I0946770

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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) is an open access international journal that provides rapid publication (within a month) of articles in all areas of business and managemant and its applications. The journal welcomes publications of high quality papers on theoretical developments and practical applications inbusiness and management. Original research papers, state-of-the-art reviews, and high quality technical notes are invited for publications.

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I0946770

  1. 1. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 9, Issue 4 (Mar. - Apr. 2013), PP 67-70www.iosrjournals.orgwww.iosrjournals.org 67 | PageRelationship Between Entrepreneurshipand EmployabilityAmong Nigerian Tertiary Institution Graduates1Oladipo kolaposakiru, 2Gafar Olanrewaju yusuf 1Mohammed Abdullahi,1Aliyu yero, 1Narges Kia.1Department of Human Resource Development, Universiti Putra Malaysia2Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development, Universiti Technnology Malaysia.Abstract: Many graduatesin Nigeria areunemployed, regardless oftheirqualifications, theyre employableyetthey arentemployed. The lack ofabilityfrom thegreatereducational facilitiesto meetthe requirementsofthosegraduatesin addition topromotionof monetary selfrelianceandself sufficiency hasresultedinto youthsjoblessness (unemployment). Thesehaveput intorise in restiveness among Nigerian youths. Thestudy looks intothe relationship between entrepreneurship and employability among Nigerian graduates. Thepaper, talkedaboutthe idea ofentrepreneurshipand employability. Since employability is theactionof gettingqualificationthatallowsanyone toemployed, the studyalsochecked outthe fundamentalabilitieswhich will makeone employableandsimultaneouslybecomingselfsufficient.Alsotalked aboutaremethodsforwardinmarketingentrepreneurshipamong Nigerian youths and justhowteachingofcreativenessandproblemfixingabilitiesmight help reposition Nigerian graduates.Key word : employability, entrepreneurship, Nigerian graduates, youth.I. IntroductionNigeria similar tounder developednations around the worldis faced withplentyofproblemsandharshdetailsincludingpoverty, unemployment, conflictsandailments.Thesesituationsposegreatchallengesfor the entirelife ofindividualsin lots ofunderdevelopednationsthereforewithexercisingofeducatedmalesand girlswho is able tofunctioneffectivelyinsidethesocietythrough whichtheylive in. There arelargeunemploymentof Nigerian schoolsgraduateswithin thecountry, this problemismentionedbeing traceable for the disequilibriumbetweenworkmarketneedsandinadequateessential employable capabilitieswith thegraduates, (1).Thisapparentcriticalskillgapsinhibitthe development of youths as well as theentiregrowth and developmentofthecountry. The earthisfacinga veryhard timeand Nigeria just like anationcannotrun awayout of this, ratherweareto providetechniques tosomecouple of thoseproblemsfacingus. A coupleof themajorproblemsfacing Nigeriatodayjust like adevelopingcountryincludeunemployment, poverty, poorhealth careservices, youth restiveness,insecurity, etc. Nigeria cannoteasilymakeheadway, once weneglectorhaventdevelopedeaseofentrepreneurshipwhich assists the employability within our youths. Anidlesoulcan be adevilsworkshop.Thispaperaddressesthemassgraduateunemploymentin Nigeria, along with thefailureofgraduatesto takeadvantageof tacit andexplicitunderstandingacquiredutilizing theirstudiesin an organizational way.Entrepreneurship has a several potential benefits in theobjectivesofreducingunemploymentamong Nigeriangraduates,since itplaysan important roleindevelopmentand growth oftheeconomy. It assistsmarketinnovationwhichinspiresgraduatestodiscovernewtechniquesfordoingthingsthroughexperiencebasedlearning. However, the Nigerian youths mentioned are being confronted withpoverty, unemployment, urbanization,inadequatecapacityandcapabilitiesneeded tograduallyslowlymove theeconomyforward. Povertythatsapressurefor Helps/Helps is very common. For the reason thattheyouthfaces unemploymentandinadequatenecessaryproductivecapabilitiesto keepbodyandsoultogether. This reality leavesall of themwithnosignificantmethod ofsustainablelivelihood. To settlethe debts, they simplyenjoy prostitution(bothmalesand ladies). (2) quotes Cicero asproclaiming that ?Anysystematiccontrol overa subjecthas tostartgetting adefinitionthat everyonemaycomprehend thesubjectof enquiry?. Therefore, the beginningofanydiscussionorargumentliestheclarificationofconcept ofrelevantterms.Concept of enterprenuershipThe wordentrepreneurshipis not easilytodefine. Review ofavailableliteratureindicates thatcouldbenogenericdefinitions. Thisproducesaproblemof conceptual clearness. However, withtimestudentsfromdifferentbackgroundhaveattemptedto make use of aworkingidea ofthiscomplexphenomenon.(3) states, Entrepreneurshipisanxiouswithinnovationandmanagement.Heseesentrepreneurshipaswhethercreativeinnovatorthatscreating anewchallengethatscapable ofsatisfying
  2. 2. Relationship Between Entrepreneurshipand Employability Among Nigerian Tertiary Institutionwww.iosrjournals.org 68 | Pageconsumer‘s wantsor even anadaptiveinnovatorthat canmodifya giftor similaritiesorservicesforbetterperformancealthoughassociated withcontrollingactivitiesofplanning, controlling,organizing,and co-ordinating hisbusinessto ownobjectiveswithin theenterprise. Entrepreneurship, based onTimmons in (4) may be theapproach tocreatingor appropriating achancesonafteritnomatterassetspresentlycontrolled. (5) definedentrepreneurshipas thethoughtofbeginningneworganizationsorstimulatingmatureorganizationsparticularly,newcompaniesreactingtorecognizedoptions. (6), definedentrepreneurshipassomethingwere born withbecause itIsaboutturningwhatexcitesusaroundintocapital. To make certain thngs thatpeoplemight begratefulmuch more. (7)definedentrepreneurshipbecause thereadinessandskillof the peopleto discoverinvestmentchoicesandmanageacompanyeffectively. Inside theabove, were abletodeducethatentrepreneurshiphandlestransformationofideasthatseconomicgoods. Probablymost likelythemostcriticalofentrepreneurshipisprogression ofwork from home business. Progression ofwork from homebusinessmay bepressurebehindthe development ofcertainbusinessabilitieswithin thecollege.Entrepreneurshipcould be adevelopmentalorcreativeprocess. Thatsadvancement ofa new challengeandcosttoboth entrepreneur long with theaudience (market). Entrepreneurshipinvolves high-risk. This is oftenpredicated uponthe very factthe long-term is frequentlyunseen, andunpredictable. Theres no comprehensivenessinreasoningandmakingoptionsrathertheentrepreneurworksunderselfbounded rationality inthe dynamicatmospherebecause oflots ofkeygames.Impact of entrepreneurshipeducationin graduate studentsBased on(8), Entrepreneursareindividuals whofind therequirementsof thesocietyanddevicemethodsformeetingindividualsneeds. Researchersseeentrepreneursasinnovativedesigners occasioned byhavetoobtainorachievesomething, have toexperiment, have toaccomplishor possiblyhavetoescapetheauthorityofothersfor anybusinessman. By having an itinerant understandingfrom theconcept, abusiness ownerseems likeathreat, ahostilecompetitoror perhaps anally, a resourceofsupply, a personofsomebodywhoproduceswealthfor other people, whofindspossible ways tomake useofassetsandreduceswasteandwhoproducesjobsother medication isgladto obtain (9). (10) observedthat whenputabusiness ownerinside adesert, hellcreatewaterfromsanddunes, provide himamountain, hellcreatetunnel,provide himforest, helltransform it into acity, provide hima hugeland, helltransform itintoanestate, providehima swamp, hellbuildskyscraper, provide himdumpingshelltransform it into agarden, pushhimright into ariver,rather thandrowninghellcome forth withfishes. (4) notedthatEntrepreneursareindividuals whobringideasfromthefieldofformsto everything aboutreality. Theyreindividuals whodreamrather thanreturntosleepuntiltheirdreamsbecomereal. Theyreindividuals whogiveexistencetoideasand makewealthfromnothing.Theyreindividuals whoputeverythingtheyveto be able togeteverythingthey really want.Entrepreneursareindividuals who areable toeasilyuncover thetalentin other people, towards themaximum.Theyreindividuals whoemploythe very bestheadseven ifthey didntevenbegin to see thefourwallsfromthecollege. Theypayprofessorssalariesand lots ofgraduatesaround in thepayroll. Employability has beenable tofindandkeepingfulfillingwork.Employability describesa person‘s capacityofattaininginitialemployment,maintainingemploymentandacquiringnewemploymentif needed (11). Basically, employability is all aboutbeingable tofindandkeepingfulfillingwork. Moreadequately, employability may be theability tobeingmore self-sufficiency inside theworksell torealizepotentialthroughsustainableemployment. For people, employability isdependentaround theunderstanding, abilitiesandcapabilitiestheypossess, how theyuseindividualsassetsandofferthese tocompaniesand also thecontext (e.g. personalconditionsandworkmarketatmosphere) withinthattheyseekwork. In addition, (12) describedthatgraduates employability is dependentaround theunderstanding,abilitiesandattitudetheypossess, how theyuseindividualsassetsand offer these tocompanies, and also thecontext(e.g. Personalconditionsandworkmarketatmosphere) withinthat theyseekwork. Employability is really a two-onthe sidesequationand lots ofpeople needmany formsofsupportto beatthe bothmental andphysicalobstaclestolearningand privatedevelopment (i.e. upgradingtheirassets). Employability isntnearlyvocationalandacademicabilities. People needrelevantandfunctionalworkmarketinformationto assist themtomakeinformedchoicesconcerning theworkmarketoptionsat hand. They mightlikewise needsupporttounderstandwhensimilarinformationcould behelpful, and interpret thatinformationandswitchitintointelligence.Graduate Employability Abilitiesshortageremainsa significantconstraintin Nigeria.. Theabilitiesdeficitamonggraduates (fromgreatereducation) is regarded asconstrainttolong termeconomicgrowthalongwith aaddingstep toincidenceofgraduateunemployment. Graduateslackgenericexpertiseandarentinworkplaceready.Furthermore, among theaimsof thescientific studies aretoinculcatea brand neworientationofexcellencewhich willempower thegraduatesbeingmalesand ladiesofinfluencenot just ineducationalhobbiesbut additionallywithinthearea oflabor. Onlythis changecaneffectivelyresult in amoral rearmament along with asocietyfree
  3. 3. Relationship Between Entrepreneurshipand Employability Among Nigerian Tertiary Institutionwww.iosrjournals.org 69 | Pageofjobsearchers, poverty, anarchy, tyranny and profligacy. Asocietywherepossibilitiesexistsfortheforthcominggeneration, in which alengthylooked forward toAfricanIntellectual Rebirths couldbemidwifed. RolesofEducational Facilitiesto Employability The field ofclients arefast pacedand perfectionist-oriented. The publicaresharpandquickto evaluate, hencea business ownershould becalculatinganddeliberate. Themarket place inwhich theentrepreneurworkshaslittletoleranceformistake, insufficientcommitmentormess.Thisresult in theeducationof theyouthwhosa would-be entrepreneur an importantcomponentfor achievement.Educational facilitieshavewell plannedprocedure that eventuates in to thepurchase ofbusinessexpertise.Theyveentrepreneurshipeducationwithin the curricular, which supportsequipthe studentswithabilitiesonmakingdecisions, purchase ofnewideas, techniquesofraisingand lookingafterconversationsandcreatingbusinessassociations. Throughthisentrepreneurshipeducation, qualitativeabilitythatfacilitatescomputationanddocumentationarefurtherlearnt. Entrepreneurshipeducationis thekindofeducationin which thestudentisuncoveredtocognitiveaffectiveand psychomotor capabilitiesthat willthestudentbeindependent, self sufficientandsustainable. Entrepreneurshipeducationprovides asolution. Itseekstoorganizepeople, particularly youths, tobecomeresponsibleandenterprisingpeoplewhollbecomeentrepreneursorbusiness thinkersbysubmergingthemselvesin tangibleexistencelearningencounterswherethey are able totake arisk, managetheoutcomes, andgainknowledgefrom the final results.Theseeducational facilitieshavecentreswhereindividuals areeducated todevelopand getabilities. E.g.CenterforEntrepreneurshipandDevelopmentResearch, Collegeof Nigeria, Nsukka. These youthsareequallygivenpossibilities toachieveencountersbecause they areassociated withmentors, obtain accesstoinformationand therefore aregivenchance forgrowth. This suggeststhat theyresupplied withinformation,understanding, abilitiesandattitudesthat will enablethemsucceedasbusinessmalesand ladies. Theyll turnout tobecomebusinessmalesand ladieswhovedevelopedbusinessabilitiesand therefore arelearning toearn money. Thesecompetences willconsequentlyenable them todeploytheirenthusiasmfornationbuildingin anexceedinglyjoyfulmanner. Anythinglackingthese factsis going to be handling Nigerian problems of rethinkingthe youths withkidknits.WaysForwardinMarketingEntrepreneurshipAmong Nigeria GraduatesNigerian youths facenumber ofproblems-poverty, unemployment, conflictsandillnessesisnt alwayseasy. These complaintsthereforewill requirethe youths to beempoweredwithcreative problem-fixing abilities.Working outofeducatedpeople who areable tofunctioneffectivelywithin thesocietyfor thatenhancementofselfandalso thesocietywill needspecialattention. The machineis going to bedeliberatelysettoconcernitselfwiththeintroductionofseeminghumancapitalneeded for nationaldevelopment (13). Practicallyspeakingtherefore, theschools should:1. Make sure thatschoolsdeliberatelyprovidesectorspecificabilitiesneeded toaddmasstohumancapital,useprofessionalandentrepreneursasteachersandmentors.2. Trainentrepreneurshipandcreativenesswhile very young.3. Organizefor curricular integrationofeducation, entrepreneurshipandcommunitydevelopment4. Planprogramto change Nigerians graduates.Finally, inrethinking the youths foreradicationofunemployment, they have transformedintoconfident,aggressiveandpurposefulpeople. The perfectprofileforemergingprofessionals isregardingbusinesseducation, thiscouldincorporate astrongscientific, technicalandfactualbasewithhigherhistory andresearchabilities. The personwhogo for non-degree learningskillacquisitionwillconsider thelong runandrelatethesesuggestions to his/herbusiness. The dream youth must havestrongabilitiesrunning a businessplanning, financeandaccounting, inaddition tocapability tocreatenewandinnovativemarketingplansthatutilizemoderncommunicationtechnology.Preferredattitudesfor Nigeria would-be entrepreneursincorporate arespectfor democratic conceptsand alsothelegalprocessesin ournationand also thegreatestdegree ofintegrity andethics. The Nigerianyouththereforeshould try to learnthatexistenceis a partnership where the individual aims to satisfy themselvesusing theactivesupportofothers. Thats, he/ shemust realizethe truth thathe /she mustdevelophis /herpotentialsand also tolead his/her talentstowards thecommongoodof (14). Using thespiritofworking together,inter-existence and also thedesire to havecollectivesurvivaltosee astabledevelopment of mutualsupportas well asnetworking.II. ConclusionHandwork andskillacquisitionmay be thequickestmovestotalentdiscovery. Once the youths inschools,greaterinstitutionsandcollegesare groomed to understandthe abilitiesnecessaryfortheirfutureselfemploymentandnutrition, the endresultcould bereassuranceandfutureself employment.
  4. 4. Relationship Between Entrepreneurshipand Employability Among Nigerian Tertiary Institutionwww.iosrjournals.org 70 | PageTheeraofwhitecollarjobsgoes, whengraduatesresearchtogovernmentforemployment. Theissue is the fact thatyouths arentuncoveredo achieve thebackgroundstudy fromthe businessthey would like toset upon oncetheyleavesschool. Moneyisnt the first factorwhenonewants toset upa company, moneycomeslateroncetheyshould havehadenoughunderstanding ofeconomics. Desirousentrepreneursshouldbegintoputontheirthinkingcapanddevelopexcellentideaswhich willscalethroughand thatplanways to use theideato earnmoney. A good business ideacreatesitsfunding.Effectively, entrepreneurshipand employability goestogetherbecauseentrepreneurshipeducationwill assist you tofacilitatethe purchase ofabilitiescompetenceandskillthrough thegraduates. Whenthesegraduatesareoutfittedthey willassist you toreduce, unemployment, assistancetogenerateearnings, lead toGDP, fasterinnovationand incubate potentiallargeindustrieswhichwillboosttechnologicaldevelopmentandidentifybusinesspossibilitiesin Nigeria.References:[1]. Diajomal .U. and Orimolade .W. (1991).Unemployment in Nigeria, Economic Analysis of Scope, Trends and Policy Issues.[2]. Okoro, M.N. (1998). The Business of Advertising. Enugu: ACENA Publishers[3]. Anugwom, E.E. (2002). Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Principles and Practice. Enugu: Rice Kerex Publishers[4]. Onu, V.N. and Ikeme, A.I. (2008).Creativity at Innovation and Entrepreneurship.Nsukka: Mest Publishers Ltd.[5]. Onuoha, G. (2007). Entrepreneurship: AIST International Journal 10: 20-32.[6]. Brason, R. (2008). Business Stripped Bare United Kingdom: Virgin Books[7]. Suleiman, A.S. (2006). The Business Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Development Small and Medium Enterprise, 2nd Edition.Kaduna: Entrepreneurship Academy Publishing.[8]. Anyanwu .C. (2008) ‘The Entrepreneur’ Magazine for New Business Ideas and Opportunities, p. 23.[9]. Vester .K. (1980:2).New Venture Strategies. New Jersey: Englewood Clift, Prentice Hall[10]. Book Company.[11]. Hope Eno (2005:31). “Who is an Entrepreneur? Lagos: Success Digest, Success Attitude Development Centre.[12]. Hillage and Poland (1988).Employability.Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/employability.[13]. Arukwe, N.O. (1990). Employees Office Skills Competencies and Employer’s Preference.Business Education Journal 2(1), 111-116.[14]. Ocho .L.(2005). National Development Curriculum Issues. Benin City: Contemporary Education.[15]. Etuk, E. (2000), Great Insights on Home Creativity, US: Morris Publishers.

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