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Sustainable vegetable pest management

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This presentation, discussing some concepts of ecological based pest management and vegetable entomology research findings, was given by Dr. Ayanava Majumdar at the Alabama Food and Farm Forum, 2010, …

This presentation, discussing some concepts of ecological based pest management and vegetable entomology research findings, was given by Dr. Ayanava Majumdar at the Alabama Food and Farm Forum, 2010, in Selma, AL (USA). Please acknowledge the author and Alabama Cooperative Extension System when using the data for education and training. The research data is preliminary and should be interpreted with caution. For further information about this or other slideshows contact Dr. A at 251-331-8416.

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  • Crop diversity and other listed pillars (in orange) emphasize the usefulness of above-ground habitat management, plant diversification, and enhancement of beneficial fauna. Choosing right varieties is the first step to EBPM.Reduced tillage and other listed pillars (in pink) emphasize the usefulness of below-ground habitat management, biota activation and diversified farming
  • LCB prefers sandy soil around coastal AL.Host plants: bean, beets, cabbage, peanut, corn, peas, sorghum, tomato, etc.LCB also has a number of weed hosts, such as: nutsedges (Cyperusrotundus), watergrass (Hydrochloacaroliniensis), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), crabgrass (Digitariasanguinalis), wild oats (Avenafatua), Bermudagrass (Cynodondactylon), wiregrass (Aristidastricta), and goosegrass (Eleusineindica) (Isely and Miner 1994, Gardner and All 1982).
  • The cabbage looper feeds on a wide variety of cultivated plants and weeds. As the common name implies, it feeds readily on crucifers, and has been reported damaging broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip, and watercress. Other vegetable crops injured include beet, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, lima bean, lettuce, parsnip, pea, pepper, potato, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, and watermelon. Additional hosts are flower crops such as chrysanthemum, hollyhock, snapdragon, and sweetpea, and field crops such as cotton and tobacco. Surprisingly few common agricultural weeds are frequent hosts; among those that are suitable are lambsquarters, Chenopodium album; wild lettuce, Lactuca spp.; dandelion, Taraxacumofficinale; and curly dock, Rumexcrispus.
  • As the common name implies, it feeds readily on crucifers, and has been reported damaging broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, collards, kale, mustard, radish, rutabaga, turnip, and watercress. Other vegetable crops injured include beet, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, lima bean, lettuce, parsnip, pea, pepper, potato, snap bean, spinach, squash, sweet potato, tomato, and watermelon. Additional hosts are flower crops such as chrysanthemum, hollyhock, snapdragon, and sweetpea, and field crops such as cotton and tobacco. Surprisingly few common agricultural weeds are frequent hosts; among those that are suitable are lambsquarters, Chenopodium album; wild lettuce, Lactuca spp.; dandelion, Taraxacumofficinale; and curly dock, Rumexcrispus.
  • The preferred hosts of the soybean looper are soybean, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, crucifers, pea, tobacco, and cocklebur.
  • The preferred hosts of the soybean looper are soybean, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, crucifers, pea, tobacco, and cocklebur.
  • Transcript

    • 1. AL FOOD & FARM FORUM
      Sustainable Insect Pest Management
      Speaker:
      Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A)
      Extension Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator
      Gulf Coast Research & Extension Center
      8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope, Alabama 36532
      Cell phone: 251-331-8416
      Email: bugdoctor@auburn.edu
    • 2. Presentation Layout
      Extension IPM resources for farmers (IPM-CORE project)
      Ecological Based Pest Management (EBPM) concepts
      USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard
      Insect pest detection and monitoring program
      Sustainable management of critical pests
      Nethouse vegetable production
    • 3. MAJOR VEGETABLE PESTS 2010
    • 4. IPM-CORE PROJECT: Integrate Modern & Traditional Communication Channels To Benefit Producers
      CHECK OUT IPM Kiosk & Display, take handouts, newsletter signup & more
      AT HOME CHECK OUT THE AL Vegetable IPM website & Facebook links
    • 5. THE IPM COMMUNICATOR (FREE electronic newsletter)
      22 contributing authors
      400+ subscribers
      18 Weekly Issues (2010)
      SIGNUP AT THE EXHIBIT TODAY!
    • 6. Join ‘Alabama Vegetable IPM’ on Facebook
    • 7. Organic Approved Insecticides
    • 8. Ecological Based Pest Management
      From Altieri, Nicholls, and Fritz (2005): Manage Insects on Your Farm (SARE)
      Ecologically Based Pest Management System or EBPM incorporates the broad knowledge of the agro-ecosystem to choose pest management tactics that are timely, environmentally friendly and cost-effective.
      Goal of EBPM: Maintain Healthy Plants From Root to Foliage
      ‘Pillars’ of EBPM:
      Crop DiversityReduce Tillage
      RotationsMaintain Soil Cover
      Cover CropsAdd Organic Matter
      Plant BreedingNutrient Management
    • 9. USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard (NOP)
      Level 1: Systems-based practices (cultural practices, sanitation, mulching, crop rotation)
      Level 2: Mechanical and physical practices (barriers, lures/traps, repellents, hand-picking)
      Level 3: Biorational & other material (OMRI approved insecticides)
    • 10. Starting point for EBPM…
      Insect Detection/Identification:
      Use modern insect detection/scouting tools
      INSECT PHEROMONE TRAPS
      Trap Catch = Pest Density X Pest Activity
      Insect Monitoring Project in Alabama, 2009-2010
      Average trap catches in slideshow (June-Sept.)
      Stink bug trap
      Sticky wing trap
      Corn rootworm trap
    • 11. Insect Pheromone Traps for EBPM
      Advantages :
      • Species specific
      • 12. Detect low insect populations
      • 13. Insect ID not needed
      • 14. Nontoxic, no residue on food
      • 15. Season long monitoring , reusable
      • 16. Develop site-specific IPM Action Plan
      It makes sense to use insect traps for knowing what to look for and when!
      Disadvantages:
      • Weather sensitive
      • 17. No information about actual crop injury
      • 18. Scouting is still needed
      • 19. Some traps are expensive
    • Alabama Insect Survey Locations
      Peanut farm
      Vegetable farm
      2010
      (16,588 insects)
      2009
      (8,500 insects)
    • 20. The numbers in slides indicate trap catches from one of more counties within a region. Only the highest AVERAGE trap catches are reported herein for comparison of pest pressures. Trap catch numbers may not be applicable per se to your farm!
    • 21. Summary of Insect Trap Catches
    • 22. What is it?
      Several outbreaks of these insects occurred in AL, 2009 & 2010
      First seen in pastures
      Part of the midseason caterpillar complex
      Control: Grow early crop, control weeds (pigweed, amaranth), spinosad, Bt & Spod-X
    • 23. Beet armyworm (Outbreak!)
      2010
      2009
      13 moths/trap
      10 moths/trap
      11 moths/trap
      21 moths/trap
      46 moths/trap
      53 moths/trap
      53 moths/trap
      55moths/trap
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 24. Fall armyworm (outbreak!)
      2010
      2009
      18 moths/trap
      20moths/trap
      26 moths/trap
      29 moths/trap
      5 moths/trap
      14 moths/trap
      37 moths/trap
      36 moths/trap
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 25. What is it?
      Numerous host plants
      Body color depends on food
      International pest status
      Part of mid-season caterpillar complex
      Control: Grow early crop, use Bt and virus formulations, spinosad
      Microspines below the big hair
    • 26. Tomato fruitworm/Corn earworm
      2010
      2009
      6 moths/trap
      10 moths/trap
      1 moths/trap
      25 moths/trap
      2 moths/trap
      6 moths/trap
      21 moths/trap
      11 moths/trap
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 27. What is it?
      Emerging concern for diversified farms
      Northward migration of moth
      Mixed moth population with fruitworm
      Appears more fuzzy than fruitworm
      Resistant to pyrethroids
      Spinosad and Bt for control
      Microspines numerous
    • 28. Tobacco budworm (spreading north!)
      2010
      2009
      5 moths/trap
      2 moths/trap
      3 moths/trap
      7 moths/trap
      6 moths/trap
      3 moths/trap
      8 moths/trap
      3 moths/trap
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 29. What is it?
      Severe outbreaks reported in 2010
      Larvae live in silken tunnels/tubes
      Worse in south AL, sandy soils
      Threatens corn, beans and peas + peanuts
      Control by crop rotation, varieties
    • 30. Lesser cornstalk borer (outbreak!)
      2010
      2009
      27 moths/trap
      NA
      90 moths/trap
      142 moths/trap
      140 moths/trap
      119 moths/trap
      90 moths/trap
      143 moths/trap
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 31. What is it?
      Body of larva narrow in front, broad at the end
      No microspines, less hairy than other loopers
      Prefers crucifer vegetables, but will feed on summer vegetables
      Late season buildup is most damaging to crops
      Often large fecal pellets seen sticking to the leaves
      Trichogramma parasitoid effective natural enemy
      Bt is an effective alternative insecticide
    • 32. Cabbage looper
      2010
      2009
      6 moths/trap
      5moths/trap
      4 moths/trap
      3 moths/trap
      5 moths/trap
      10 moths/trap
      13 moths/trap
      9 moths/trap
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 33. What is it?
      Caterpillar has black forelegs (not in cabbage looper)
      Spots on body, fuzzy caterpillar in early stages
    • 34. Soybean looper
      2010
      2009
      3 moths/trap
      14 moths/trap
      6 moths/trap
      2 moths/trap
      4 moths/trap
      6 moths/trap
      6 moths/trap
      15 moths/trap
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 35. What is it?
      Prefer cucumber, squash, gourd.
      Larvae overwinter in soil.
      Females lay 150-200 eggs singly.
      Moths are clear-winged with bright red abdomen.
      Row covers & field sanitation are best management tactics.
      Azadirachtin, diatomaceous earth…
    • 36. Squash vine borer (outbreak!)
      2010
      2009
      19 moths/trap
      NA
      6 moths/trap
      NA
      14 moths/trap
      NA
      20 moths/trap
      NA
      Traps placed near vegetable fields
    • 37. Trap & Lure Suppliers
      TRAPS:
      Great Lakes IPM (MI)
      Arbico Organics (AZ)
      Gemplers
      LURES:
      • Great Lakes IPM – ScentryBiologicals (MT) & Trece, Inc. (OK)
      • 38. APTIV, Inc. (OR)
      Stop by the IPM display for a detailed supplier list!
    • 39. Nethouse Vegetable Production
      (A Preliminary Report on Successes and Challenges)
      Photos: Mike Powell, Polyproductosde Guatemala
    • 40. First Nethouse in Alabama (2010)
      Location: Baldwin County, AL
      Dimensions: 150 ft long, 48 ft wide, 17 ft high center, 12 ft high sides
      Entrance: Double door
      Fabric mesh 30-50 as insect barrier.
      Mesh size depends on target insect & cost.
      Height provides air movement, fans can also be installed
    • 41. Soil preparation with conventional equipment before sealing the structure
      Nethouse, 2010
    • 42. Temperature and Humidity Challenge*
      *Year 2010 was an unusually dry and hot year in Alabama which affected plant growth and increased disease pressure under the insect nethouse.
    • 43. Bell peppers were grown with success (Year 1 Research)
      40% black shade cloth for cooling down the interior
    • 44. Does nethouse block insect pests?
      Yes, it does! Below are the pheromone trap catches for some major pests.
      • Only one insecticide spray was needed to control aphid outbreak in nethouse.
      • 45. Armyworm caterpillars (<0.2 larvae/plant) & few stink bugs were removed manually.
      • 46. Bell peppers outsidenethouse were sprayed weekly to control caterpillars & stink bugs.
    • Insect invasions under nethouse!
      Armyworm eggs on fabric
      Armyworm larva
      Ants in doorway
      Aphid and armyworm were noticeable mid-season problems.
      Weed control critical to remove insect hideout places.
      Aphid outbreak on bell pepper
      Grasshopper resting on sidewall
    • 47. Disease Issues in Nethouse (2010)
      Heat stress and diseases like blight & wilt were observes on tomatoes.
      Total exclusion of beneficials & pollinators is also a concern.
      Overall, the nethouse technology can provide major relief from insect pests and reduce dependence on insecticides. However, disease management is very essential.