IPM in Tomatoes, BEANS & Peas, ASPARAGUS<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar<br />Ext. Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator<br />Gul...
Presentation  layout<br />Status of IPM in vegetables (AL)<br />General listing of insect pests:<br />Pest ID<br />Insect ...
General listing of pests<br />
Why practice IPM?<br /><ul><li>Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which lead...
IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…
Loss of tomatoes in the absence of insecticides: 95% (AL)*
Nationally, average gain from IPM is $19 for every dollar spent (field crops)*
Insecticide use in AL, 1992-2002: asparagus (-30%), green peas (-73%), green beans (-36%), tomatoes (-20%)…
Major damage to crop is caused by:
Lack of early detection
Insecticide resistance</li></ul>*L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.<br />
Insect monitoring project<br />(new in 2009)<br /><ul><li>Use traps for early detection of pests
What does trap catch tell you?</li></ul>Catch = pop. density x activity<br /><ul><li> Commercial traps/lures used
 Trapping period: June-October
 Trapping interval (2009): 14 days</li></li></ul><li>Why use pheromone traps?<br />Generate information you can use WITHIN...
TOMATO INSECT PESTS<br />
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Sample ten plants in several locations<br />Yellow sticky traps at e...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)<br />Bag and shake technique<br />No...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Monitor level of defoliation<br />Sample small plants with sweep net...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Start looking on border rows<br />Scout intensely short crop (&lt;6 ...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Examine green fruit, stem terminals<br />Scout for egg masses or lar...
Corn earworm<br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />6<br /> 3<br />17<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />...
Tobacco budworm <br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />3<br />3<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />2<br ...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Minor foliar pest (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)<br />Easy to collect...
Cabbage looper<br />5<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />3<br />3<br />10<br />2<br />3<br />12<br />9<br />
Soybean looper<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />2<br />6<br />1<br />2<br />15<br />14<br />
What is it?<br />Southern green stink bug, Nezaraviridula<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Know the good species ...
Predacious stink bugs <br /><ul><li> Typically have short beak (plant bugs have long beaks)
 Abundant in orchards, thick crop canopies, weedy borders
 Voracious feeders of caterpillars
 Watch numbers: a sudden increase may indicated pest presence</li></ul>SB feeding on armyworm<br />Podisusmaculiventris<br...
BEAN/PEA INSECT PESTS<br />
International experience<br />India is a major producer of beans in the world. A farm family sorts extra-long green beans ...
Uniqueness of Pea/Bean plants<br />Produce abundant foliage (30% leaf loss prior to bloom is OK)<br />Rapid growing, profu...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Sample ten plants in several locations<br />Yellow sticky traps at e...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)<br />Bag and shake technique<br />No...
What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Late planted crop in dry areas!!<br />Uproot the plant and look near...
Why early detection of pests is useful?<br />Lesser cornstalk borer in many crops (Clarke, Washington, Escambia Co., Henry...
Lesser cornstalk borer<br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />142<br />119<...
What is it?<br />Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnavarivestis<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Extensive defoliation ...
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IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010

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This presentation was delivered on February 20, 2010 at the Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association meeting at Auburn, AL.

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  • SL population greater than CL in the deep south.
  • There were at least two generations detected one month apart of BAW in north central AL. Three peaks could be detected one month apart in south AL along the Gulf Coast. Trends were unclear in northern AL.
  • Trends in FAW population were stronger than BAW seen before. FAW pressures were high in all parts of AL. There were at least two generations detected one month apart of FAW in north central AL. Three peaks could be detected one month apart in south AL along the Gulf Coast. Impact of weather parameters was also stronger on FAW populations than BAW.
  • IPM In Tomatoes Peas Beans Asparagus Afvga2010

    1. 1. IPM in Tomatoes, BEANS & Peas, ASPARAGUS<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar<br />Ext. Entomologist, State SARE Coordinator<br />Gulf Coast Research & Ext. Center<br />8300 State Hwy 104, Fairhope AL 36532<br />Tel: (251) 331-8416<br />bugdoctor@auburn.edu<br />
    2. 2. Presentation layout<br />Status of IPM in vegetables (AL)<br />General listing of insect pests:<br />Pest ID<br />Insect monitoring/forecasting program<br />Insecticidal recommendations*<br />Non-insecticidal management of insects<br />New insecticidal mode of action<br />Extension resources in Alabama <br />
    3. 3. General listing of pests<br />
    4. 4. Why practice IPM?<br /><ul><li>Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.
    5. 5. IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…
    6. 6. Loss of tomatoes in the absence of insecticides: 95% (AL)*
    7. 7. Nationally, average gain from IPM is $19 for every dollar spent (field crops)*
    8. 8. Insecticide use in AL, 1992-2002: asparagus (-30%), green peas (-73%), green beans (-36%), tomatoes (-20%)…
    9. 9. Major damage to crop is caused by:
    10. 10. Lack of early detection
    11. 11. Insecticide resistance</li></ul>*L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.<br />
    12. 12. Insect monitoring project<br />(new in 2009)<br /><ul><li>Use traps for early detection of pests
    13. 13. What does trap catch tell you?</li></ul>Catch = pop. density x activity<br /><ul><li> Commercial traps/lures used
    14. 14. Trapping period: June-October
    15. 15. Trapping interval (2009): 14 days</li></li></ul><li>Why use pheromone traps?<br />Generate information you can use WITHIN SEASON<br />Know WHAT to scout for <br />Know WHEN to scout<br />Automatic identification of insects<br />Prediction models will be avail. with more study<br />Stink bug trap<br />Wing trap<br />Pherocon trap<br />Bucket trap<br />
    16. 16. TOMATO INSECT PESTS<br />
    17. 17. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Sample ten plants in several locations<br />Yellow sticky traps at edge of field<br />Like cool, dry weather<br />Watch for ants and lady beetles<br />ET = 50% leaves with aphids<br />Potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae<br />Green peach aphid, Myzuspersicae<br />
    18. 18. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)<br />Bag and shake technique<br />No action threshold<br />Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa) <br />Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis<br />Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca<br />
    19. 19. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Monitor level of defoliation<br />Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours<br />Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net)<br />ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 25-30% defoliation mid-season<br />Flea beetles (tobacco-Epitrixhertipennis, pale striped, etc.)<br />
    20. 20. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Start looking on border rows<br />Scout intensely short crop (&lt;6 inch)<br />Estimate no. of insects on 10 plants<br />ET = 5 beetles per 10 seedling or 10% defoliation in short crop<br />Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsadecemlineata<br />Larva of lady beetle (beneficial insect!)<br />
    21. 21. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Examine green fruit, stem terminals<br />Scout for egg masses or larvae <br />Use pheromone traps to detect first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is &lt;85F<br />ET is ½ if temp. is &gt;85F <br />Threat is high if one fruit each plant is damaged<br />Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea<br />Tobacco budworm, Heliothisvirescens<br />
    22. 22. Corn earworm<br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />6<br /> 3<br />17<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />10<br />8<br />25<br />3<br /> 7<br />12<br />5<br />8<br />16<br />11<br />Year 2009<br />
    23. 23. Tobacco budworm <br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />3<br />3<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />2<br />1<br />7<br />6<br />20<br /> 3<br /> 6<br />15<br /> 3<br />Year 2009<br />
    24. 24. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Minor foliar pest (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)<br />Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect<br />Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation<br />Look for fecal pellets on leaves<br />Cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani<br />Soybean looper, Pseudoplusiaincludens<br />
    25. 25. Cabbage looper<br />5<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />3<br />3<br />10<br />2<br />3<br />12<br />9<br />
    26. 26. Soybean looper<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />2<br />6<br />1<br />2<br />15<br />14<br />
    27. 27. What is it?<br />Southern green stink bug, Nezaraviridula<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Know the good species (next slide)<br />Use a sweep net<br />Use pheromone trap (expensive?)<br />Intensify scouting at fruit setting<br />ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage) <br />Green stink bug, Acrosternumhilare<br />Brown stink bug, Euschistusservus<br />
    28. 28. Predacious stink bugs <br /><ul><li> Typically have short beak (plant bugs have long beaks)
    29. 29. Abundant in orchards, thick crop canopies, weedy borders
    30. 30. Voracious feeders of caterpillars
    31. 31. Watch numbers: a sudden increase may indicated pest presence</li></ul>SB feeding on armyworm<br />Podisusmaculiventris<br />Euthyrhynchusfloridanus<br />Alcaeorrhynchusgrandis<br />Source: R. Mizell, UFL Extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in534<br />
    32. 32. BEAN/PEA INSECT PESTS<br />
    33. 33. International experience<br />India is a major producer of beans in the world. A farm family sorts extra-long green beans in India before sale in market. <br />
    34. 34. Uniqueness of Pea/Bean plants<br />Produce abundant foliage (30% leaf loss prior to bloom is OK)<br />Rapid growing, profusely flowering…attracts many insects<br />
    35. 35. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Sample ten plants in several locations<br />Yellow sticky traps at edge of field<br />Like cool, dry weather<br />ET = 50% leaves with aphids<br />Potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae<br />Green peach aphid, Myzuspersicae<br />
    36. 36. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Use sticky cards (yellow, blue)<br />Bag and shake technique<br />No action threshold<br />Use resistant varieties <br />Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis<br />Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca<br />
    37. 37. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Late planted crop in dry areas!!<br />Uproot the plant and look near the soil line<br />Look for silken tubes near entrance hole in stem<br />Use pheromone traps (strongly recommended)<br />Our finding: very high moth activity throughout the southern and central counties<br />Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpuslignosellus<br />
    38. 38. Why early detection of pests is useful?<br />Lesser cornstalk borer in many crops (Clarke, Washington, Escambia Co., Henry Counties)<br />
    39. 39. Lesser cornstalk borer<br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />142<br />119<br />76<br />46<br />77<br />116<br />143<br />Year 2009<br />
    40. 40. What is it?<br />Mexican bean beetle, Epilachnavarivestis<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Extensive defoliation (ladder form)<br />Look for yellow to orange clusters of eggs<br />Intensify scouting during June-July<br />
    41. 41. What is it?<br />Pod damage on soybean<br />Bean leaf beetle, Cerotomatrifurcata<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Beetles appear in red or yellow, use sweep net<br />Watch for damage on pods<br />Round holes on leaves, root damage by larvae<br />
    42. 42. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Minor foliar pest (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants)<br />Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect<br />Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation<br />Look for fecal pellets on leaves<br />Cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani<br />Soybean looper, Pseudoplusiaincludens<br />
    43. 43. What is it?<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Very destructive on peas (pod damage)<br />Check field edges, shelter belts<br />Difficult to control insect – timely detection vital<br />Cowpea curculio, Chalcodermusaeneus<br />
    44. 44. What is it?<br />Southern green stink bug, Nezaraviridula<br />Monitoring/scouting techniques:<br />Direct pod damage – leaves a scar on pods/seed<br />Watch for aborted flowers due to injected toxins<br />Use a sweep net to estimate populations (ten swings)<br />ET = 1 per six feet row (South Carolina)<br />Lygus bug, Lyguslineolaris<br />
    45. 45. Insect pests of Asparagus<br />Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua<br />Common asparagus beetle, Criocerisasparagi<br />Asparagus aphid, Brachycorynellaasparagi<br />Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda<br />
    46. 46. Outbreak of armyworms in soybean, peanuts (2009)<br />
    47. 47. Beet armyworm<br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />4<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />10<br />27<br />21<br />19<br />33<br />25<br />25<br />8<br />49<br />36<br />Year 2009<br />
    48. 48. Fall armyworm <br />Insect density (overall) per site<br />20<br />17<br />Monthly average activity (statewide)<br />19<br />29<br />15<br />27<br />32<br />16<br />12<br />13<br />48<br />36<br />Year 2009<br />
    49. 49. Diagnosis of A Pest Problem<br />Five steps to be a smart scout<br />Step 1. Define the problem (ecosystem approach)<br />Step 2. Look for patterns (early detection)<br />Step 3. Use recommended scouting procedures (econ. threshold)<br />Step 4. Monitor problem development (sample frequently)<br />Step 5. Determine causes of injury , insect identification<br />
    50. 50. NEW ONLINE RESOURCES<br />
    51. 51. IPM COmmunicationREsources<br />(IPM-CORE) Project<br />Goal: Synchronized rapid IPM information delivery to growers<br /><ul><li>Project archive: www.aces.edu/go/85 or www.aces.edu/go/88
    52. 52. “AU Pest Alert” (direct email): May-October
    53. 53. Web outreach: Blogs, YouTube, AlabamaCrops.com, AGFAX.COM
    54. 54. IPM Hotline (messages): 1-800-446-0375
    55. 55. Make sure you see the AL IPM EXHIBIT
    56. 56. Timely revisions to Extension bulletins</li></li></ul><li>IPM Trapping Coordinators: <br />A. Majumdar<br />H. Fadamiro<br />K. Flanders<br />IPM Team Members:<br />Lloyd Chapman<br />Neil Kelly<br />Michael Reeves<br />Gary Gray<br />James Miles<br />William East, Jr.<br />Brandon Dillard<br />Leonard Kuykendall<br />Chris Becker<br />Timothy Reed<br />Acknowledgements<br />Thank you very much.<br />Signup for email Pest Alerts in 2010!<br />
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