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IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010
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IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010

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This presentation was delivered on February 20, 2010 at the Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association meeting at Auburn, AL.

This presentation was delivered on February 20, 2010 at the Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association meeting at Auburn, AL.

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  • SL population greater than CL in the deep south.
  • There were at least two generations detected one month apart of BAW in north central AL. Three peaks could be detected one month apart in south AL along the Gulf Coast. Trends were unclear in northern AL.
  • Trends in FAW population were stronger than BAW seen before. FAW pressures were high in all parts of AL. There were at least two generations detected one month apart of FAW in north central AL. Three peaks could be detected one month apart in south AL along the Gulf Coast. Impact of weather parameters was also stronger on FAW populations than BAW.
  • Transcript

    • 1. IPM in Tomatoes, BEANS & Peas, ASPARAGUS
      Dr. Ayanava Majumdar
      Ext. Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator
      Gulf Coast Research & Ext. Center
      8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope AL 36532
      Tel: (251) 331-8416
      bugdoctor@auburn.edu
    • 2. Presentation layout
      Status of IPM in vegetables (AL)
      General listing of insect pests:
      Pest ID
      Insect monitoring/forecasting program
      Insecticidal recommendations*
      Non-insecticidal management of insects
      New insecticidal mode of action
      Extension resources in Alabama
    • 3. General listing of pests
    • 4. Why practice IPM?
      • Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.
      • 5. IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…
      • 6. Loss of tomatoes in the absence of insecticides: 95% (AL)*
      • 7. Nationally, average gain from IPM is $19 for every dollar spent (field crops)*
      • 8. Insecticide use in AL, 1992-2002: asparagus (-30%), green peas (-73%), green beans (-36%), tomatoes (-20%)…
      • 9. Major damage to crop is caused by:
      • 10. Lack of early detection
      • 11. Insecticide resistance
      *L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.
    • 12. Insect monitoring project
      (new in 2009)
      • Use traps for early detection of pests
      • 13. What does trap catch tell you?
      Catch = pop. density x activity
      • Commercial traps/lures used
      • 14. Trapping period: June-October
      • 15. Trapping interval (2009): 14 days
    • Why use pheromone traps?
      Generate information you can use WITHIN SEASON
      Know WHAT to scout for
      Know WHEN to scout
      Automatic identification of insects
      Prediction models will be avail. with more study
      Stink bug trap
      Wing trap
      Pherocon trap
      Bucket trap
    • 16. TOMATO INSECT PESTS
    • 17. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Sample ten plants in several locations
      Yellow sticky traps at edge of field
      Like cool, dry weather
      Watch for ants and lady beetles
      ET = 50% leaves with aphids
      Potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae
      Green peach aphid, Myzuspersicae
    • 18. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)
      Bag and shake technique
      No action threshold
      Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa)
      Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis
      Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca
    • 19. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Monitor level of defoliation
      Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours
      Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net)
      ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 25-30% defoliation mid-season
      Flea beetles (tobacco-Epitrixhertipennis, pale striped, etc.)
    • 20. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Start looking on border rows
      Scout intensely short crop (<6 inch)
      Estimate no. of insects on 10 plants
      ET = 5 beetles per 10 seedling or 10% defoliation in short crop
      Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsadecemlineata
      Larva of lady beetle (beneficial insect!)
    • 21. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Examine green fruit, stem terminals
      Scout for egg masses or larvae
      Use pheromone traps to detect first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is <85F
      ET is ½ if temp. is >85F
      Threat is high if one fruit each plant is damaged
      Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea
      Tobacco budworm, Heliothisvirescens
    • 22. Corn earworm
      Insect density (overall) per site
      6
      3
      17
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      10
      8
      25
      3
      7
      12
      5
      8
      16
      11
      Year 2009
    • 23. Tobacco budworm
      Insect density (overall) per site
      3
      3
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      2
      1
      7
      6
      20
      3
      6
      15
      3
      Year 2009
    • 24. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Minor foliar pest (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)
      Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect
      Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation
      Look for fecal pellets on leaves
      Cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani
      Soybean looper, Pseudoplusiaincludens
    • 25. Cabbage looper
      5
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      3
      3
      10
      2
      3
      12
      9
    • 26. Soybean looper
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      2
      6
      1
      2
      15
      14
    • 27. What is it?
      Southern green stink bug, Nezaraviridula
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Know the good species (next slide)
      Use a sweep net
      Use pheromone trap (expensive?)
      Intensify scouting at fruit setting
      ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage)
      Green stink bug, Acrosternumhilare
      Brown stink bug, Euschistusservus
    • 28. Predacious stink bugs
      • Typically have short beak (plant bugs have long beaks)
      • 29. Abundant in orchards, thick crop canopies, weedy borders
      • 30. Voracious feeders of caterpillars
      • 31. Watch numbers: a sudden increase may indicated pest presence
      SB feeding on armyworm
      Podisusmaculiventris
      Euthyrhynchusfloridanus
      Alcaeorrhynchusgrandis
      Source: R. Mizell, UFL Extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in534
    • 32. BEAN/PEA INSECT PESTS
    • 33. International experience
      India is a major producer of beans in the world. A farm family sorts extra-long green beans in India before sale in market.
    • 34. Uniqueness of Pea/Bean plants
      Produce abundant foliage (30% leaf loss prior to bloom is OK)
      Rapid growing, profusely flowering…attracts many insects
    • 35. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Sample ten plants in several locations
      Yellow sticky traps at edge of field
      Like cool, dry weather
      ET = 50% leaves with aphids
      Potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae
      Green peach aphid, Myzuspersicae
    • 36. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)
      Bag and shake technique
      No action threshold
      Use resistant varieties
      Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis
      Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca
    • 37. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Late planted crop in dry areas!!
      Uproot the plant and look near the soil line
      Look for silken tubes near entrance hole in stem
      Use pheromone traps (strongly recommended)
      Our finding: very high moth activity throughout the southern and central counties
      Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpuslignosellus
    • 38. Why early detection of pests is useful?
      Lesser cornstalk borer in many crops (Clarke, Washington, Escambia Co., Henry Counties)
    • 39. Lesser cornstalk borer
      Insect density (overall) per site
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      142
      119
      76
      46
      77
      116
      143
      Year 2009
    • 40. What is it?
      Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnavarivestis
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Extensive defoliation (ladder form)
      Look for yellow to orange clusters of eggs
      Intensify scouting during June-July
    • 41. What is it?
      Pod damage on soybean
      Bean leaf beetle, Cerotomatrifurcata
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Beetles appear in red or yellow, use sweep net
      Watch for damage on pods
      Round holes on leaves, root damage by larvae
    • 42. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Minor foliar pest (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)
      Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect
      Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation
      Look for fecal pellets on leaves
      Cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani
      Soybean looper, Pseudoplusiaincludens
    • 43. What is it?
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Very destructive on peas (pod damage)
      Check field edges, shelter belts
      Difficult to control insect – timely detection vital
      Cowpea curculio, Chalcodermusaeneus
    • 44. What is it?
      Southern green stink bug, Nezaraviridula
      Monitoring/scouting techniques:
      Direct pod damage – leaves a scar on pods/seed
      Watch for aborted flowers due to injected toxins
      Use a sweep net to estimate populations (ten swings)
      ET = 1 per six feet row (South Carolina)
      Lygus bug, Lyguslineolaris
    • 45. Insect pests of Asparagus
      Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua
      Common asparagus beetle, Criocerisasparagi
      Asparagus aphid, Brachycorynellaasparagi
      Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda
    • 46. Outbreak of armyworms in soybean, peanuts (2009)
    • 47. Beet armyworm
      Insect density (overall) per site
      4
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      10
      27
      21
      19
      33
      25
      25
      8
      49
      36
      Year 2009
    • 48. Fall armyworm
      Insect density (overall) per site
      20
      17
      Monthly average activity (statewide)
      19
      29
      15
      27
      32
      16
      12
      13
      48
      36
      Year 2009
    • 49. Diagnosis of A Pest Problem
      Five steps to be a smart scout
      Step 1. Define the problem (ecosystem approach)
      Step 2. Look for patterns (early detection)
      Step 3. Use recommended scouting procedures (econ. threshold)
      Step 4. Monitor problem development (sample frequently)
      Step 5. Determine causes of injury , insect identification
    • 50. NEW ONLINE RESOURCES
    • 51. IPM COmmunicationREsources
      (IPM-CORE) Project
      Goal: Synchronized rapid IPM information delivery to growers
      • Project archive: www.aces.edu/go/85 or www.aces.edu/go/88
      • 52. “AU Pest Alert” (direct email): May-October
      • 53. Web outreach: Blogs, YouTube, AlabamaCrops.com, AGFAX.COM
      • 54. IPM Hotline (messages): 1-800-446-0375
      • 55. Make sure you see the AL IPM EXHIBIT
      • 56. Timely revisions to Extension bulletins
    • IPM Trapping Coordinators:
      A. Majumdar
      H. Fadamiro
      K. Flanders
      IPM Team Members:
      Lloyd Chapman
      Neil Kelly
      Michael Reeves
      Gary Gray
      James Miles
      William East, Jr.
      Brandon Dillard
      Leonard Kuykendall
      Chris Becker
      Timothy Reed
      Acknowledgements
      Thank you very much.
      Signup for email Pest Alerts in 2010!

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