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High tunnel Insect Pest Management (2013 version)
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High tunnel Insect Pest Management (2013 version)

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This presentation was developed for high tunnel crop producers who are regularly plagued by many chewing and sucking insect pests. This presentation ends with a brief discussion of organic …

This presentation was developed for high tunnel crop producers who are regularly plagued by many chewing and sucking insect pests. This presentation ends with a brief discussion of organic insecticides and other pest management methods. For questions, call 251-331-8416 or contact the county Extension office in your state.

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  • Injury is the effect of insect on plant.
  • Cucumber mosaic virus: >60 aphid species are capable of transmitting CMV in nonpersistent virus – virus is acquired within 1 min of feeding but can be transmitted within a short duration of time (stylet-borne inoculum)Potato virus Y: aphids can acquire the virus in less than a minute and has to be transported very quickly to a healthy plant in a minute or so. Aphids may retain the virus for 24 h.
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    • 1. Organic Integrated PestManagementDr. Ayanava Majumdar (Dr. A)Ext. Entomologist &State SARE CoordinatorAuburn, AL 36849Tel: (251) 331-8416bugdoctor@auburn.eduHT Training Workshops, AL, 2013
    • 2. EXTENSION RESOURCES
    • 3. ACES Commercial Horticulture Team –Vegetable IPM Team Members
    • 4. ACES Home Grounds Team – Vegetable IPMTeam MembersChris Becker, REA Willie Datcher, REA Mike McQueen, REAAlfred Jackson, Tuskegee Univ. Extension
    • 5. Publications• Promotional materials (bookmarks)• Extension bulletins (packets)• Websites: www.aces.edu/go/87• Alabama SARE Website• IPM newsletter (weekly email)
    • 6. • Small size• Small food requirement• Rapid and prolific reproduction– Parthenogenesis• Grow by molting (control overgrowth rate)• Life stages feed on differentsubstrateWhy are INSECTS so successful?
    • 7. Why are INSECTS so successful?
    • 8. High Tunnel Environment• It gets hot & humid (PASSIVE VENTILATION)• It is very dry on leaf surface (NO RAINFALL)• High planting density & diversity (HOST PLANTS)• Bottom line 1: Prevention is better than cure!• Bottom line 2: Manage insects when they aresmall!
    • 9. Types of Plant Injury byinsects
    • 10. First know the definitions…INJURYDAMAGEDamage = injury + economic loss
    • 11. Plant injury by INSECTS• Direct injury caused by feeding:chewing mouthparts VS. suckingmouth parts
    • 12. • Direct injury caused during oviposition: dimpling ontomato by thrips egg-layingImage: UFL IFAS Ext.Image: UFL IFAS Ext.Plant injury by INSECTS
    • 13. • Indirect injury from insect products: honeydewcauses sooty mold (aphids, whiteflies)Image: TopTurf.netImage: Iowa StatePlant injury by INSECTS
    • 14. • Injury from disease transmission: aphids, thripsTransmit cucumber mosaicvirus (CMV), potato virus Y(PVY)Transmit tomato spottedwilt virus (TSWV)Images: U Wisconsin & Queensland Govt., AustraliaPlant injury by INSECTS
    • 15. Integrated Pest ManagementTactics(Organic farming)
    • 16. What is IPM?• “Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold baseddecision management system which leads to judicious useof multiple pest control tactics.”• IPM is currently insecticide-intensive…• Major losses occur due to:• Lack of early detection of insects• Insecticide resistance by misuse• Loss of natural control with insecticides
    • 17. Decision making in organic IPM…• Insect detection & monitoring• Insect identification• Population pressure• Economic threshold• Make treatment decision >>> 3-tieredapproach
    • 18. USDA Crop Pest ManagementPractice StandardOrganic Food Production Act - 1990National Organic Program(NOP)7CFR Section 205Ref.: OIA North America, Gainesville, FLPrimary focus to prevent insect pests, weeds, & diseases.
    • 19. USDA National Organic Program Standards(applicable in gardening situation also!)• Level 1: Systems-based practices (culturalpractices, sanitation, crop rotation, trap crops*)• Level 2: Mechanical and physical practices(barriers, lures/traps, repellents, hand-picking, nethouse*)• Level 3: Biorational & other material (OMRIapproved insecticides)*Discussed later in this presentation
    • 20. Starting Point for IPM…• Emphasis on Pest Detection & Correct Identification:– INSECT PHEROMONE TRAPS for improved scouting– Trap Catch = Pest Density X Pest Activity (Taylor, 1963)– Insect Monitoring Project in Alabama, 2009-2010Corn rootworm trapSticky wing trapStink bug trap
    • 21. Beet armyworm2010 200913 moths/trap11 moths/trap53 moths/trap46 moths/trapTraps placed near vegetable fields10 moths/trap21 moths/trap55moths/trap53 moths/trap
    • 22. Tomato Fruitworm2010 20096 moths/trap1 moths/trap21 moths/trap2 moths/trapTraps placed near vegetable fields10 moths/trap25 moths/trap11 moths/trap6 moths/trap
    • 23. LEVEL 1 IPM RESEARCH:TRAP CROPPING SYSTEMS
    • 24. Major Principle of Trap Cropping• Insects have differential host preference• Insect may feed and reproduce in preferred host
    • 25. Managing Yellow margined leaf beetle(YMLB) Population with Trap crop YMLB is a serious pest of cruciferous crops• Cabbage• Turnips• Mustard• Radish etc. Migrates into vegetable field in early October Damage: October – May
    • 26. Damage Both adults and larvae feed on foliage by first makingsmall holes; later serious defoliationDefoliation of larvae on turnip Mass attack of adults on napa cabbage
    • 27. Main cropTrap cropTurnipNapa cabbageField Trials-Managing YMLB with Trap cropSpring 201135 ft
    • 28. Trap Crops inTomato Production System
    • 29. Perimeter trap crop study(Brewton, AL, 2011 & 2012)Tomato main cropNK300 Sorghum trap crop
    • 30. Perimeter trap crop study (Clanton, AL, 2012)Sunflower(Peredovik)Sorghum(NK300)Main crop: Tomato
    • 31. Main crop: TomatoPerimeter trap crop study (Cullman, AL, 2012)
    • 32. Trap crop study for leaffooted bugs(Clanton, AL, 2012)0 0 0 0 0 00184214191120 0 002203Obs. 1 Obs. 2 Obs. 3 Obs. 4 Obs. 5 Obs. 6 Obs. 7DKB5400 (sorghum trap crop)NK300 (sorghum trap crop)Sunflower (trap crop)Tomato (main crop)Insecticide treatment and/ormanual removal in organic situation(21 July) (4 Aug.) (5 Sep.)Numbers indicate leaffooted bugs (LFBs) on 20 heads of trap crops and 20 tomato plants for comparisonpurposes. Trap crops planted on May 16. Main crop planted on June 1. Trap crop treated with MustangMax (zeta-cyper. @ 4 oz/A) on Sept. 5, 2012. Result = 78% LFB control in 5DAT. Tomato main crop isattacked by LFBs after the trap crop is ineffective (in October).(13 Aug.) (7 Sep.) (20 Sep.) (4 Oct.)Manual removal in organic situation
    • 33. Trap crop study for leaffooted bugs(Cullman, AL, 2012)0 0 0 0 0 0033 330 0 0056170 0 004201 5Obs. 1 Obs. 2 Obs. 3 Obs. 4 Obs. 5 Obs. 6DKB5400 (sorghum trap crop)NK300 (sorghum trap crop)Sunflower (trap crop)Tomato (main crop)(24 July) (30 Aug.) (4 Sep.)Numbers indicate leaffooted bugs (LFBs) on 40 heads of trap crops and 40 tomato plants forcomparison purposes. Trap crops planted on June 18 & 27. Main crop planted on July 3. Trap croptreated with Mustang Max (zeta-cyper. @ 4 oz/A) on Sept. 7, 2012. Result = 100% LFB control in7DAT. Tomato main crop is attacked by LFBs after the trap crop is ineffective (in October).(14 Sep.) (24 Sep.) (4 Oct.)Insecticide treatment and/ormanual removal in organic situationManual removal in organic situation
    • 34. Insect Netting ApplicationsInsect netting on thesides of a high tunnelUse insect netting over theentire high tunnel frame
    • 35. Biological Control Agentsor Natural Enemies
    • 36. NaturalEnemies36Predators: – Ladybugs, Spiders• General feeders• Eat several prey• Larger and stronger than the preyParasitoids (=parasites): – Wasps, Flies• Specialist feeders• Kill only one host (pest)• Smaller than the hostPathogens: – Bacteria, Fungus & Viruses• Micro-organisms that cause diseases ininsectsWho kills Pests?http://www.harvesttotable.com/2012/06/parasitic-wasps-beneficial-insects/extension.entm.purdue.eduFlicker.com
    • 37. 37PredatorsGreen lacewingLarvaeLarvae© Rao Balusu© Rao Balusuucanr.eduEggsLady beetles Hover fliesAbulrfanRobber flieswww.ipm.ncsu.eduBigeyed bugsAssassin bugsMinute pirate bugsCrab spiderWolf spiderOrb weaversSpinded soldier bug Spidersfarmerfredrant.blogspot.com
    • 38. 38ParasitoidsTrichogramma waspshareourgarden.blogspot.comEncyclopedia Britannica, IncAphidius waspwww.ipm.ucdavis.eduMummified aphidsWasp in actionwww.biocontrol.entomology.cornell.eduTrichopoda pennipeshttp://bugguide.net/node/view/6647Tachinid flies
    • 39. 39Conserving Natural Enemies Don’t reach for the pesticide spray Limit use of broad spectrum insecticides Use pesticides that are compatible with biological control Microbials : Bt Botanicals: Neem Provide foods that adults need Flowering plants: To attract natural enemies To provide shelter/shade To produce pollen and nectarGrow mixture (diversity) of plantsfor continuous source of flowerswildlifetrusts.orgwww.scri.ac.ukt
    • 40. Insecticides for OrganicVegetable Production
    • 41. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA)Physical dessicant – kaolin clay, ashContact action – vegetable oils, horticulturaloils, neem, pyrethrin, insecticidalsoap, spinosyn, Beauveria, MetarhiziumStomach action – Bt (Dipel)Volatile action – Garlic Barrier, Cinnamite
    • 42. Friend of friends –Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)• Bt kurstaki acts on small caterpillars• Caterpillars in cool-seasoncrops, tomatoes, pepper• Bt tenebrionis for beetles• Frequent appl., thorough coverageneeded• Prefer the liquid than concentrate• 0 Pre Harvest Interval (PHI)• MoA video:http://www.biorationalapproach.com/video/?vid=453#ooid=ZmY3NzNTrrL7D1OVJOYbt7dX3dkeSkom
    • 43. Mode of Action: BtImage: Dr. Jurat-Fuentes, University of Tennessee
    • 44. Pyrethrin/Pyrethrum• Broad-spectrum insect control• Pyganic 1.4EC, 5 EC – OMRI approved•Pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide (PBO-synergist) not organic• Insects may recover6% AI6o% PBOPermethrin – NOT organic insecticide!
    • 45. Neem-based InsecticidesNeem (oil)OMRI approvedNeem II (oil + pyrethrin)• Contact action, controls immatureinsects!• Look for azadirachtin on label (Molt-X, Neemix)• Target pests:aphids, armyworms, scales, thrips, WF• Clarified hydrophobic extract of neemoil may have no azadirachtinForcommercialproducers
    • 46. Insecticide PremixesAzera (MGK):• OMRI approved• Mix of azadirachtin + pyrethrin• Interferes with molting, rapid knock-down• Contact, stomach action, IGR• Effective against stink bugs (brownmarmorated stink bug)Mix of neem + pyrethrin(Green Light)
    • 47. Common name Product PesticidetypeOralLD50 (mg/kg)Best againstSpinosyn A, D Entrust (SpinTorphase out)In (St) >5000 CPB, ImCW, CEW, FAW,BAW, CL, DBMSpinetoram Radiant 1SC In (St) >5000 CPB, CEW, ECB, ImCW,CL, ThrMoA: Mimic neurotransmitter, hyperexcite insectsEntrust: for ORGANIC producersSpinosyn
    • 48. Spinosyn…a good rotation partner• Excellent forthrips, leafminers, looper, DBM, CPB, control• Monterey product isOMRI approved• 1 day PHI
    • 49. Insecticidal Soap• Potassium salt of fatty acids• Control soft-bodied insects (aphids, whiteflies)• Some short-chain fatty acids are herbicides(household detergent)• No residual action, not rain fastOMRI ApprovedNot OMRI Approved
    • 50. Kaolin Clay• Present naturally in soil in tropical countries• Foliar spray at high rate (25 lb/A)• OMRI approved – Surround WP (95% clay)• Natural desiccant, feeding deterrent
    • 51. Vegetable Oils• Physical poisons• Short residue• Effective against soft-bodied insects• Do not use if temps are >90F• May not be OMRI approvedCanola oil (96%)Soybean oil (93%)Sesame oil 5%Fish oil 92%Pyola Insect Spray =vegetable oil + pyrethrin
    • 52. Insect pathogen: Beauveria bassiana• Contact action• Slow acting but effective• Target pests: nymphs & adults ofwhiteflies, thrips, aphids, mealybugs, scarab beetles• Check label for OMRIOMRI approved
    • 53. Organic Insecticide Research– Insecticide rotations– New formulations/delivery systemsGood rotation partners
    • 54. Tomato fruit protection(Cullman, AL, 2012)Crop: Tomato, planting date: July 9, insecticides applied using C02 sprayer at 40 GPA. Replications = 4.Insecticide treatment dates: Sept. 6, 14, 21. Data indicates percent damaged fruits (10 fruits/plot).Treatments AI Sept. 24 Oct. 4Range ofdamage (%)Averagedamage (%)Range ofdamage (%)Averagedamage (%)Xentari Bt 20-60 37.5 10-40 20.0Pyganic Pyrethrum 20-50 35.0 20-40 32.5Xentari + Pyganic Tank-mix 20-50 30.0 10-60 27.5Untreated check 90-100 95.0 40-80 55.0*OMRI-approved for organic vegetable productionTank mix of approved insecticides may improve control effectiveness.Research will continue on evaluating further tank mixes and trap crops.
    • 55. Fruit quality with Xentari (Bt aizawai)(Cullman, 2012)Untreated crop with 90%caterpillar damage &irregular fruit sizeXentari foliar treatment with<20% caterpillar damage &uniform fruit size
    • 56. Fruit quality with Pyganic (pyrethrum)(Cullman, 2012)Untreated check Pyganic foliar90% fruitdamage30% fruitdamage
    • 57. Fruit quality with Xentari (Bta) + Pyganic(Late season treatment, Cullman, 2012)Check plots Xentari + Pyganic foliar
    • 58. Mite control in high tunnelLocation: Brannon Farm, Addison, AL, 2012Crop: TomatoPest: Two-spotted spider miteTreatment: Insecticide rotation in high tunnel tomatoes. Suffoil –X has paraffinic oil. Acramite hasbifenazate. Entire rows treated with untreated plants at the two ends.Observation: Mites per 20 leaflets on each observation date.8.26.51.98.2 7.89.6024681012Obs. 1 (July 6) Obs. 2 (July 15) Obs. 3 (July 23)Treated cropUntreated Ch. (tunnel ends)Suffoil-X @1Ga/100Ga waterAcramite 50WP@ 1lb/AOrganic +ConventionalApproach
    • 59. Efficacy of SUFFOIL-X & JMS STYLEY-OIL forTwo-spotted Spider Mite Control 20121435171156451234261823322727 Sept. 3 Oct. 12 Oct. 19 Oct.Untreated checkSuffoil-X (0.01%)JMS Stylet-Oil (3 qt)Bifenthrin 5 oz/ACrop was tomatoes. Location: Chilton REC, Clanton, AL.Numbers indicate spider mites on 40 tomato leaves.Reduction in mites with JMS Stylet-Oil & Suffoil-X is good but action could be slow!
    • 60. Spider mite managementALTERNATIVE MITICIDES:• Layton et al. (2011): 2 applications of insecticidaloil, insecticidal soap or neem oil provided good TSMcontrol• OMRI approved: Grandevo (extracted fromChromobacterium subtsugae) – 2 treatments onstrawberry provided 63 to 80% mite suppression
    • 61. Aphid control in Collards: BotaniGard, Molt-X, Suffoil-X (Brewton, AL, 2010)Arthropod Management Tests, 2012, Vol. 37

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