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Archive Data Management - How compliant is your solution? Part 2 of 2

Archive Data Management - How compliant is your solution? Part 2 of 2



Many organisations today are faced with compliance regulations that impact their ability to store data effectively. This combined with data growth causes major headaches for the IT department who are ...

Many organisations today are faced with compliance regulations that impact their ability to store data effectively. This combined with data growth causes major headaches for the IT department who are being tasked with reducing costs whilst maintaining a compliant solution.



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  • There are multiple drivers in the market today fueling growth in information archiving. Regulatory compliance, data growth and data protection are among the top factors driving interest in archiving. The rapid growth of information in production systems can adversely affect business operations. Organizations need to maintain several backup copies of critical data for assurance against data loss. Data is also duplicated for development and test purposes — the “multiplier effect” — which further increases storage and maintenance costs. With emphasis on controlling costs and mitigating risk, IT organizations are striving to leverage existing investments and reduce infrastructure complexity.
  • Note to Presenter: Keep focused on the big benefit customers receive by Archiving. Archiving is an intelligent process for moving inactive or infrequently-accessed data while keeping the ability to retrieve the data. Ideally, archiving is done transparently, with no impact to users or applications, and with data remaining online for fast, easy retrieval when needed.
  • Note to Presenter: This is a description of what most customers are likely dealing with every day. It is another good opportunity to get input from customers on whether this represents their reality, what they are struggling with, etc. Do you need both backup and archive? Let’s take a minute to review the differences and see how each addresses your business challenges. Backups are secondary copies of active production information used when a recovery copy is needed to get an end user back to work, or—in the case of a disaster—to get the business back up and running. Since backups are focused on constantly changing business information, they are generally short-term and often overwritten—say, monthly, when full backups are taken. This makes backup a poor choice for retaining data for compliance reasons. An archive, on the other hand, is not a copy of production data, but rather the primary version of a piece of data, often inactive or non-changing. When data stops changing or is no longer frequently used, it is best to move it to an archive, where it lives outside the backup window but can still be accessed. Archives do not focus on "recovering" an application or business data, but allow for information retrieval—usually at the level of a file, e-mail, or other individual piece of content. They are typically used for long-term retention of information, and thus become the best choice for managing data that has regulatory requirements. So the answer is likely yes, you do need both: Backup for disaster recovery, and archive for long-term data retention.
  • As today’s IT professionals consider the complex mix of issues brought on by information growth, archiving emerges as a logical solution to the challenges surrounding information storage and accessibility. Archiving can help companies improve productivity, control both infrastructure and legal costs, and manage compliance and operational risks. By segregating active data from historical/inactive data, and moving it to lower cost storage based on its business value, you can optimize utilization and control costs while still meeting service requirements. Archiving inactive application data from a database will allow you to reduce the size of production databases and improve application performance and availability. Archiving application data can also help organizations minimize risks during upgrades and migrations and complete backup and recovery operations within service level requirements.
  • From a business point of view, organizations are very worried about the regulatory pressures, and the business risk of not complying with those regulations. High penalties, a lot of complexities in figuring out all of this information, what data you need to keep and how long. And, a lot of clients have come to the realization that while it’s too bad to keep data for not long enough, it’s just as bad and just as high risk to keep data for too long. There’s an increasing risk of being involved in litigation with huge costs associated with it. The average company with annual revenues of over a billion U.S. dollars typically have 147 lawsuits outstanding every day of the year. In the U.S., the recent federal rules on civil procedure have concluded that customers must now preserve electronic evidence with the same care and diligence they would use in preserving documents, such as paper documents. There are over 20,000 regulations worldwide; many of your customers are worldwide companies, or multinational companies. There are over 10,000 regulations in the U.S. alone. And the data subject to regulation is growing at 64 percent per year, no wonder that archive and retention solutions continue to grow in similar numbers. But as mentioned before regulation is not the only driver, and in many cases it's not the primary driver to customers deploying archive and retention solutions. In addition, regulations often extend by association, so if one company is subject to any regulation, the partners of that company, the vendors of that company, the customers of that company in many cases the regulations extend to those relationships as well. So even if these regulations do not apply directly to your organization, indirectly many of these companies are implementing reforms as though these regulations make good business sense, and they're implementing reforms consistent with the regulations.
  • You can’t separate the infrastructure from services, software, applications, and all the rest. You have to think of them holistically. When you separate them, you end up with Silos of information. Think about EVERYTHING in your environment– what the requirements are– ( go back to the original Active Archive pitch) Your infrastructure needs to be flexible and dynamic, to change with changing needs, so that clients have a smart dynamic infrastructure that is designed to repurpose and reuse the investment that supports the smart archive. This slide lays out the information landscape at it relates to archiving. There are 3 parts to the landscape: IBM introduces a smarter approach to your archiving strategy. Combining optimization of archive infrastructure with information awareness allows organizations to intelligently and systematically know what information needs to be collected, classified and archived and do it in a unified way. It can leverage multiple options that best meet the organizations demand. For example an organization may want to manage their payroll archives via a managed service or in the cloud especially if they are already outsourcing payroll processing and have limited IT infrastructure or real estate to store payroll archives. Plus Organizations can take advantage of Value Added Capabilities and Services to better govern, comply, and leverage their archived information to meet compliance, eDiscovery or business analysis needs. Information that needs to collected and archived and their sources (pictured at top) The archive management options and infrastructure (pictured at bottom right) Value added options (listed at bottom left)
  • To help businesses meet the growing challenge of managing and protecting business information with operational efficiency, IBM offers the IBM Information Archive, a universal archiving repository for all types of content that addresses the complete information retention needs of midsize and enterprise clients faced with managing an increasing volume of information. The IBM Information Archive helps clients store, retrieve, manage, share and secure regulated and non-regulated data, and is designed to be highly secure and offer extraordinary cost efficiency. This highly versatile, cloud-ready, IBM Smart Business System can help minimize your business risk and support regulatory compliance by providing a secure and protected storage repository.
  • Not only does the IBM Information Archive have customizable data retention features with multiple protection level that enable it to maintain the true integrity of the original information, it also comes a robust set of built-in features including: Enhanced disaster recovery: IBM Information Archive ensures system and data availability by providing a redundant disk drive configuration, cluster node failover, and automated backup of internal configuration settings. You can also configure tape backup and enable the Enhanced Remote Mirroring feature to provide additional disaster recovery protection. RAID 6: The appliance’s disk storage operates in a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) 6 configuration to maintain data integrity in the event of a disk failure. The Information Archive RAID 6 configuration uses “hot spare” disks that are automatically used to rebuild data in the event of a double disk failure. RAID 6 is preconfigured on the appliance’s disk subsystems.
  • Encryption: You can use tape drive encryption in file archive collections while System Storage Archive Manager collections can be enabled for encryption through the application programming interface of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. You can use encryption for remote access through secure HTTP, however, you cannot use encryption for remote access through NFS. Shredding: Shredding can be done either automatically after the data is expired or manually by command. The advantage of manual shredding is that it can be run when it does not interfere with other server operations. The advantage of automatic shredding is that it is run without administrator intervention and is started when the data is expired thereby limiting the time that the data could be compromised. Automatic shredding also limits the time that the space used by deleted data is occupied. Enhanced Tamper Protection Enhanced tamper protection prevents root access to the servers in the Information Archive appliance. Root access can potentially be used to modify or delete archived data. This feature can be enabled during the initial configuration of the appliance, or at a later time. Once enabled, it cannot be turned off. If you do not enable enhanced tamper protection, you must use other methods to prevent tampering and you must securely manage the root passwords on all servers in the appliance.
  • IT managers are constantly looking for ways to reduce storage hardware expenditures or deal with flat operating budgets. Not only does the IBM Information Archive offer a highly versatile archive platform enabling business to retain information with confidence, but it also offers built-in data reduction technologies that help reduce your data storage footprint, reuse current storage investments, improve information availability and reduce overall capital and operating costs. Three features built-in to the IBM Information Archive include: De-duplication that reduces multiple copies of the same data down to a single instance Compression that reduces the data size by 60 to 90% And hierarchical storage management that automatically distributes the data between disk and tape that meets your specific business needs.
  • The IBM Information Archive allows you to archive information in collections: A collection is a logical container used to store documents and define retention and access policies. Collections allow IA to be flexible and tailor the system to the customer’s unique needs: One system can have up to three collections Each collection can be customized to support different protection levels In addition, the Information Archive supports multiple access methods The Information Archive supports a NAS interface network filesystem protocol (NFS) or the System Storage Archive Manager interface. Or any combination of both. You can configure collections according to data value or by different usage for example one collection for compliant data storage, another for test data storage OR collections could be deployed according to one of businesses. In this diagram you we can see how information can be archived into an IBM Information Archive. using the NFS interface and the SSAM interface. No add on feature of customized API is required!
  • IBM Information Archive offers different information protection levels. This slide shows the three data protection levels available in IA. Data protection levels enable your organization to meet unique data retention requirements Basic Protection enables the greatest flexibility for managing an organization’s information retention needs Documents can be deleted before they expire. Retention periods can be increased and decreased. Documents with an extended retention period due to a retention hold can be deleted. You can modify the document protection option to one of the other levels at any time. Intermediate Protection allows IT administrators to increase and decrease retention periods as needed, but information deletion is only allowed after the retention period has expired Documents cannot be deleted until they expire. Retention periods can be increased and decreased. Documents with an extended retention period due to a retention hold cannot be deleted. You can modify the document protection option to maximum at any time but cannot lower it to basic. The collection can never be deleted. Maximum Protection helps IT administrators manage information with strict business, legal or regulatory retention needs Documents cannot be deleted until the end of their retention period. Documents with an extended retention period due to a retention hold cannot be deleted. Document retention periods can be increased but not decreased. After enabling maximum protection, you cannot modify the document protection option to one of the other levels. The collection can never be deleted.
  • Working together with some of the industry’s most popular content management applications, the IBM Information Archive allows organizations to enforce and comply with the toughest stringent data retention mandates. The three most popular retention policies are: Chronological Dispose after fixed period from creation date ie: Keep email for 3 years and then delete Event Based Dispose after event occurs ie: Keep mortgage loan documents until house is paid off Deletion Hold Suspend the clock or policy (event or chronological) and hold document until clock or policy is restarted ie: Company is being audited and must keep documents until after the audit.
  • Improvement over DR550, which allows customer root access (with internal protections) Reviewed with KPMG and Cohasset (Compliance Certification Vendors) and received favorable initial reviews.
  • When equipped with 1 TB disks, the raw capacity varies in increments of 8TB up to 112TB for the first collection up to 96 TB for the second and third collections. When using 2TB disks, the capacity varies in 16 TB increments up to 224 TB for the first collection up to 192 TB fro the second and third collections.
  • Storing all data on disk may not be feasible for cost reasons for the long term – there are replacement costs, maintenance costs, power and cooling costs. Tape has cost- and power-savings advantages over disk—and not all retained data needs disk-access speeds. Another point to remember is that data generally will outlive the media. If the retention period is long, usually we think of 7 years or longer as long, data must continually be migrated to newer media which is another significant cost factor that clients do not think about initially. So if you need to retain information for long term, we recommend a blended disk and tape solution. The IBM Information Archive fully supports this blended solution with automatic migration from disk to external tape. Leveraging a policy-driven archive strategy that uses multiple tiers of storage will enable optimum storage utilization and considerable operational savings. In this chart we have shown an internal study done a year ago shows TCO savings up to 50% with leveraging blended disk and tape solutions.
  • Today’s organizations are increasingly applying service management, virtualization, energy efficiency, asset management, information infrastructure, business resiliency, and security initiatives across the enterprise. IBM Information Archive can help you leverage your dynamic infrastructure to help your organization become an on-demand business that can respond with flexibility and speed to customer demands, competitive threats, and market opportunities. Using IBM Information Archive can help your company meet the on-demand requirements of storing, retrieving, managing, sharing and securing business information. And the solution’s integration capabilities, support of open standards, and automatic data retention features can help your company reap the benefits of amore dynamic infrastructure through improved productivity, reduced costs, and managed risk.
  • Include the attached Trademarks and Disclaimers page as the last chart in your presentation. You do not need to modify it, and it is no longer necessary to list specific IBM trademarks on this page. Given this change, it is even more important that you mark each and every IBM trademark the first time it appears in your presentation. Moreover, you should mark the Intel, Linux, Microsoft, UNIX, and Java trademarks listed on the IBM trademark website now included on the Trademarks and Disclaimers page.

Archive Data Management - How compliant is your solution? Part 2 of 2 Archive Data Management - How compliant is your solution? Part 2 of 2 Presentation Transcript

  • IBM Information Archive Next Generation Information Retention Solution Jim Chadbourne Practice Lead – Storage Mibtree Ltd
  • Information Explosion
    • 30 billion
    • Estimated number of RFID tags produced annually in 2010, embedded in products, buildings, fleets, passports and even animals
    1 trillion Internet connected devices will increase from 500M in 2006 to 1 Trillion in 2011 10X A 10-fold increase in digital data between 2006 and 2011- with over 80% of that in unstructured formats 1 in 3 Business leaders frequently make critical business decisions with incomplete information or information they don’t trust $.70 per $1 70% on average is spent on maintaining current IT infrastructures versus adding new capabilities 33% will leave 33% of consumers notified of a security breach will terminate the relationship with the company they perceive as responsible 70% of IT managers say: “ Regulations drive up storage demands, businesses realizing they must classify, manage, delete data, not just keep adding storage” … Source: Information Week Survey
  • Information Explosion Volume Every day, 15 petabytes of new information are being generated. By 2010, the amount of digital information will grow to 988 exabytes Variety 80% of new data growth is unstructured content, generated largely by email, with increasing contribution by documents, images, and video and audio. Velocity An average company with 1,000 employees spends $5.3 million a year to find information stored on its servers. 42% of managers say they use the wrong information at least once per week . Information Week, “State Of Enterprise Storage Changing Priorities, Changing Practices”, Jan 2009. Delahunty, Steve IDC: Expanding Digital Universe, 2007 IDC: "The Hidden Costs of Information Work" March 2005 Accenture: Managers Say the Majority of Information Obtained for Their Work is useless 2007 http://newsroom.accenture.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=4484
  • A Definition of Archiving Archiving is an intelligent process for moving inactive or infrequently accessed data, that still has business value, while providing the ability to search and retrieve the data.
  • Backup versus Archive….
    • Backup
    • For recovery
    • Copies information
    • Improves availability
    • Short term in nature
    • Data typically overwritten
    • Not for regulatory compliance
    • Not usually archived
    • Archive
    • For retrieval
    • Moves information
    • Adds operational efficiencies
    • Long-term in nature
    • Data typically maintained
    • Useful for regulatory compliance
    • Should be backed up!
  • Archiving Provides Operational Benefits
    • Faster backups and quicker restores
      • by removing inactive data from primary storage
    • Improve application performance and availability
      • by removing inactive data from primary storage
    • Reduce the amount of data archived & defer primary storage expenditures
      • by adding data reduction & compression techniques
    • Reduce Cost
      • by optimizing current & future storage resources
    Supply Chain/ERP Financial Management Call Center/CRM Human Resources Application Performance Efficiencies
    • Regulatory and corporate governance practices are requiring firms to re-evaluate their current compliance and risk management infrastructure
    • Companies may face multiple regulations which share or drive different requirements
    • Corporations are mandated to:
      • Ensure records are unaltered and undeleted
      • Adhere to internal & external records management policies
      • Quickly discovery and produce business records for audit purposes
    The average cost to defend a corporate lawsuit per case? (Gartner, 2006) The cost of an average e-discovery request? Sources: CIO Magazine survey 2007; IBM Tivoli Market needs and profiling study 2005;
  • Introducing IBM Smart Archive Strategy Cloud Ready Archive Storage
    • Value Added Services
    • Optimization Services
    • System Services
    • Managed Services
    • Reference Architecture
    • Information Governance
    Optimized and Unified Assessment, Collection and Classification Flexible and Secure Infrastructure with Unified Retention and Protection Integrated Compliance, Records Management, Analytics and eDiscovery Collaborative (Quickr, SharePoint) ERP / CRM (SAP, PeopleSoft …) Data Content (Documents, Images …) Reports Paper Email (Notes, Exchange) On Premise (Custom Config) Appliance (Pre-Config) As A Service (SaaS, Multiple Options )
  • IBM Smart Archive Strategy Value
    • A better understanding of what to archive
    • A low cost, secure infrastructure
    • A choice of implementations
    • Flexible retention policy management
    • Assures compliance while enabling advanced analytics and eDiscovery capabilities
    Unites the power and value of IBM Software, Systems and Services.
  • Introducing IBM Information Archive Next Generation Information Retention Solution
    • Universal, scalable, and secure storage repository
    • - For structured and unstructured information, compliant or non-compliant
    • Integrated Archive Appliance
    • - Combines the best of IBM Software, Hardware & Services
    • Protects Data - By enforcing the industry’s most stringent information retention laws
    • Highly versatile, highly scalable information retention solution
    • - For mid-size and enterprise organizations
  • Accepts Information from Multiple Sources Structured or unstructured data Compliant or non-compliant Interoperability Matrix e-mails Files ERP Database PACS Paper www
  • Advanced Data Protection Features Clustered nodes & Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) 6 to maintain data integrity even in the event of two disk failures. Redundancy Enhanced Disaster Recovery Advance Copy Services increase the availability of archived documents and prevents data loss in the event of a disaster Multiple Protection Levels Basic to m aximum protection levels address all possible data retention requirements
  • Advanced Data Protection Features Enhanced Tamper Protection Maximum tamper protection with patent-pending feature that eliminates root access Encryption can provide added security for data storage and remote data transmission Encryption Maximizes data protection capabilities with offsite, low-cost Tape or Virtual Tape (VTL) support Optional Tape & VTL Backup
  • Data Optimization Features Deduplication & Compression Shrink the amount of data to store Hierarchical Storage Management Automatically distributes and manages information on disk, tape, or both
  • Multiple Archive Collections, Multiple Protection Levels Supports multiple ingest and input models including custom applications One Namespace Collection 1 Disk NAS Collection 2 Disk NAS Collection 3 Disk SSAM Clustered Clustered IBM Information Archive LAN
    • A single Information Archive can be configured with 1 to 3 archive collections
    • Collections are accessible via Network File System (NFS) or System Storage Archive Manager (SSAM) protocols or a combination of both
    • Each collection can be customized to support different protection levels
    NFS SSAM NFS ECM Archive Repository Users and Applications Custom Applications Tape
  • Information Archive Next Generation Architecture API Client API Server NAS Client NAS Gateway Disk Storage Collection 2 Collection 1 NAS Client TSM API Client Web-browser NAS Interface GPFS Filesystem & IA Middleware TSM Server Disk Storage SSAM Server IA Mgmt GUI Disk Storage Previous Generation Architecture (DR450 & DR550) Information Archive Architecture Web-browser API Server Mgmt UI Server Mgmt UI Storage Mgmt UI
  • Customizable Protection Levels Most Flexible and Comprehensive Data Protection Levels
    • Each collection can be customized with its own protection level
    • Basic Protection - enables the greatest flexibility for managing an organization’s information retention needs
    • Intermediate Protection - allows IT administrators to increase and decrease retention periods as needed, but information deletion is only allowed after the retention period has expired
    • Maximum Protection - helps IT administrators manage information with strict business, legal or regulatory retention needs
    Maximum Intermediate Basic *SSAM Collections are always Maximum compliance
  • Customizable Policy-based Retention Features Most Flexible and Comprehensive Data Retention Policies X Time Based Event Based with Fixed Protection Periods Fixed Period Minimum Fixed Period X Event Dispose after fixed period from creation date Dispose after fixed period from event date Day 0 Day 0 Minimum Fixed Period Event Based with no Fixed Protection Period X Event Dispose after event Day 0
  • Security and Compliance Characteristics
    • Role based security
      • - Security, Systems and Archive Administrators
      • - Archive User, Service Engineer and Auditor Roles
      • - Audit logs provide compliant audit trail.
    • Physical security
      • - Locking cabinet
    • To achieve maximum compliance protection with IBM IA customers enable the Enhanced Tamper Protection feature
      • - Removes root login capability from the IBM IA Cluster
      • - Neither customer nor IBM has root login authority
      • - Once enabled, cannot be disabled
      • - Expected admin and support operations pre-programmed to remove need for root access
      • - Best practice to enable during installation
      • - We have a procedure for an unforeseen emergency requiring root access by delivering a signed and time-bounded patch to the customer.
  • Information Archive Integrated, Web-based Interface
    • Initial configuration is integrated and guided
      • - Start archiving data in 1 day or less
    • Consolidated and integrated management in a single administrative interface
      • - Security, administration, monitoring, troubleshooting, serviceability
      • - Manage multiple collections from a single interface
      • - Role-based administrative security
    • Simple, efficient, consistent administrative experience
      • - Wizards guide user on the creation of objects
      • - Overviews provide high level situational awareness of system health
      • - Consolidation of information for efficient administration
    • Task-oriented, with drill down where needed for deeper configuration and trouble shooting
  • Inside IBM Information Archive (R1.2)
    • Hardware
      • Dual-quadcore clustered servers
      • Integrated (closed) appliance
      • Internal IP and SAN networks
      • SATA storage
        • RAID 6, 608 TB max usable
      • Petabytes of external tape
      • HW-based metro and global mirroring
      • 3 collections per appliance
      • Remote Support Module (custom)
    • Software
      • System Storage Archive Manager
      • Tivoli Storage Manager – HSM
      • IBM Director
      • DS Storage Manager (custom)
      • Scale Out File System – GPFS
      • Management Console
    • Security
      • Role-based administration
      • LDAP or Active Directory for user management
      • No root access in compliant mode
    Tape Library Storage Expansion Frame Management Node Management Console NAS / SSAM / GPFS Linux Server (1 to 3) Storage Expansion (Up to 6) Storage Controller (1) Ethernet / FC Switches Remote Support Mgr
  • IBM Information Archive enhancements! Next Generation Information Retention Solution
    • Addition of 2 TB disk drives
      • - Doubles disk capacity of IA in the same footprint (608TB)
    • Improvement for IA Mirroring and Disaster Recovery
      • Greatly simplifies installation, failover and failback process
      • Provides additional functions for monitoring mirrored IA systems from one IA GUI
    • Usability Improvements of the IA GUI
      • Display information about IA-Node status and components running
      • Allow admin to change the time zone of the IA system
      • Allow grouping of multiple events in one notification
    • Improved operation of File Archive Collections
      • - LDAP server is not mandatory anymore
      • - Allow to export multiple shares per file archive collection and grant access to different users
  • Consider the long-term costs of ownership
    • SATA disk offers lower cost access to online data vs. FC disk
    • Tape offers lower cost than disk and consumes less energy, but often not ideal for online access
    • Blended solution:
      • Online access to most recent content
      • Lower cost, energy-efficiency for long-term
    Maximize Archiving Efficiency with Optional External Tape $7 $3.5 $0 Millions Hardware Prod + DR Carts Maintenance Power & Cooling Floor space Cut TCO 50% with Blended Tape and Disk* 10 year TCO example. Assumes 250TB storage, 25% growth/yr * TCO estimates based on IBM internal studies. Information Archive offers unique disk and tape archiving options SATA Disk $6,365,950 Tape $946,405 Blended Disk and Tape $2,255,346
      • Cohasset Associates performed a compliance assessment of the IBM Information Archive’s capabilities to meet the requirements and practices of SEC Rule 17a-4(f).
    Independent Assessment of Information Archive
        • Cohasset Associates’ assessment of the IBM Information Archive found that the IA functional capabilities prevent any erasure or overwrite of electronic records stored pursuant to SEC-required retention periods.
          • It is Cohasset Associates ’ opinion that the IBM Information Archive meets the SEC’s requirements and good records management practices for storing and managing electronic records – as set forth in SEC Rule 17a-4(f).
  • In Closing - Simplified Cloud-ready Smart Business System Adapts as business needs evolve
    • Reduce primary storage costs by offloading inactive & historical data
    • Leverage a single , secure storage repository for all your archival information, under one roof !
    • Leverage integrated tape strategy for scalability and energy efficiency , and keep your power & cooling costs down
    • Retain and manage information for however long you need & future-proof your information to next technology
    • Support your compliance efforts with ease, so you can avoid the legal and financial risks
    • Keep your capacity & costs minimum by eliminating duplicate content
  • Trademarks and Disclaimers 8 IBM Corporation 1994-2008. All rights reserved. References in this document to IBM products or services do not imply that IBM intends to make them available in every country. Trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml . Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside, Intel Inside logo, Intel Centrino, Intel Centrino logo, Celeron, Intel Xeon, Intel SpeedStep, Itanium, and Pentium are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both. Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. Information is provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind. The customer examples described are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics may vary by customer. Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from a supplier of these products, published announcement material, or other publicly available sources and does not constitute an endorsement of such products by IBM. Sources for non-IBM list prices and performance numbers are taken from publicly available information, including vendor announcements and vendor worldwide homepages. IBM has not tested these products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, capability, or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capability of non-IBM products should be addressed to the supplier of those products. All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. Some information addresses anticipated future capabilities. Such information is not intended as a definitive statement of a commitment to specific levels of performance, function or delivery schedules with respect to any future products. Such commitments are only made in IBM product announcements. The information is presented here to communicate IBM's current investment and development activities as a good faith effort to help with our customers' future planning. Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the user's job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve throughput or performance improvements equivalent to the ratios stated here. Photographs shown may be engineering prototypes. Changes may be incorporated in production models.