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Hoophouse IPM workshop - Epes 2011


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This presentation was delivered by Dr. Majumdar to over 40 hoop house (organic) farmers at a meeting organized by the Federation of Southern Cooperatives (Epes, AL). Future workshops will have more …

This presentation was delivered by Dr. Majumdar to over 40 hoop house (organic) farmers at a meeting organized by the Federation of Southern Cooperatives (Epes, AL). Future workshops will have more indepth information about insects lifecycles and organic control methods suitable for hoop house agriculture.

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  • 1. Integrated Pest Management in the Hoop House Epes, AL, November 4, 2011 Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist (Peanuts, Vegetables) State SARE Coordinator (Auburn U) Alabama Cooperative Extension System Cell phone: 251-331-8416 Email:
  • 2. After this presentation, you will know…• What is IPM?• Insect management challenges• Basic insect identification skills• Management techniques – botanicals, natural enemies (predators, parasitoids)• Product sources (handouts)• Extension resources for farmers Reminder: SARE Producer Grants close November 15th, 2011
  • 3. Alabama SARE Website
  • 4. Join Vegetable IPM on Facebook! Advantages: Live updates,chat with researchers, videos and photos, IPM contest
  • 5. The IPM Communicator(A FREE electronic newsletter) To signup: Email Or sign up today on the sheet provided!
  • 6. YouTube Channel: ‘IPMNews’ Recorded Live in Field!
  • 7. Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES)
  • 8. Why are INSECTS so abundant?• Small size, cryptic in nature• Small food requirement• Rapid and prolific reproduction – Parthenogenesis• Grows by molting (control over growth rate)• Life stages feed on different substrate Pest: Organism that harm human beings or their property. Loss is economic & measurable.
  • 9. What is IPM?Integrated Pest Management or IPM is an economicallyfeasible, environmentally friendly and socially responsible wayof farming.Goal is to incorporatecultural, mechanical, natural, biological, chemical, microbial, and botanical pest control tactics.Goal is to apply interventions using decision making tools soless insecticides are used.
  • 10. Why use IPM?Hoop house (protected agriculture) farmers can use IPM to…• Diversify pest control options• Timely pest control• Account for natural enemy activity• Increase sustainability of the farming operation
  • 11. Why use IPM?Be careful onhow youinterpret IPMreports fromother states. Pest pressures are much higher in Alabama compared to Michigan, so investment in pest management under hoop house may also change! Ref.: Waldman et al. (2010). Hoophouse farming startup: Economics, efforts, and experiences of 12 novice hoophouse farmers. Extension bulletin 3318. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
  • 12. Hoop House MicroenvironmentPassive ventilationWhat it means?• Natural air movement in high tunnels• Air movement dependent on structure and plant arrangement• Pockets of high humidity, temp.Impact on insect pests:• Aphid & whiteflies prefer humidity• Hot-spots of insect activity• Heat stressed plants are more susceptible to pests
  • 13. Hoop House MicroenvironmentRainfall exclusionWhat it means?• Plastic cover prevents rainfall• Irrigation is a must• Wide soil moisture variations under canopyImpact on insect pests:• Rainfall disturbs insects physically• Various pathogens kill insects• Above phenomena do not occur!• Soil insects move between Aphids affected by a fungus moisture zones (Image: UC IPM Program)
  • 14. Hoop House MicroenvironmentPlanting density/Crop diversityWhat it means?• Insects hide well in plant mixes• Plenty of food (host plants)• Pockets of humidityImpact on insect pests:• Continuous migration between plants• Rapid population growth• Limitation on the use of insecticides (read the label)
  • 15. First step to IPM adoption Objectives: Early detection + Identification = Timely controlUse insect pest monitoring systems– PHEROMONE TRAPS for mothsEasy & fun for the family!Use trap crops for scouting. Wing pheromone trap Pheromone trap in trap crop
  • 16. Can synthetic chemical insecticides be used under hoop house?• No standards for hoop house on chemical insecticide labels• No testing of chemicals in hoop house conditions• Small size of hoop house operators limits expensesYOU MAY USE HOME GARDEN CHEMICALS, BUT…• Synthetic chemicals would persist longer• Chemicals could harm the structure• Drift of chemicals & high temps could injure plants• May discourage buildup of beneficial insects USE ALTERNATIVE INSECTICIDES & BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS!
  • 18. Aphids (insects with tailpipes)• First invaders of crop in hoop house• Have piercing-sucking mouthparts• Parthenogenetic reproduction• Transmit viruses (CMV), sooty mold• Monitor using stick yellow cards Melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Image: UFL• Use indicator plants (trap crops) Sooty mold Potato aphid, Myzus persicae Green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Image: UFL Image: UFL
  • 19. Aphid Control under Hoop Houses• Predators: – Lady beetles ($17 for 1500 adults) – Lacewings ($13 for 1000 eggs) – Syrphid larvae• Greenhouses: Predatory midges (Aphidoletes aphidimyza) – inundative Lacewing larva approach, $67 for 1000 pupae• Host-specific parasitoids: Parasitic wasp, Aphelinus ($69 for 250 mummies) – augment each year Predatory midge• Organic: insecticidal soap, oils, Mycotrol-O (Beauveria)• Treat lower leaf surfaces! Parasitic wasp (Aphelinus)
  • 20. Whiteflies (insects without tailpipes)• Have piercing-sucking mouthparts• All life stages feed on plant sap• All life stages can transmit viruses (lettuce infectious yellow)• Tough to identify in field unless Greenhouse whitefly, collected in vials Trialeurodes vaporariorum• Produce honey dew, cause sooty mold (like aphids), leaf distortion• Monitor using yellow sticky cards Silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
  • 21. Whitefly Control under Hoop Houses• Predators: Lady beetles• Host-specific parasitoids: – Parasitic wasp, Encarsia formosa - $13-24 for 1000 eggs, 3000 weekly dosage per acre, each adult can kill 100+ WF per week – Parasitic wasp, Eretmocerus eremicus, $52 for 3000 eggs – Augmentative release every year• Organic: insecticidal Parasitic wasp, Encarsia formosa soap, oils, Mycotrol-O (Beauveria), pyrethrin, neem
  • 22. Thrips (insects with bristly wings)• Elongate insects, 0.02-0.05 inch• Have rasping-sucking mouthparts• All life stages feed on plant sap• All life stages can transmit viruses (spotted wilt virus) Greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis• Cause leaf distortion & bronzing, scratch marks• Monitor using blue sticky cards>>>Western flower thrips,Frankliniella occidentalis
  • 23. Thrips Control under Hoop Houses• Predators: – Lady beetles, $8 for 1500 – Minute pirate bugs, 1000-2000 per acre, $127 for 1000…VERY EFFECTIVE!!• Trap and kill using sticky cards Lady beetles,• Organic: insecticidal Hippodamia convergence soap, Mycotrol-O (Beauveria), sulfur, diatomeous earth, spinosyn (ENTRUST) Minute pirate bug, Orius sp.
  • 24. Mites (not insects)• Closely related to spiders, often microscopic in size• Produce fine silk webbing underside of leaves• Damage plant cells during feeding, cause severe structural Two spotted spider mite, abnormalities, bronzing of leaves Tetranychus urticae• Worse in dry years (starts from a hot- spot)• Dry leaves & high temps under hoop house ideal conditions for outbreak• Watch for early signs of crop injury, reduce plant stress.
  • 25. Mite Control under Hoop Houses• Reduce plant stress, do not mow grass close to crops• Predatory mites: • Galendromus occidentalis: feed on two spotted spider mites, eriophid mites (eggs, nymphs); prefers warm weather (80F) and moderate humidity (40-50%); 5000 mites/acre or higher. $29 for 1000 mites. • Mesoseiulus longipes: feed on all stages of pest mites and prefers low moisture conditions. Can survive high temps (100F) if humidity is high. $53 for 1000 mites.• Organic management: Spot treatment with insecticidal oil or soap, neem-based products (azadirachtin), sulfur (watch for leaf burn)
  • 26. Managing soil insect pests• Larvae in soil: Japanese beetle, squash vine borer, cutworms, maggots, Colorado potato beetle,• Use raised bed and replace soil• Solarize soil with plastic• Sample soil in beds before, during and after season; identify insects correctly• Control: • Nematode products: Nemaseek (Heterorhabtidis) for untilled soil; $20- 50 depending on garden or farm size • Steinernema for disturbed soils
  • 27. ROTATE – ROTATE – ROTATE Use Extension IPM publications to find different pesticide classes and rotate application.
  • 28. Organic insecticide research– Insecticide rotation for resistance management Good rotation partners
  • 29. Organic pesticide/naturalenemies/traps suppliers Small purchases: • Arbico Organics • Biocontrol Network • Great Lakes IPM • Large purchases: • BioWorks, Inc. • Novozymes Biologicals • Koppert Biological Systems • Syngenta – Bioline
  • 30. Integrated Pest Management in the Hoop House Dr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A) QUESTIONS?