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    • IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)e-ISSN: 2278-0661, p- ISSN: 2278-8727Volume 9, Issue 4 (Mar. - Apr. 2013), PP 10-17www.iosrjournals.org A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networks 1 Mrs.Jayasheela C S, 2Dr. Gowrishankar 1 Dept. of ISE, BIT, Bangalore, India, 2 HOD, Dept. of CSE, BMSCE, Bangalore, IndiaAbstract: The science and technology is developing day by day leading to expand and forcing to reshape ourliving standards. The main aspects leading to deployment of a wide array of wireless and mobile networks areadvances in miniaturization, low power circuit design and development in radio access technologies andincrease in user demand for high speed internet access. The varying wireless technologies are driving today’swireless networks to become heterogeneous, ie., the network comprised of two or more different access networktechnologies. Heterogeneous networks have created many challenges such as mobility management, handoff,resource management, location management, providing QoS, security and pricing. Switching betweenheterogeneous networks requires seamless vertical handoff. The selection of parameters plays an important rolein the decision of vertical handoff. The parameters like bandwidth, signal strength, velocity, power consumption,throughput, cost, user preferences and network load are considered during vertical handoff. In this paper, thevertical handoff parameters of the existing work are critically ascertained and presented in a tabular format foridentifying the important parameters. A dynamic, adaptive and efficient approach is required to implement thevertical handoff mechanism in next generation heterogeneous wireless networks to produce an effective servicefor the user by considering dynamic and non dynamic parameters.Keywords: Heterogeneous networks, parameters, handoff I. Introduction Handoff management is one of the components of mobility management which controls the change ofmobile terminal’s point of attachment during active communication. Handoff is the process of changing thechannel connection when the call is in progress. Handoff can be divided into two different types – horizontaland vertical. The switching between points of attachment or base stations that belong to the same network iscalled Horizontal handoff and this is required in homogeneous networks.1.1 Vertical handoff The switching between points of attachment or base stations that belong to the different networktechnologies is called Vertical handoff and this is required in heterogeneous networks. The process of Verticalhandoff [23] can be divided into three steps, namely system discovery, handoff decision and handoff execution.During the system discovery, mobile terminal equipped with multiple interfaces have to determine whichnetworks can be used and what services are available in each network. During the handoff decision phase, themobile device determines which network it should connect to. During the handoff execution phase, connectionsare needed to be re-routed from the existing network to the new network in a seamless manner. This requirementrefers to the Always Best Connected (ABC) concept, which includes the authentication, authorization as well asthe transfer of user’s context information. In heterogeneous networks, the need for vertical handoff can beinitiated for convenience rather than connectivity reasons. II. Parameters For Vertical Handoff The decision for vertical handoff may depend on various parameters like Bandwidth, Received SignalStrength (RSS), Signal to inference ratio (SIR), cost, latency, security, velocity, battery power, user preferences,service capacities and Quality of service (QoS). From the literature surveyed, different research scholars havegiven different views and techniques to achieve vertical handoff. In order to design a Vertical Handoff (VHO)mechanism for next generation wireless networks, it is essential to study the existing VHO mechanisms. Thestudy of existing mechanisms will assist in the identification of important parameters for VHO mechanism. Asof now, a few approaches for VHO have been found in the literature.2.1 Available Bandwidth Bandwidth is a measure of the width of a range of frequencies. It refers to the data rate supported by anetwork connection or interface. It measures how much data can be sent over a specific connection in a givenamount of time. In order to provide seamless handoff for Qos in wireless environment, there is a need to managebandwidth requirement of mobile node during movement. Bandwidth is generally known as the link capacity in www.iosrjournals.org 10 | Page
    • A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networksa network. Higher offered bandwidth ensures lower call dropping and call blocking probabilities; hence higherthroughput. Bandwidth handling should be an integral part of any of the handoff technique. A Novel Decision Scheme for Vertical Handoff in 4G Networks is introduced [1] and two Handoffdecision schemes for Heterogeneous networks are presented. In the first scheme they introduce a score functionto find the best network at best time from a set of neighboring networks. Score function uses Bandwidth, RSSand Access fee as its parameters. Second scheme makes use of classic triangle problem to find the best networkfrom a set of neighboring networks. This problem considers three parameters Bandwidth, RSS and Access fee asthe three sides of a triangle. If an equilateral triangle is obtained with these parameters of a network then thatnetwork will be the best among the set of networks. The best decision model meets the individual user needs butalso improve the whole system performance by reducing the unnecessary handoffs. Since the second algorithmperforms handoff only if the constraints are above the threshold value. The call dropping probability is reducedand holding time is increased. A novel framework to evaluate the VHO algorithm design impact on system resource utilization anduser perceived QoS is presented [2]. This framework can be used to compare the performance of differentvertical handoff algorithms. The results provide a quantitative means to evaluate the critical impact of thehandoff algorithm design on satisfying the active real-time application requirements while improving the overallresource utilization. A call flow for vertical handover procedure and a soft QoS scheme was proposed using DynamicProgramming (DP) approach for an efficient radio resource management in an environment where severaldifferent radio access networks (e.g.,WLAN and WCDMA) coexists [3]. The soft QoS scheme is compared withhard QoS scheme for optimizing resource allocation using a Greedy and DP approach during upward verticalhandover. The proposed soft QoS scheme is more efficient in network utilization than existing hard QoSscheme. A seamless and proactive vertical handoff scheme was designed [4] based on the architecture that aimsto provide always the best QoS for users. Evaluation algorithms are derived to estimate the conditions of bothWiMAX and WLAN networks in terms of available bandwidth and packet delay. The results obtained prove thefeasibility and effectiveness of the proposed schemes. An access network selection algorithm was presented by extending the traditional Analytic HierarchyProcess (AHP) Multiple Criteria Decision making technique that suits the QoS requirements of applications [5].The algorithm considers the criteria that include available bandwidth, end-to-end Delay, Jitter, Packet Loss,Cost and security of the network and Wi -Fi, Wi -Max and CDMA networks as the alternatives. The algorithm is simulated using Java and the pair-wise comparison matrices are stored in two dimensionalarrays. Applications that require three types of traffic classes namely voice traffic, video traffic and multimediatraffic were considered. The matrices are checked for consistency and proven to be consistent. Compositeweights of the available networks are evaluated and the network that is having the highest composite weight isselected as the target network. Since the algorithm is based on AHP, it gives both qualitative and quantitativeevaluation of the alternatives which means that it determines the optimal target network and also evaluates howbest the target network is suitable for a specific traffic class. An intelligent approach for vertical handover decision was introduced [6]. A model is proposed whichgathers events from link layer, network layer and transport layer and takes decision based on fuzzy rules. Themodel chooses different variables, i.e. Available Bandwidth, Signal Strength & Network load. SystemSimulation is done using Sugeno Fuzzy Inference system and Fuzzy inference collects input values of selectedparameters from event collector as crisp inputs and then evaluates them according to rules. The composed andaggregated output of rules evaluation is defuzzified and crisp output is obtained. The output of the fuzzy systemis handover decision and an intelligent decision will be taken based on output values. An UMTS-WLAN integrated architecture was proposed [7] with dynamically updating database atUMTS network which keep track of network condition such available bandwidth and designed algorithm forhandoff decision when Mobile Node (MN) need to switch to other network due to poor network service.Whenever MN needs to switch to other network it takes the network condition information from database andmake decision of handoff. The proposed scheme is simulated and compared with existing RSS based handoffscheme and the proposed scheme gave better performance in terms of Packet Delay Ratio(PDR), total number ofhandoff, total time taken for handoff, total packet loss and channel utilization. An architecture involving an external host based light-weight server Access Link Utilization Monitor(ALUM) was proposed that disseminates the available end-to-end bandwidth to the mobile node to assist it inmaking a decision to maintain end to-end service quality [8]. The information it provides can be used by anyVHO algorithm. A Fuzzy Logic Based Quantitative Decision Algorithm (FQDA) is presented and implementedwhich takes available bandwidth provided by ALUM as a decision parameter. A uniform metric conversionmethod is proposed to compare dissimilar (but related) parameters in the decision making. www.iosrjournals.org 11 | Page
    • A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networks 2.2 Speed It is the speed at which the Mobile Terminal (MT) is moving. In vertical handoff algorithms, the speedfactor has a large and important decisions binding effect than traditional handoff decision algorithms horizontalhandoff. When the users travel at high speed within a network coverage area is discouraged the idea to initiatevertical handoff process because after a short period of time the user will have to go back to the initial networkbecause it will get out from under cover network host. A Fuzzy Logic-based Adaptive Handoff (FLAH) management protocol was developed [9] it was thenintegrated with an existing cross layer handoff protocol. The fuzzy logic based system initiates handoff usingfuzzy logic; it uses mobile’s speed & distance as input and received signal strength as output. The algorithmused is adaptive to velocity interference and distances, resulting in fewer dropped calls, better communicationquality, potentially lower MT transmit power requirements, give good performance at different MT speeds, anddecreases handoff failure probability. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the FLAH protocolsignificantly enhances the performance of both intra and inter-system handoffs. It can estimate the right time toinitiate handoff more precisely. It also significantly reduces the cost associated with the false handoff initiationbecause it achieves lower false handoff initiation probability than existing handoff protocols. A dynamic decision model (DDMVH) to make the right vertical handoff decisions by determining the“best“ network at “best” time among available networks based on, dynamic factors such as RSS of network andvelocity of mobile station simultaneously with static factors like Usage expense, Link capacity (offeredbandwidth) and power consumption is designed [10]. A handoff scheme (RBAHMS) which takes handoff decision adaptively based on the type of network itpresently resides and it also relies on the speed of the mobile terminal to make a decision of the handoffinitiation with RSS threshold value [11]. To enhance the handoff performance of mobile IP in wireless IPnetworks, the false handoff probability in the NGWS handoff management protocol was reduced [12]. Based onthe information of false handoff probability, the effect on mobile speed and handoff signaling delay is analyzed. The ability of Information Technology in 4G in Wireless Networks is demonstrated by proposing avertical handoff scheme and discusses its operation like handoff decision making, network selection and handoffexecution [13]. RSS and MN speed are the primary handoff metric. The MN speed is obtained by the GPSsystem and RSS information is gathered from RSS measurement function. The vertical handoff systeminfluences the packet drop rate in tight and loose integration approach under different load conditions. A Movement-Aware vertical (MAV) handover algorithm (MAVHWWi) between WLAN and MobileWiMAX for seamless ubiquitous access is addressed [14]. If a Mobile Station (MS)’s velocity is high and itsmovement pattern is irregular, unnecessary handovers likely occur more frequently. Therefore, the MS velocityand moving pattern are important factors for the handover decision procedure. To avoid unnecessary handovers,the MAV handover algorithm adjusts the dwell time adaptively and predicts the residual time in the cell oftarget Base Station (BS). A novel handover algorithm (DSVHAVC) in heterogeneous radio network for intelligent transportationsystem [15], a method decides the priority of radio access network that is most suitable for user’s application ata particular vehicular speed in the constraint resource environment. This algorithm is specific to vehicularcommunication system and hence variation in network selection with vehicle speed is presented. The resultsshow that the presented model not only realistically optimizes the best available network on the move but alsoavoids unnecessary handovers.2.3 Received Signal Strength (RSS) RSS is the most widely used criterion because it is easy to measure and is directly related to the servicequality. Majority of existing horizontal handover algorithms use RSS as the main decision criterion, and RSS isan important criterion for VHD algorithms as well, but it is not enough for a complete decision. It is the strengthof the signal received, as the RSS of the neighboring network rises above the threshold the Vertical Handoff isfeasible i.e. the handoff takes place if and only if RSS of the BS or Access Point (AP) is above the threshold. A Novel Decision Scheme for Vertical Handoff in 4G Networks, which introduce a Score functionwhich makes use of Bandwidth, RSS and Access fee as its parameters to find out best network at best time froma set of neighboring networks[1]. The scheme also makes use of classic triangle problem to find the bestnetwork from a set of neighboring networks considering the above three parameters as the three sides of atriangle. If an equilateral triangle is obtained with these parameters of a network then that network will be thebest among the set of networks. A dynamic decision model is to make the right vertical handoff decisions by determining the“best “network at “best” time among available networks [10]. The decision to decide best network is basedon static factors such as the bandwidth of each network (capacity), usage charges of each network, powerconsumption of each network interface and battery level of mobile device and dynamic factors are considered inhandoff decisions for effective network usage. Dynamic factor like RSS can help in improving whole system www.iosrjournals.org 12 | Page
    • A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networksperformance; current user conditions, such as a mobile host’s moving speed can eliminate certain networks thatdo not support mobility. A realistic performance analysis framework upon addressing relevant factors that affect theperformance of a voice application within a heterogeneous network environment is presented [16]. An algorithmis also introduced that takes into account the real-time packet error pattern along with RSS. A dynamic decision model (QAVHMN) to make the accurate vertical handoff decisions bydetermining the best network based on, dynamic factors such as RSS of network and Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR), Link capacity(offered bandwidth) and power consumption[17]. This model not only meets the individualuser needs but also improves the whole system performance by reducing the unnecessary handoffs. In [11], the different RSS threshold values for handoff is found depending on factors like the velocityof the MT, the latency of the handoff process the type of network the MT is presently in and the type of networkwith which the MT is trying to initiate handoff and the size of the CN/WLAN/HIPERLAN cell the MT ispresently residing. It ensures least amount of handoff failure probability, thus providing sufficient QoS for delaysensitive and real time services A location aided Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) architecture for vertical handoff in 4G networksis designed [18]. For predicting the mobility of the nodes, a route prediction technique is presented. Afterpredicting the mobility, AP selection is done by the route prediction server considering load and round trip timeas decision parameters. In this technique, at frequent time intervals, mobile node transmits received signalstrength indicator (RSSI) of adjacent access points (AP) to a Route Prediction Server (RPS). Based on RSSIthreshold, RPS identifies the location of mobile nodes. The Sugeno Fuzzy Inference system is used to find the decision for vertical handover [6]. Theinference use the crisp input values for network parameters such as available bandwidth, network load andsignal strength. The value of these network parameters are generated by event generator and are feed fuzzyinference system. The output of the fuzzy system is handover decision. A handoff decision process based on RSS, MN speed and Network traffic that offers seamless verticalhandoff to end users across 4G wireless networks [13]. Modifying the Client side Mobile IP is illustrated andwith this modification the handoff system is simple, scalable and cost effective. The handoff system influencesthe packet drop rate in tight and loose integration approach under different load conditions. An algorithm for handoff decision when MN need to switch to other network due to poor networkservice [7], a handoff decision is done based on both RSS and available bandwidth detail which is collected indatabase. The new scheme is compared with existing RSS based handoff scheme and it gives better performancein terms of PDR, total number of handoff, total time taken for handoff, total packet loss and channel utilization. A novel vertical handoff decision algorithm for overlay wireless networks (NFLVHADPM) consistingof cellular and wireless local area networks (WLANs) is designed [20]. The target network is selected using afuzzy logic-based normalized quantitative decision algorithm which, in addition to usual parameters such as thecurrent RSS and the available bandwidth, also takes a prediction of the RSS into account, resulting in a moreaccurate handoff. A vertical handover algorithm for vehicular communication [15], uses (RSS), initial delay forconnection establishment, network traffic load and bandwidth offered, service context like usage cost, usercontexts like type of application and terminal context like speed of the vehicle as different attributes of thisalgorithm. RSS is considered as the triggering factor, i.e, a network will be considered as an alternative only ifits RSS is above threshold.2.4 Power Consumption The wireless devices running on battery need to limit the power consumption. If the battery leveldecreases, switching for a network to another network with low power consumption can provide a longer usagetime. The power requirement becomes a critical issue especially if the hand held battery is low. In suchsituations, it is preferably transferred to an attachment point, and this will extend battery life. The attachment tothe closest AP or BS is known to consume the least power for individual mobile devices at a given instant. So ifbattery level is low the MT must handoff to the closest AP or BS provided RSS is above threshold. The numberof users also increases the congestion and in turn even the nearest AP or BS consumes more power. A dynamic decision model to make the right vertical handoff decisions is developed and this not onlymeets the individual needs but also improves the whole system performance by reducing the unnecessaryhandoff [17]. A service history-based VHO algorithm is introduced to reduce unnecessary handoffs and calldropping probability in addition to QoS parameter considerations. Simulation results show that the proposedVHO algorithm outperforms existing algorithms. A VHO decision algorithm is developed that enables a wireless access network to not only balance theoverall load among all attachment points (e.g., base stations and access points) but also maximize the collectivebattery lifetime of Mobile Nodes [21]. In addition, when ad hoc mode is applied to 3/4G wireless data networks, www.iosrjournals.org 13 | Page
    • A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless NetworksVANETs, and IEEE 802.11 WLANs for a more seamless integration of heterogeneous wireless networks, aroute-selection algorithm is devised for forwarding data packets to the most appropriate attachment point tomaximize collective battery lifetime and maintain load balancing. SeaMo, a vertical handoff (VHIHWN) that considers various parameters like RSSI, link quality metric,end-to-end available bandwidth, battery power, network usage costs etc., in making the VHO decision ispresented [19]. It has been tested in a realistic scenario with a 3G access network and multiple WLANsegments. It has performed satisfactorily and handed off between 3G and WLAN. The operational usage of 3Guses higher power than that for WLAN, the idle battery usage of WLAN is higher than that of 3G. Includingavailable battery power as a VHO decision parameter enables a faster handoff to WLAN, from 3G and delaysthe handoff from 3G to WLAN. A simple two step robust vertical handoff decision algorithm ( SRVHAHWMN) is presented [22]. Thefirst step describes the quick evaluation method for the pre-handoff decision. The second step presents thehandoff decision function for handoff execution. For resource-poor mobile nodes, vertical handoff decisionprocedure only considers the first step. On the other hand, for resource-rich mobile nodes, vertical handoffprocedure would consider both steps. This approach can reduce energy consumption on mobile nodes,especially on low energy mobile nodes.2.5 Throughput Network throughput refers to the average data rate of successful data or message delivery over aspecific communications link. Network throughput is measured in bits per second (bps). Maximum networkthroughput equals the TCP window size divided by the round-trip time of communications data packets. Asnetwork throughput is considered in dynamic metrics for making decision of VHO, it is one the importantrequirement to be considered for the VHO. A multi criteria vertical handoff decision algorithm ( MNHGAHWN) is presented which will select thebest available network with optimized parameter values [23]. In their model, they have taken into considerationthe following network parameters for vertical handoff decision function (i)bandwidth(B) (ii)latency(L) (iii)SNR(iv)throughput(TH) (v)cost(C) (vi)power consumption(P) and the network with minimum latency, cost, SNRand power consumption and maximum throughput will be selected, so that an appropriate QoS level can bemaintained and the number of handoff can be minimized for all the networks . In [24], a decision function (EDHMHN) is presented in which the system considers all the availablenetwork and user parameters (e.g., host velocity, battery status, Wi-Fi AP’s current load, and WiMAX BS QoSguarantees), and performs technology selection such that an overall system performance metric is optimized. Itdefines a new system-wise entity that is activated when a user is in an area with overlapping access technologiesand needs to decide the best technology to be used, where the entity performs technology selection in order tooptimize the overall system performance metric in terms of throughput and capacity limitation.2.6 Network Load Network load is to be considered during effective handoff. It is important to balance the network loadto avoid deterioration in quality of services. Variations in the traffic loads among cells will reduce the traffic-carrying capacity. To provide a high quality communication service for mobile subscribers and to enhance ahigh traffic-carrying capacity when there are variations in traffic, network load must be paid attention. A model is developed that analyzes the case in which a vehicle is kept at different positions of ahighway, and the network ranking optimizes the “best” network in multiple constraint environments [15]. Thisevaluation technique requires knowledge of vehicular speed, RSS, type of application (bandwidth requirements),network traffic load, usage cost of service and initial delay for connection establishment.The proposed methodology avoids unnecessary handovers and hence encounters “ping-pong effect”. SeaMo[19], a vertical handoff that considers various parameters like RSSI, link quality metric, end-to-end available bandwidth, battery power, network usage costs in making the VHO decision. It has been tested ina realistic scenario with a 3G access network and multiple WLAN. A novel vertical handoff decision algorithm for overlay wireless networks consisting of cellular andWLANs is given [20]. It has performed satisfactorily and handed off between 3G and WLAN. To reduce systemload, a pre-decision method is employed before actual handoff decision to filter out users with high mobility orlow RSS from using the WLAN. Simulation results show that the given algorithm can reduce the call-droppingprobability as well as unnecessary handoffs in heterogeneous network environments. In [11], a scheme in which the handoff decision will depend on the type of network the MT is presentlyin and also the type of network it is attempting handoff to ensure least amount of handoff failure probability,thus providing sufficient QoS for delay sensitive and real time services is presented. Effective handoff schemesalso ensure minimal false handoff initiation probability, which leads to congestion and hence dropping of calls. www.iosrjournals.org 14 | Page
    • A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networks2.7 User Preferences When handover happens, the users have more options for heterogeneous networks according to theirpreferences and network performance parameters. The user preferences could be preferred networks, userapplication requirements (real time, non-real time), service types (Voice, data, video), QoS (It is a set oftechnologies for managing network traffic in a cost effective manner to enhance user experiences for wirelessenvironments) etc. User Preferences can also be considered for VHO in next generation wireless networks. A novel handover algorithm is presented which uses AHP to solve decision problem in multipleconstraint environment and considers user preference in the algorithm [15]. The method decides the priority ofradio access network that is most suitable for user’s application at a particular vehicular speed in the constraintresource environment. Sensitivity analysis is done to justify the design of the algorithm. It is well suited fornetwork selection in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). A vertical handoff scheme is presented in [19] which makes use of fuzzy logic approach to makedecisions. The decision attributes are the processed parameters obtained from Pre Handoff (PHE) module. Theyare cost, user preference for the access network and battery power consumed by the access technology.2.8 Cost A multi criteria algorithm for handoff should also consider the network cost factor. The cost is to beminimized during VHO in wireless networks. The new call arrival rates and handoff call arrival rates can beanalyzed using cost function. Next Generation heterogeneous networks can combine their respective advantageson coverage and data rates, offering a high QoS to mobile users. In such environment, multi-interface terminalsshould seamlessly switch from one network to another in order to obtain improved performance or at least tomaintain a continuous wireless connection. Therefore, network selection cost is important in handoff decisions. A novel handover algorithm presented uses AHP and in the first level of AHP, “best network” selectionis made for seamless vehicular communication [15]. In order to reach this goal four criteria have been defined:usage cost, speed of the vehicle (mobility), type of application (bandwidth), network traffic load and initialdelay to setup the communication link. If QoS is equivalent for two networks then user will always opt for anetwork which offers low cost of service. The vertical handoff scheme designed considers various parameters like RSSI, link quality metric, end-to-end available bandwidth, battery power, network usage costs in making the VHO decision [19]. In HandoffDecision Making & Trigger (HDT) module, a fuzzy logic approach is used to make a decision. The decisionattributes are the processed parameters obtained from PHE module. They are cost, user preference for the accessnetwork and battery power consumed by the access technology. A multi criteria vertical handoff decision algorithm presented which will select the best availablenetwork with minimum latency, cost, SNR and power consumption and maximum throughput, so that anappropriate QoS level can be maintained and the number of handoff can be minimized for all the networks [23]. Re-searchers Title of Handoff Mechanism A Dynamic Decision Model for Vertical Handoffs across Pramod Goyal, and S. K. Saxena Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (DDMVH) Sourav Dhar, Amitava Ray, Design and Simulation of Vertical Handover Algorithm for Vehicular Rabindranath Bera Communication (DSVHAVC) Seema K, Gopi Krishna S Garge, A Vertical Handoff Implementation for Heterogeneous Wireless Anand S V R, & Malati Hegde Networks (VHIHWN) Liu Xia, Ling-ge Jiang and Chen A Novel Fuzzy Logic Vertical Handoff Algorithm with Aid of He Differential Prediction and Pre-Decision Method ( NFLVHADPM) Debabrata Sarddar, Shovan Maity, A RSS Based Adaptive Hand-Off Management Scheme In Arnab Raha, Ramesh Jana, Utpal Heterogeneous Networks (RBAHMS) Biswas, M.K. Naskar Jayalakshmi.S , Kumari Khushboo, Kirubhashri G.M. & M. L. Alphin A QoS Aware Vertical Handover In Mobile Network(QAVHMN) Ezhil Manuel Mrs.Chandralekha , Dr.Praffula Minimization of Number of Handoff using Genetic Algorithm in Kumar Behera Heterogeneous Wireless Networks ( MNHGAHWN) A. Dvir, R. Giladi, I. Kitroser, M. Efficient Decision Handoff Mechanism for Heterogeneous Networks Segal (EDHMHN) Wonjun Lee, Eunkyo Kim, Inkyu Movement-Aware Vertical Handoff of WLAN and Mobile WiMAX for Lee, Choonhwa Lee et.al Seamless Ubiquitous Access (MAVHWWi) Daojing He , Caixia Chi , Sammy A Simple and Robust Vertical Handoff Algorithm for Heterogeneous Chan , Chun Chen, Jiajun Bu, Wireless Mobile Networks ( SRVHAHWMN) Mingjian Yin Table 1: Title of the existing handoff mechanisms with respect to Researchers www.iosrjournals.org 15 | Page
    • A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networks Parameter criteriaHandoff mechanism User Network RSS Bandwidth Power Speed Cost Throughput Preference loadDDMVH [10] ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦DSVHAVC [15] ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦VHIHWN [19] ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦NFLVHADPM [20] ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦RBAHMS [11] ♦ ♦ ♦QAVHMN [17] ♦ ♦ ♦MNHGAHWN [23] ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦EDHMHN [24] ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦MAVHWWi [14] ♦ ♦ ♦SRVHAHWMN [22] ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Table 2: Parameters used in the existing handoff mechanisms III. Conclusion Seamless vertical handoff is still a challenging issue due to switching of mobile nodes amongst next generation heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we have highlighted some of the existing vertical handoff mechanisms and decision algorithms in the literature. The next generation heterogeneous wireless network has created still new challenges. In this paper, the important parameters for vertical handoff are discussed and some of them are Bandwidth, velocity, RSS, speed, throughput, Network load, and cost and user preferences. Selection of parameters for designing a vertical handoff mechanism is very crucial for the development of vertical handoff mechanism in next generation heterogeneous wireless networks. In this paper the evaluation of the existing vertical handoff mechanisms are done with respect to the parameters discussed. The evaluation indicates the necessity to design a VHO mechanism for next generation heterogeneous wireless network that satisfy multiple parameters. It is very difficult to select all the parameters during the decision of VHO mechanism, but the main parameters of the existing work are bandwidth, signal strength, and the decision model of VHO mechanism considering these parameters may yield better results. References [1] E. Arun & R.S Moni, (June 2010) “A Novel Decision Scheme for Vertical Handoff in 4G Wireless Networks”, GJCST Computing Classification, Page 28 Vol.10 Issue 5 Ver.1.0 [2] Ahmed H. Zahran and Ben Liang, (Feb 2010) “Performance Evaluation Framework for Vertical Handoff Algorithms in Heterogeneous Networks”. [3] Sung H. Kim and Yeong M. Jang, “Soft Qos-Based Vertical Handover Scheme for WLAN and WCDMA Networks using Dynamic Programming Approach”. [4] Dong Ma & Maode Ma,(April 2012) “A QoS Oriented Vertical Handoff Scheme for WiMAX/WLAN Overlay Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol 23, No 4. [5] K. Radhika et al,( Oct 2011),”AHP and Group Decision Making for Access Network Selection in Multi-Homed Mobile Terminals”, IJCSE , Vol. 3 No. 10. [6] Manoj Sharma & Dr. R.K.Khola, “An Intelligent Approach for Handover Decision in Heterogeneous Wireless Environment”, International Journal of Engineering (IJE), Volume (4): Issue (5). [7] Mithun B Patil,( Oct 2011) “Vertical Handoff in Future Heterogenous 4G Network”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.11 No.10. [8] Mohammad Rafiq, Seema Kumar, Nagaraj Kammar, Guru Prasad,Gopi Krishna S Garge, Anand SVR, Malati Hegde, “A Vertical Handoff Decision Scheme for End-to-End QoS in Heterogeneous Networks: An Implementation on a Mobile IP Testbed”. [9] Presila Israt, Namvi Chakma, and M. M. A. Hashem, (Dec 2009)” A Fuzzy Logic-Based Adaptive Handoff Management Protocol for Next-Generation Wireless Systems”, Journal of Networks, Vol.4, No.10. [10] Pramod Goyal, and S. K. Saxena, ”A Dynamic Decision Model for Vertical Handoffs across Heterogeneous Wireless Networks“. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 41 2008.E [11] Debabrata Sarddar, Shovan Maity, Arnab Raha, Ramesh Jana, Utpal Biswas, M.K. Naskar, ”A RSS Based Adaptive Hand-Off Management Scheme In Heterogeneous Networks”, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 6, November 2010. [12] Debabrata Sarddar, Tapas Jana, Souvik Kumar Saha, Joydeep Banerjee ,Utpal Biswas, M.K. Naskar, “Minimization of Handoff Failure Probability forNext-Generation Wireless Systems “,International Journal of Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN) Vol.2, No.2, June 2010. [13] S.V.Saboji, C.B.Akki,” A Client Based Vertical Handoff System in 4G Wireless Networks”, Journal of Advances in Information Technology, Vol 1, No.4, Nov 2010. [14] Wonjun Lee, Eunkyo Kim, Joongheon Kim, Inkyu Lee, Choonhwa Lee, “Movement-Aware Vertical Handoff of WLAN and Mobile WiMAX for Seamless Ubiquitous Access”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 4, NOVEMBER 2007. [15] Sourav Dhar, Amitava Ray, Rabindranath Bera,” Design and Simulation of Vertical Handover algorithm for Vehicular Communications”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(10), 2010, 5509-5525. www.iosrjournals.org 16 | Page
    • A Comprehensive Parametric Analysis of Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networks[16] Tariq M. Ali, Mohammad Saquib, and Chaitali Sengupta ,” Performance Analysis Framework and Vertical Handover Triggering Algorithms for Voice over WLAN/Cellular Network”[17] Jayalakshmi.S , Kumari Khushboo, Kirubhashri G.M. & M. L. Alphin Ezhil Manuel,”(2012) A QoS Aware Vertical Handover In Mobile Network”, International Journal of Communication Network and Security (-1882 Volume IJCNS) ISSN: 2231. 1 , Issue. 3[18] Shiva Prasad Kaleru, Damodaram Avula,” Location Aided HMIPv6 Architecture for Vertical Handoff in 4G Networks”, American Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-223X Issue 40(2011), pp. 32-45.[19] Seema K, Gopi Krishna S Garge, Anand S V R, and Malati Hegde,”Experiences with SeaMo: A Vertical Handoff Implementation for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks” Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network 2011 v. 32, p. 79-90.[20] Liu Xia, Ling-ge Jiang and Chen He, “A Novel Fuzzy Logic Vertical Handoff Algorithm with Aid of Differential Prediction and Pre-Decision Method”, IEEE Communications Society, ICC 2007 proceedings.[21] SuKyoung Lee, Member, IEEE, Kotikalapudi Sriram, Fellow, IEEE, Kyungsoo Kim,Yoon Hyuk Kim, and Nada Golmie, Member, IEEE, “ Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms for Providing Optimized Performance in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 58, No. 2, February 2009.[22] Daojing He , Caixia Chi, Sammy Chan ,Chun Chen, Jiajun Bu, Mingjian Yin,” A Simple and Robust Vertical Handoff Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Mobile Networks”, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010.[23] Mrs.Chandralekha , Dr.Praffula Kumar Behera ,” Minimization of Number of handoff using Genetic Algorithm in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks”, International Journal of Latest Trends in Computing (E-ISSN: 2045-5364) 24 Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2010.[24] A. Dvir, R. Giladi, I. Kitroser, M. Segal, “ Efficient Decision Handoff Mechanism for Heterogeneous Networks ”, International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Networks (IJWMN), Vol 2, No.1, February 2010.[25] Mandeep Kaur Gondara1 and Dr. Sanjay Kadam, “Requirements of Vertical Handoff Mechanism in 4G Wireless Networks”, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN) Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2011.[26] Ionut BOSOANCA, Anca VARGATU, “ An Overview of Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms in NGWNs and a new Scheme for Providing Optimized Performance in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks “,Informatica Economică vol. 15, no. 1/2011. www.iosrjournals.org 17 | Page