetable farm<br />2010 <br />(16,588 insects)<br />2009 <br />(8,500 insects)<br />
    20. 20. The numbers in slides indicate trap catches from one of more counties within a region. Only the highest AVERAGE trap catches are reported herein for comparison of pest pressures. Trap catch numbers may not be applicable per se to your farm!<br />
    21. 21. Summary of Insect Trap Catches<br />
    22. 22. What is it?<br />Several outbreaks of these insects occurred in AL, 2009 & 2010<br />First seen in pastures<br />Part of the midseason caterpillar complex<br />Control: Grow early crop, control weeds (pigweed, amaranth), spinosad, Bt & Spod-X<br />
    23. 23. Beet armyworm (Outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />13 moths/trap<br />10 moths/trap<br />11 moths/trap<br />21 moths/trap<br />46 moths/trap<br />53 moths/trap<br />53 moths/trap<br />55moths/trap<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    24. 24. Fall armyworm (outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />18 moths/trap<br />20moths/trap<br />26 moths/trap<br />29 moths/trap<br />5 moths/trap<br />14 moths/trap<br />37 moths/trap<br />36 moths/trap<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    25. 25. What is it?<br />Numerous host plants<br />Body color depends on food<br />International pest status<br />Part of mid-season caterpillar complex<br />Control: Grow early crop, use Bt and virus formulations, spinosad<br />Microspines below the big hair<br />
    26. 26. Tomato fruitworm/Corn earworm<br />2010<br />2009<br />6 moths/trap<br />10 moths/trap<br />1 moths/trap<br />25 moths/trap<br />2 moths/trap<br />6 moths/trap<br />21 moths/trap<br />11 moths/trap<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    27. 27. What is it?<br />Emerging concern for diversified farms<br />Northward migration of moth<br />Mixed moth population with fruitworm<br />Appears more fuzzy than fruitworm<br />Resistant to pyrethroids<br />Spinosad and Bt for control<br />Microspines numerous<br />
    28. 28. Tobacco budworm (spreading north!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />5 moths/trap<br />2 moths/trap<br />3 moths/trap<br />7 moths/trap<br />6 moths/trap<br />3 moths/trap<br />8 moths/trap<br />3 moths/trap<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    29. 29. What is it?<br />Severe outbreaks reported in 2010<br />Larvae live in silken tunnels/tubes <br />Worse in south AL, sandy soils<br />Threatens corn, beans and peas + peanuts<br />Control by crop rotation, varieties<br />
    30. 30. Lesser cornstalk borer (outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />27 moths/trap<br /> NA<br />90 moths/trap<br /> 142 moths/trap<br />140 moths/trap<br /> 119 moths/trap<br />90 moths/trap<br /> 143 moths/trap<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    31. 31. What is it?<br />Body of larva narrow in front, broad at the end<br />No microspines, less hairy than other loopers<br />Prefers crucifer vegetables, but will feed on summer vegetables<br />Late season buildup is most damaging to crops<br />Often large fecal pellets seen sticking to the leaves<br />Trichogramma parasitoid effective natural enemy<br />Bt is an effective alternative insecticide<br />
    32. 32. Cabbage looper<br />2010<br />2009<br />6 moths/trap<br /> 5moths/trap<br />4 moths/trap<br />3 moths/trap<br />5 moths/trap<br />10 moths/trap<br />13 moths/trap<br />9 moths/trap<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    33. 33. What is it?<br />Caterpillar has black forelegs (not in cabbage looper)<br />Spots on body, fuzzy caterpillar in early stages<br />
    34. 34. Soybean looper<br />2010<br />2009<br />3 moths/trap<br /> 14 moths/trap<br />6 moths/trap<br />2 moths/trap<br />4 moths/trap<br />6 moths/trap<br />6 moths/trap<br />15 moths/trap<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    35. 35. What is it?<br />Prefer cucumber, squash, gourd.<br />Larvae overwinter in soil.<br />Females lay 150-200 eggs singly.<br />Moths are clear-winged with bright red abdomen.<br />Row covers & field sanitation are best management tactics.<br />Azadirachtin, diatomaceous earth…<br />
    36. 36. Squash vine borer (outbreak!)<br />2010<br />2009<br />19 moths/trap<br /> NA<br />6 moths/trap<br /> NA<br />14 moths/trap<br /> NA<br />20 moths/trap<br /> NA<br />Traps placed near vegetable fields<br />
    37. 37. Trap & Lure Suppliers<br />TRAPS:<br />Great Lakes IPM (MI)<br />Arbico Organics (AZ)<br />Gemplers<br />LURES:<br /><ul><li>Great Lakes IPM – ScentryBiologicals (MT) & Trece, Inc. (OK)
    38. 38. APTIV, Inc. (OR)</li></ul>Stop by the IPM display for a detailed supplier list!<br />
    39. 39. Nethouse Vegetable Production<br />(A Preliminary Report on Successes and Challenges) <br />Photos: Mike Powell, Polyproductosde Guatemala<br />
    40. 40. First Nethouse in Alabama (2010)<br />Location: Baldwin County, AL <br />Dimensions: 150 ft long, 48 ft wide, 17 ft high center, 12 ft high sides<br />Entrance: Double door<br />Fabric mesh 30-50 as insect barrier.<br />Mesh size depends on target insect & cost.<br />Height provides air movement, fans can also be installed<br />
    41. 41. Soil preparation with conventional equipment before sealing the structure<br />Nethouse, 2010<br />
    42. 42. Temperature and Humidity Challenge*<br />*Year 2010 was an unusually dry and hot year in Alabama which affected plant growth and increased disease pressure under the insect nethouse.<br />
    43. 43. Bell peppers were grown with success (Year 1 Research)<br />40% black shade cloth for cooling down the interior<br />
    44. 44. Does nethouse block insect pests?<br />Yes, it does! Below are the pheromone trap catches for some major pests.<br /><ul><li>Only one insecticide spray was needed to control aphid outbreak in nethouse.
    45. 45. Armyworm caterpillars (<0.2 larvae/plant) & few stink bugs were removed manually.
    46. 46. Bell peppers outsidenethouse were sprayed weekly to control caterpillars & stink bugs.</li></li></ul><li>Insect invasions under nethouse!<br />Armyworm eggs on fabric<br />Armyworm larva<br />Ants in doorway<br />Aphid and armyworm were noticeable mid-season problems.<br />Weed control critical to remove insect hideout places.<br />Aphid outbreak on bell pepper<br />Grasshopper resting on sidewall<br />
    47. 47. Disease Issues in Nethouse (2010)<br />Heat stress and diseases like blight & wilt were observes on tomatoes.<br />Total exclusion of beneficials & pollinators is also a concern.<br />Overall, the nethouse technology can provide major relief from insect pests and reduce dependence on insecticides. However, disease management is very essential.<br />
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