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Insecticides for Vegetable Production 2011

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This presentation was delivered by Dr. A at the 2011 Annual Conference of the Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Association, Auburn, AL (USA).

This presentation was delivered by Dr. A at the 2011 Annual Conference of the Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Association, Auburn, AL (USA).

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  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Bean plataspid was first detected in Georgia in October, 2009. In October 2010, the insect was first found in Cleburne County, AL.
  • Methyl parathion use cancelled in May 2010 and existing stocks can be used till 2013. In May 2010, cucurbit yellow vine decline (caused by Serratiamarcescens, transmitted by squash bugs) was found in AL – symptoms look like bacterial wilt. Endosulfan (Gr 2 insecticide) was cancelled by EPA in June 2010. Temik was cancelled by EPA in August 2010 and all use must cease after December 31, 2010.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Mode of Action of Insecticides (Vegetable Crops)
      Dr. Ayanava Majumdar
      Extension Entomologist (Peanuts, Vegetables)
      State SARE Coordinator (Auburn U)
      Alabama Cooperative Extension System
      Cell phone: 251-331-8416
      bugdoctor@auburn.edu
    • 2. Quick survey by a raise of hands…
      How many participants…
      Were here last year?
      Conventional vegetable/fruit producers?
      Organic vegetable/fruit producers?
      Backyard fruit/vegetable gardeners?
    • 3. Alabama Vegetable Entomology Website
      www.aces.edu/go/87
      ONE-STOP-SHOP for vegetable IPM: ACES Publications, Research Projects, Slideshare, Facebook, YouTube
    • 4. Join us on Facebook!
      Advantages: Live updates from field, access to videos and website, discussion of timely topics, interactive
    • 5. The IPM Communicator(A FREE electronic newsletter)
      Six financial gains reports: $3,550 in pesticide saving
      Sign up today at the Exhibit for 2011 series starting soon!
    • 6. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
      Yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli
      Colorado potato beetle
      Leptinotarsadecemlineata
      Grasshopper
      Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus
      Tomato hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata
      Aphid outbreak on bell pepper
    • 7. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
      Beet armyworm, Spodopteraexigua
      Spider mites (Tetranychus sp.)
      Fall armyworm, Spodopterafrugiperda
      Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpazea
    • 8. Major Insect Pests – Sentinel Plots (2010 - A drought year)
      Squash vine borer, Mellitiacucurbitae
      Sugarcane borer, Euetheolarugiceps
      Tomato hornworm, Manducaquinquemaculata
    • 9. Emerging Pest on Vegetables: Leaffooted Bugs
      Leptoglossusgonagra
      Leptoglossusphyllopus
      Heavy fruit drop in eggplants and tomatoes (LFBs)
      Leptoglossuszonatus
    • 10. Emerging Crop Pests: Invasive Insects
      Brown marmorated stink bug, Hyalomorphahalys
      Bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria
      Detected in AL in 2010
      Seeks shelter in homes
      Infests kudzu, soybean…what’s next?
      UGA Photos
    • 11. Why practice IPM?
      • Economic & environmental sustainability principle
      • 12. Integrated pest management (IPM): a threshold-based decision management system that uses multiple pest control tactics.
      • 13. Impact of vegetable IPM adoption: $19 return per $ spent*
      • 14. Profits with IPM: $247 per acre (ACES survey)
      Insecticide usage in AL (all crops): ~770,000 lb/year
      *L. Gianessi, 2009. Crop Protection Research Institute.
    • 15. Major Issues with IPM
      • Poor crop selection = stressed plants = more pests
      • 16. Lack of early detection of insects = last minute decision = over dependence on insecticides
      • 17. Insecticide resistance
      • 18. Pest resurgence
      • 19. Environmental impact
      ….IPM is unsustainable if it is ‘pesticide intensive’
      Knowledge of insecticide MoA essential to successful IPM adoption!
    • 20. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA)
      Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC): 28 MoA classification
      Sensory neuron
      Inhibit enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitter
      Flow of info
      Carbamates, OP (act in the synaptic gap)
      Cyclodienes, Pyrethroids (act on receiving neuron)
      Neonicotinoids, Spinosyn (mimic neurotransmitter)
      Receiving neuron
    • 21. Trends in synthetic insecticidal chemistries
      Early insecticides were short chain>>quick activation
      New insecticides: need “activation” by insect enzyme systems (target-specific)
      Malathion
      Carbaryl
      Spinetoram
      Chlorantraniliprole
      Zeta-cypermethrin
      Imidacloprid
    • 22. Review of Insecticides/MoA(Open page 182 of Veg. Prod. Handbook)
      Mode of Action
      St = Stomach poison
      Co = Contact poison
      Sys = Systemic action
      In = Insecticide
      Mi = Miticide
      Insecticide arrangementon slides: Least toxic to most toxic AI
      Make sure to read PESTICIDE LABEL before using!
    • 23. IRAC Chemical class: 1A (Carbamates)
      MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcitesinsects, nonselective
    • 24. IRAC Chemical class: 1B (Organophosphates)
      MoA: inhibitor of enzyme (AChE), hyperexcites insects
    • 25. IRAC Chemical class: 2A (Cyclodienes)
      MoA: Block the action of neurotransmitter, hyperactivity
      CANCELLED IN JULY 2010
    • 26. IRAC Chemical class: 3A (Pyrethroids)
      MoA: Act on sodium channels (receiving neuron)
      Contact/stomach: use for quick knock-down, nonselective
    • 27. IRAC Chemical class: 4A (Neonicotinoids)
      MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter at neuromuscular joints, hyperactivity
      Systemic action: many weeks of protection against pests, apply early
    • 28. IRAC Chemical class: 5A(spinosyn)
      MoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcitesinsects
      Spinetoram (Radiant 1SC):
      • Microbial fermentation derivate
      • 29. Application rate = 6-8 oz
      • 30. Preharvest interval (PHI) = 1-3 days
      • 31. Registered for many leafy veg., fruit crops, root crops…
      Entrust: excellent for ORGANIC producers
    • 32. IRAC Chemical class: 9 (new chemistry)
      MoA: Unknown; selective homopteran feeding blockers
      Fulfill 50WDG (Syngenta):
      • Selective insecticide for aphid control
      • 33. Good residual, rainfast
      • 34. Application rates low: 2-2.8 oz/acre
      • 35. PHI = 0 days
    • IRAC Chemical class: 28 (new chemistry - diamides)
      MoA: Ryanodine receptor modulators (acts inside muscles)
      Diamides:
      • Rapid inhibition of feeding, paralysis
      • 36. Selective + contact/stomach action
      • 37. No aphid or mite flaring
      • 38. Appl. rate = 3-5 oz (Coragen), 2-3 oz (Synapse)
      • 39. 1 day PHI
    • Growth Regulators
      IRAC Chemical class: 7C, 16, 17, 18
      Growth regulators:
      • Methoxyfenozide forces molting, long-lasting, 4-10 oz, 1 day PHI
      • 40. Buprofezin inhibits chitin biosynthesis (homopteran), 9-13 oz, 7 day PHI
      • 41. Pyriproxifen mimics juvenile hormone (homop.), 8-10 oz, 14 day PHI
    • Suggestions
      Use pheromone traps (first detection is important)
      No substitute for scouting!
      Insecticides for rescue treatments only
      • Careful with insecticide generics (phytotoxicity)
      • 42. Integrate using newer insecticides (IPM):
      • 43. Diamides with drip irrigation
      • 44. Rotate pyrethroids with spinosyns, IGRs
      • 45. Apply systemic insecticides timely
      • 46. Use the SE Vegetable Prod. Handbook & call for help!
      • 47. Come to the Regional Ext., ASAN meetings
    • Mode of Action of Insecticides (Vegetable Crops)
      QUESTIONS FOR DR. A?
      Return feedback surveys before you go home!