Insecticides for Vegetable Production 2011


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This presentation was delivered by Dr. A at the 2011 Annual Conference of the Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Association, Auburn, AL (USA).

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  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Methyl parathion use cancelled in May 2010 and existing stocks can be used till 2013. In May 2010, cucurbit yellow vine decline (caused by Serratiamarcescens, transmitted by squash bugs) was found in AL – symptoms look like bacterial wilt. Endosulfan (Gr 2 insecticide) was cancelled by EPA in June 2010. Temik was cancelled by EPA in August 2010 and all use must cease after December 31, 2010.
  • Insecticides for Vegetable Production 2011

    1. 1. Mode of Action of Insecticides (Vegetable Crops)<br />Dr. Ayanava Majumdar<br />Extension Entomologist (Peanuts, Vegetables)<br />State SARE Coordinator (Auburn U)<br />Alabama Cooperative Extension System<br />Cell phone: 251-331-8416<br /><br />
    2. 2. Quick survey by a raise of hands…<br />How many participants…<br />Were here last year?<br />Conventional vegetable/fruit producers? <br />Organic vegetable/fruit producers?<br />Backyard fruit/vegetable gardeners?<br />
    3. 3. Alabama Vegetable Entomology Website<br /><br />ONE-STOP-SHOP for vegetable IPM: ACES Publications, Research Projects, Slideshare, Facebook, YouTube <br />
    4. 4. Join us on Facebook!<br />Advantages: Live updates from field, access to videos and website, discussion of timely topics, interactive<br />
    5. 5. The IPM Communicator(A FREE electronic newsletter)<br />Six financial gains reports: $3,550 in pesticide saving<br />Sign up today at the Exhibit for 2011 series starting soon!<br />
    6. 6. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli<br />Colorado potato beetle<br />Leptinotarsadecemlineata<br />Grasshopper<br />Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus<br />Tomato hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata<br />Aphid outbreak on bell pepper<br />
    7. 7. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua<br />Spider mites (Tetranychus sp.) <br />Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda<br />Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea<br />
    8. 8. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)<br />Squash vine borer, Mellitiacucurbitae<br />Sugarcane borer, Euetheolarugiceps<br />Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata<br />
    9. 9. Emerging Pest on Vegetables: Leaffooted Bugs<br />Leptoglossusgonagra<br />Leptoglossusphyllopus<br />Heavy fruit drop in eggplants and tomatoes (LFBs)<br />Leptoglossuszonatus<br />
    10. 10. Emerging Crop Pests: Invasive Insects<br />Brown marmorated stink bug, Hyalomorphahalys<br />Bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria<br />Detected in AL in 2010<br />Seeks shelter in homes<br />Infests kudzu, soybean…what’s next?<br />UGA Photos<br />
    11. 11. Why practice IPM?<br /><ul><li> Economic & environmental sustainability principle
    12. 12. Integrated pest management (IPM): a threshold-based decision management system that uses multiple pest control tactics.
    13. 13. Impact of vegetable IPM adoption: $19 return per $ spent*
    14. 14. Profits with IPM: $247 per acre (ACES survey)</li></ul>Insecticide usage in AL (all crops): ~770,000 lb/year<br />*L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.<br />
    15. 15. Major Issues with IPM<br /><ul><li>Poor crop selection = stressed plants = more pests
    16. 16. Lack of early detection of insects = last minute decision = over dependence on insecticides
    17. 17. Insecticide resistance
    18. 18. Pest resurgence
    19. 19. Environmental impact</li></ul>….IPM is unsustainable if it is ‘pesticide intensive’<br />Knowledge of insecticide MoA essential to successful IPM adoption!<br />
    20. 20. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA)<br />Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC): 28 MoA classification<br />Sensory neuron<br />Inhibit enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitter<br />Flow of info<br />Carbamates, OP (act in the synaptic gap) <br />Cyclodienes, Pyrethroids (act on receiving neuron)<br />Neonicotinoids, Spinosyn (mimic neurotransmitter)<br />Receiving neuron<br />
    21. 21. Trends in synthetic insecticidal chemistries<br />Early insecticides were short chain>>quick activation<br />New insecticides: need “activation” by insect enzyme systems (target-specific)<br />Malathion<br />Carbaryl<br />Spinetoram<br />Chlorantraniliprole<br />Zeta-cypermethrin<br />Imidacloprid<br />
    22. 22. Review of Insecticides/MoA(Open page 182 of Veg. Prod. Handbook)<br />Mode of Action<br />St = Stomach poison<br />Co = Contact poison<br />Sys = Systemic action<br />In = Insecticide<br />Mi = Miticide<br />Insecticide arrangementon slides: Least toxic to most toxic AI<br />Make sure to read PESTICIDE LABEL before using!<br />
    23. 23. IRAC Chemical class: 1A (Carbamates) <br />MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcitesinsects, nonselective<br />
    24. 24. IRAC Chemical class: 1B (Organophosphates) <br />MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insects<br />
    25. 25. IRAC Chemical class: 2A (Cyclodienes) <br />MoA: Block the action of neurotransmitter, hyperactivity<br />CANCELLED IN JULY 2010<br />
    26. 26. IRAC Chemical class: 3A (Pyrethroids) <br />MoA: Act on sodium channels (receiving neuron)<br />Contact/stomach: use for quick knock-down, nonselective<br />
    27. 27. IRAC Chemical class: 4A (Neonicotinoids) <br />MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter at neuromuscular joints, hyperactivity <br />Systemic action: many weeks of protection against pests, apply early<br />
    28. 28. IRAC Chemical class: 5A(spinosyn) <br />MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcitesinsects<br />Spinetoram (Radiant 1SC):<br /><ul><li> Microbial fermentation derivate
    29. 29. Application rate = 6-8 oz
    30. 30. Preharvest interval (PHI) = 1-3 days
    31. 31. Registered for many leafy veg., fruit crops, root crops…</li></ul>Entrust: excellent for ORGANIC producers<br />
    32. 32. IRAC Chemical class: 9 (new chemistry)<br />MoA: Unknown; selective homopteran feeding blockers<br />Fulfill 50WDG (Syngenta):<br /><ul><li> Selective insecticide for aphid control
    33. 33. Good residual, rainfast
    34. 34. Application rates low: 2-2.8 oz/acre
    35. 35. PHI = 0 days</li></li></ul><li>IRAC Chemical class: 28 (new chemistry - diamides)<br />MoA: Ryanodine receptor modulators (acts inside muscles)<br />Diamides:<br /><ul><li> Rapid inhibition of feeding, paralysis
    36. 36. Selective + contact/stomach action
    37. 37. No aphid or mite flaring
    38. 38. Appl. rate = 3-5 oz (Coragen), 2-3 oz (Synapse)
    39. 39. 1 day PHI</li></li></ul><li>Growth Regulators<br />IRAC Chemical class: 7C, 16, 17, 18<br />Growth regulators:<br /><ul><li>Methoxyfenozide forces molting, long-lasting, 4-10 oz, 1 day PHI
    40. 40. Buprofezin inhibits chitin biosynthesis (homopteran), 9-13 oz, 7 day PHI
    41. 41. Pyriproxifen mimics juvenile hormone (homop.), 8-10 oz, 14 day PHI</li></li></ul><li>Suggestions<br />Use pheromone traps (first detection is important)<br />No substitute for scouting!<br />Insecticides for rescue treatments only<br /><ul><li>Careful with insecticide generics (phytotoxicity)
    42. 42. Integrate using newer insecticides (IPM):
    43. 43. Diamides with drip irrigation
    44. 44. Rotate pyrethroids with spinosyns, IGRs
    45. 45. Apply systemic insecticides timely
    46. 46. Use the SE Vegetable Prod. Handbook & call for help!
    47. 47. Come to the Regional Ext., ASAN meetings</li></li></ul><li>Mode of Action of Insecticides (Vegetable Crops)<br />QUESTIONS FOR DR. A?<br />Return feedback surveys before you go home!<br />