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A websiteis a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that
is hosted on one or several Web server, usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a
The pages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called
the homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pages
organize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control how the
reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different
parts of the sites.
A website requires attractive design and proper arrangement of links and images,
which enables a browser to easily interpret and access the properties of the site. Hence it
provides the browser with adequate information and functionality about the organization,
community, network etc.
With the growing Information Technology industry, automation of their system
and management is desired by all kind of commercial enterprises.
As the name suggest library management system will deal in all the requirements
needed for managing libraries. It will deal with the process of maintaining data about the
books and many other things as well as transactions which are taking place in the library
with respect to the issue and return of the books.
Library Management System maintains the record of Books in the library, issue
and return process of the books in the library. Here we are primarily concerned with
management of books of library. In this project we identify the need for computer based
Library Management system.
Hence this project covers the following issues:
Maintains data about the books of the library.
Arranging data in logical order for easy maintenance.
Collection of data about books which are issued.
Collection of data about books which are returned.
Data of fine on the members for late return of books, damage of books etc.
Data about Books which are lost.
Generation of various reports according to the management request.
Window server 2008 (also referred to as WIN 2k8) is a server operating system
produced by Microsoft. Introduced in 7th
Jan 2009 as the successor to window 2003
server, it is considered by Microsoft to be the corner stone of its window server system
line of business server products. An update version Window Server 2008 R2 was released
manufacturing on 6th
May, 2010. According to Microsoft, window server 2008 is more
scalable and delivers better performance than its predecessor window 2003.
This server is used to provide a network infrastructure to an organization. This
carries various no of features, roles & services that are used to deploy any system or
software over the whole organizational network.
To publish information for global distribution, one needs a universally understood
language, a kind of publishing mother tongue that all computers may potentially
understand. The publishing language used by the World Wide Web is HTML (from
Hyper Text Markup Language).
HTML gives authors the means to:
Publish online documents with headings, text, tables, lists, photos, etc.
Retrieve online information via hypertext links, at the click of a button.
Design forms for conducting transactions with remote services, for use in
searching for information, making reservations, ordering products, etc.
Include spread-sheets, video clips, sound clips, and other applications directly in
HTML was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN, and
popularized by the Mosaic browser developed at NCSA. During the course of the 1990s
it has blossomed with the explosive growth of the Web. During this time, HTML has
been extended in a number of ways. The Web depends on Web page authors and vendors
sharing the same conventions for HTML. This has motivated joint work on specifications
It is a platform independent language that can be used on any platform such as
Windows, Linux, Macintosh, and so on. To display a document in web it is essential to
mark-up the different elements (headings, paragraphs, tables, and so on) of the document
with the HTML tags. To view a mark-up document, user has to open the document in a
browser. A browser understands and interpret the HTML tags, identifies the structure of
the document (which part are which) and makes decision about presentation (how the
parts look) of the document.
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) documents are written in plain text
(ASCII) with special markup codes embedded right in the text. This means HTML files
contain nothing but printable characters and HTML markup codes. This is unlike a word
file which can contain special characters for formatting functions.
What distinguishes an HTML file from any other plain – text file is the presence
of markup codes. Markup codes are typed into document and control the formatting and
layout of our finished document. The markup codes that are typed into a document are
enclosed within these angle brackets: ―<>‖. The angle brackets and the markup codes
together constitute a tag. When we are talking about an HTML document we refer to it as
a ―source‖ document. Here is an example of the ―source‖ of a simple HTML document:
<TITLE> Simple HTML document </TITLE>
This is very simple html document.
CREATING A SIMPLE HTML DOCUMENT:
The essential tags that are required to create a HTML document are:
HTML Tag <HTML>
The <HTML> tag encloses all other HTML tags and associated text within your
document. It is an optional tag. We can create an HTML document that omits these tags,
and our browser can still read it and display it. But it is always a good form to include the
start and stop tags.
The format is:
Your Title and Document (contains text with HTML tags) goes here
Most HTML tags have two parts, an opening tag and closing tag. The closing tag is the
same as the opening tag, except for the slash mark e.g </HTML>. The slash mark is
always used in closing tags.
An HTML document has two distinct parts HEAD and BODY.
The Format is:
HEAD Tag <HEAD>
HEAD tag comes after the HTML start tag. It contains TITLE tag to give the document a
title that displays on the browsers title bar at the top.
The Format is:
Your title goes here
BODY Tag <BODY>
The BODY tag contains all the text and graphics of the document with all the HTML tags
that are used for control and formatting of the page.
The Format is:
Your Document goes here
An HTML document, web page can be created using a text editor, Notepad or WordPad.
All the HTML documents should have the extension .htm or .html. It require a web
browser like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator/Communicator to view the
Example: It is my first web page
Follow the steps to create and view in browser:
Step-1: Open text editor Notepad
Step-2: Enter the following lines of code:
My first Page
WELCOME TO MY FIRST WEB PAGE
Step-3: Save the file as myfirstpage.html
Step-4: Viewing document in web browser
ASP.NET is a radical update of Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP).
ASP.NET is a powerful server based technology designed to create dynamic and
interactive HTML pages on demand for our Web site or corporate intranet. Its design
improves upon nearly every feature of classic ASP, from reducing the amount of code
you need to write to giving you more power and flexibility.
ASP.NET is a key element in Microsoft’s .NET Framework, providing Web-
based access to the immensely powerful .NET development environment. It allows us to
create Web applications in a new, flexible way by placing commonly used code into
reusable controls of various kinds that can fire events initiated by the users of a site.
ASP.NET branches out into many other technologies, such as Web services,
ADO.NET, custom controls, and security. We will briefly touch upon its relationship
with these fields throughout to provide a solid, comprehensive understanding of how
ASP.NET can benefit our work in a practical way.
ASP.NET 3.5 itself is a fairly light update to the complete wholesale changes that
occurred in ASP.NET 3.0.
By the end of we will be familiar with the anatomy of ASP.NET 3.5 and be able
to create powerful, secure, and robust Web sites that can collect and work with
information in a multitude of ways to the benefit of both we and our users.
One of the most eye-catching things about ASP.NET is the way we can use any
programming language based on the .NET Framework, such as C#, Jscript.NET, or
VB.NET to create our Web applications. Within these applications, ASP.NET allows us
to customize pages for a particular user and makes it simpler to keep track of a particular
user’s details as they move around.
ASP.NET makes storing information to a database or self-describing XML
document faster and easier. We can alter the layout of the page using a free Web page
editor – Web Matrix – designed to be used with ASP.NET, rather than positioning
everything manually within code, and even alter the contents of files on your machine, if
we have the correct permissions.
ASP: A server-side technology for creating dynamic Web pages that only
lets you use scripting languages.
ASP.NET: A server-side technology for creating dynamic Web pages that
lets you use any full-fledged programming language supported by .NET
C#: This book’s chosen programming language for writing code in
WHAT IS A STATIC WEB PAGE?
Static Web pages are often easy to spot; sometimes we can pick them out by just
looking at the content of the page. The content (text, images, hyperlinks, and so on) and
appearance of static Web pages is always the same – regardless of who visits the page, or
how and when they arrive at the page, or any other factor.
<title>A Welcome Message</title>
Welcome to our humble website. Please feel free to view our
<a HREF=‖contents.htm‖>list of contents</a>.
1. A Web Author writes a page using only HTML and saves it within an .htm file on
the Web server.
2. Sometime later, a user types a page request (URL) into a browser, and the request
passes from the browser to the Web server.
3. The Web server locates the .htm page and converts it to an HTML stream.
4. The Web server sends the HTML stream back across the network to the browser.
5. The browser processes the HTML and displays the page.
Web servers are software that manage Web pages and make them available to
client browsers – via a local network or over the Internet. In the case of the Internet, the
Web server and browser are usually on two different machines, possibly many miles
apart. However, in a local situation we can set up a machine that runs the Web server
software, and then use a browser on the same machine to look at its Web pages.
It makes no difference whether we access a remote Web server (a Web server on
a different machine from our browser) or a local one (Web server and browser on the
same machine), since the Web server’s function – to make Web pages available to all –
remains unchanged. It may be that we are the only person with access to our own
machine nevertheless the principles remain the same.
DYNAMIC WEB PAGE
CLIENT SIDE DYNAMIC WEB PAGE:
In the client-side model, modules (or plug-ins) attached to the browser do all the work of
creating dynamic pages. The HTML code is typically sent to the browser along with a
separate file containing a set of instructions, which is referenced from within the HTML
page. However, it is also quite common to find these instructions intermingled with
HTML code. The browser then uses them to generate pure HTML for the page when the
user requests the page – in other words, the page is generated dynamically on request.
This produces an HTML page, which is sent back from the plug-in to the browser.
1. A Web author writes a set of instructions for creating HTML and saves it within an
.htm file. The author also writes a set of instructions in a different language. This might
be contained within the .htm file or within a separate file.
2. Sometime later, a user types a page request into the browser, and the request is passed
from the browser to the Web server.
3. The Web server locates the .htm page and possibly a second file that contains the
4. The Web server sends both the newly created HTML stream and instructions back
across the network to the browser.
5. A module within the browser processes the instructions and returns it as HTML within
the .htm page – only one page is returned, even if two were requested.
6. The HTML is then processed by the browser, which displays the page.
SERVER SIDE DYNAMIC WEB PAGE:
With the server-side model, the HTML source is sent to the Web server with an extra set
of instructions (that can be intermingled or sent separately). This set of instructions is
again used to generate HTML for the page at the time the user requests the page. Once
again, the page is generated dynamically upon request.
1. A Web author writes a set of instructions for creating HTML and saves these
instructions within a file.
2. Sometime later, a user types a page request into the browser, and the request is
passed from the browser to the Web server.
3. The Web server locates the file of instructions.
4. The Web order to create a stream of HTML server follows the instructions in.
5. The Web server sends the newly created HTML stream back across the network
to the browser.
6. The browser processes the HTML and displays the page.
3.1 EXISTING SYSTEM
3.1.1 COLLEGE WEBSITE
The existing college website is static which makes it less interactive. It doesn't
have any interactive interface. Moreover students didn't have an access to the details of
the college through the site, hence they were not updated about the latest events and
There are various pages which doesn’t have any data to show. There is no gallery
view for the site which is an important aspect of any college to show its extra-curricular
In library, previously whole work is managed manually, which is very
inconvenient and inefficient way. Manual system leads to some problem such as
inefficiency in controlling project, problems in project scheduling, problems in data
handling and generating reports.
In the manual system which was existing previously the each information about
the student was handled manually, there are their name, address, phone no. etc. lot of
time and stationary were required. We could not access whole information about student
at a single time.
In library management system the information about the book submission, book
type, number of copies available in library. So maintain these all information was
difficult by manually. There was the problem that we could not access the record of
particular information at a single time.
Book issue and maintenance problems are also occurring in manual or
There doesn’t exist any local network infrastructure for providing various services
in local systems of the college. No local data sharing of software’s and tools which are
required to perform practical’s by the students in lab. If exists, proper maintenance of that
is not done. Proper managing of servers in college is not done.
Maintenance of computer is college is done individually that leads to problems
like improper formatting, systems sometimes not responds to various software’s etc. The
IP’s assigned to the systems are manually that leads to the IP conflict and other problems.
There is no categorization for various labs according to the functionality of labs.
This leads to policy malfunctioning in the labs.
There is no forum or any local management system on the college FTP server by
which students can see their attendance, marks etc. and faculties can upload all the details
for particular branch or department which are displayed in conventional manner.
3.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM
3.2.1 COLLEGE WEBSITE
In order to make the site dynamic and more interactive we have tried to include all
types of dynamic features supported by asp.net and html in our college website. The
recruiters have been provided with the facility to post their eligibility criteria, vacancies
and salary packages.
Provision has also been made to display the latest events and announcements
associated with the college. We have made a graphical and 3D gallery for the latest
videos and pictures of carious college’s extra-curricular activities.
We have used the various dynamic displaying techniques for showing the data in
very interactive manner. We used Flash and CSS to provide a very interactive user
interface. We also used various animation effects to make the website better.
To achieve various goals and sub-goals set above, broadly three solutions where
examined. These solutions are consists of:
1. Specification of information to be made available by the system.
2. Description of what will be done manually and what has to be done by the
3. Specification of the new computer equipment’s that is required. For each
alternative solution cost and benefit have to be examined before deciding one of
Solution A: -- One can improve existing manual system by carrying out the following
All the related records could be updated as soon as Book is issued. Instead of keeping
information at various places about the books and the members of the library a master
register can be made and it can be kept at the center place. A data entry staff can be made
to sit at the counter and can be assigned the job of entering all the books details and
verifying it at the same time. He can also be assigned the job of taking out reports
regularly on a fixed date. A separate master file can also be made for the employees and
it can also be kept at the centre.
Solution B: -- A transaction file can be maintained in which records related to a particular
period can be kept and after a fixed interval main records could be updated using this
Solution C: -- This is an online information system which helps infast information
retrieval of the books when member request for the issue of book. Various calculations
become easy such as calculation of fine.
We are getting more performance by implementing this proposed system.
1. Immediate retrieval of information.
2. Better storage facility.
3. Better sorting of efficient report.
4. Quick sorting of information.
5. Preparation of efficient report.
6. Accuracy of data i.e. no redundancy hence no inconsistency.
7. Prompt updating of information.
We have made a local network infrastructure using the services of windows server
2008, providing data sharing at very fast access.
Maintenance of computer is college is done now in a centralized manner using
DHCP service of server. This service assigns the IP’s to the computer connected to the
server and they became clients. Server can monitor all the activities of them.
There are now centralized user groups which are imposed by various policies and
restrictions according to the requirement of particular labs. We have made an
administrator and a user account given different policies according to their functions.
Now we have made an FTP server where we can implement any management
system online. For e.g. student profile management system which interact with students
as well as faculties to provide their things easily.
In server we can implement an online notice board which can be opened in any
system of college connected to that server, providing students to see the notices online.
This work is done departmentally. This is reducing the man power cost and extra stress to
display manually on notice board.
3.3 TECHNOLOGIES USED TO DEVELOP
3.3.1 COLLEGE WEBSITE
The designing part of the website is done by various languages and designing
ASP.NET is not just a simple upgrade or the latest version of ASP. ASP.NET
combines unprecedented developer productivity with performance, reliability, and
deployment. ASP.NET redesigns the whole process. It's still easy to grasp for new
comers but it provides many new ways of managing projects. Below are the features of
• Easy Programming Model
ASP.NET makes building real world Web applications dramatically easier.
ASP.NET server controls enable an HTML-like style of declarative programming that let
you build great pages with far less code than with classic ASP. Displaying data,
validating user input, and uploading files are all amazingly easy. Best of all, ASP.NET
pages work in all browsers including Netscape, Opera, AOL, and Internet Explorer.
• Flexible Language Options
ASP.NET lets you leverage your current programming language skills. Unlike
classic ASP, which supports only interpreted VBScript and J Script, ASP.NET now
supports more than 25 .NET languages (built-in support for VB.NET, C#, and
JScript.NET), giving us unprecedented flexibility in the choice of language.
• Great Tool Support
We can harness the full power of ASP.NET using any text editor, even Notepad.
But Visual Studio .NET adds the productivity of Visual Basic-style development to the
Web. Now we can visually design ASP.NET Web Forms using familiar drag-drop-double
click techniques, and enjoy full-fledged code support including statement completion and
color-coding. VS.NET also provides integrated support for debugging and deploying
ASP.NET Web applications. The Enterprise versions of Visual Studio .NET deliver life-
cycle features to help organizations plan, analyze, design, build, test, and coordinate
teams that develop ASP.NET Web applications. These include UML class modeling,
database modeling (conceptual, logical, and physical models), testing tools (functional,
performance and scalability), and enterprise frameworks and templates, all available
within the integrated Visual Studio .NET environment.
• Rich Class Framework
Application features that used to be hard to implement, or required a 3rd-party
component, can now be added in just a few lines of code using the .NET Framework. The
.NET Framework offers over 4500 classes that encapsulate rich functionality like XML,
data access, file upload, regular expressions, image generation, performance monitoring
and logging, transactions, message queuing, SMTP mail, and much more. With Improved
Performance and Scalability ASP.NET lets we use serve more users with the same
• Compiled execution
ASP.NET is much faster than classic ASP, while preserving the "just hit save"
update model of ASP. However, no explicit compile step is required. ASP.NET will
automatically detect any changes, dynamically compile the files if needed, and store the
compiled results to reuse for subsequent requests. Dynamic compilation ensures that the
application is always up to date, and compiled execution makes it fast. Most applications
migrated from classic ASP see a 3x to 5x increase in pages served.
• Rich output caching
ASP.NET output caching can dramatically improve the performance and
scalability of the application. When output caching is enabled on a page, ASP.NET
executes the page just once, and saves the result in memory in addition to sending it to
the user. When another user requests the same page, ASP.NET serves the cached result
from memory without re-executing the page. Output caching is configurable, and can be
used to cache individual regions or an entire page. Output caching can dramatically
improve the performance of data-driven pages by eliminating the need to query the
database on every request.
• Enhanced Reliability
ASP.NET ensures that the application is always available to the users.
• Memory Leak, Dead Lock and Crash Protection
ASP.NET automatically detects and recovers from errors like deadlocks and
memory leaks to ensure our application is always available to our users. For example, say
that our application has a small memory leak, and that after a week the leak has tied up a
significant percentage of our server's virtual memory. ASP.NET will detect this
condition, automatically start up another copy of the ASP.NET worker process, and
direct all new requests to the new process. Once the old process has finished processing
its pending requests, it is gracefully disposed and the leaked memory is released.
Automatically, without administrator intervention or any interruption of service,
ASP.NET has recovered from the error.
• Easy Deployment
ASP.NET takes the pain out of deploying server applications. "No touch"
application deployment. ASP.NET dramatically simplifies installation of our application.
With ASP.NET, we can deploy an entire application as easily as an HTML page; just
copy it to the server. No need to run regsvr32 to register any components, and
configuration settings are stored in an XML file within the application.
• Dynamic update of running application
ASP.NET now let’s we update compiled components without restarting the web
server. In the past with classic COM components, the developer would have to restart the
web server each time he deployed an update. With ASP.NET, we simply copy the
component over the existing DLL;ASP.NET will automatically detect the change and
start using the new code.
CASCADING STYLE SHEETS (CSS) is a style sheet language used for
describing the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in
a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML
and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document,
including plain XML, SVG and XUL.
CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written
in HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation, including elements
such as the layout, colors, and fonts. This separation can improve content accessibility,
provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics,
enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity and repetition in the
structural content (such as by allowing for table less web design). CSS can also allow the
same markup page to be presented in different styles for different rendering methods,
such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser or screen
reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices. It can also be used to allow the web page to
display differently depending on the screen size or device on which it is being viewed.
While the author of a document typically links that document to a CSS style sheet,
readers can use a different style sheet, perhaps one on their own computer, to override the
one the author has specified.
Separation of content from presentation
CSS facilitates publication of content in multiple presentation formats
based on nominal parameters. Nominal parameters include explicit user
preferences, different web browsers, the type of device being used to view the
content (a desktop computer or mobile Internet device), the geographic location of
the user and many other variables.
Main articles: Separation of presentation and content and Style sheet (web
development) When CSS is used effectively, in terms of inheritance and
"cascading," a global style sheet can be used to affect and style elements site-
wide. If the situation arises that the styling of the elements should need to be
changed or adjusted, these changes can be made by editing rules in the global
style sheet. Before CSS, this sort of maintenance was more difficult, expensive
A stylesheet, internal or external, will specify the style once for a range of
HTML elements selected by class, type or relationship to others. This is much
more efficient than repeating style information inline for each occurrence of the
element. An external stylesheet is usually stored in the browser cache, and can
therefore be used on multiple pages without being reloaded, further reducing data
transfer over a network.
With a simple change of one line, a different style sheet can be used for
the same page. This has advantages for accessibility, as well as providing the
ability to tailor a page or site to different target devices. Furthermore, devices not
able to understand the styling still display the content.
Without CSS, web designers must typically lay out their pages with
techniques that hinder accessibility for vision-impaired users, like HTML tables.
ADOBE FLASH (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a multimediaplatform used to
add animation, video, and interactivity to web pages. Flash is frequently used for
advertisements, games and flash animations for broadcast. More recently, it has been
positioned as a tool for "Rich Internet Applications" ("RIAs").
Flash manipulates vector and raster graphics to provide animation of text,
drawings, and still images. It supports bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it
can capture user input via mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera. Flash contains an
Flash language (JSFL).
Flash content may be displayed on various computer systems and devices, using
Adobe Flash Player, which is available free of charge for common web browsers, some
mobile phones, and a few other electronic devices (using Flash Lite).
We used different tools and various software’s for the development of website-
MICROSOFT VISUAL STUDIO is an integrated development environment
(IDE) from Microsoft. It is used to develop console and graphical user
interfaceapplications along with Windows Forms applications, web sites, web
applications, and web services in both native code together with managed code for all
platforms supported by Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, .NET
Framework, .NET Compact Framework and Microsoft Silverlight.
Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense as well as code
refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a
machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a forms designer for building GUI
applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It accepts plug-
ins that enhance the functionality at almost every level—including adding support for
source-control systems (like Subversion and Visual SourceSafe) and adding new toolsets
like editors and visual designers for domain-specific languages or toolsets for other
aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the Team Foundation Server client:
Visual Studio supports different programming languages by means of language
services, which allow the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees) nearly
any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in
languages include C/C++ (via Visual C++), VB.NET (via Visual Basic .NET), C# (via
Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2010). Support for other languages such as M,
Python, and Ruby among others is available via language services installed separately. It
specific versions of Visual Studio also exist which provide more limited language
services to the user: Microsoft Visual Basic, Visual J#, Visual C#, and Visual C++.
FLASH GALLERY FACTORY is software which is used to make Flash
Galleries. A Flash Gallery is a web application that allows users to create a slideshow on
their websites. It is based on Flash and PHP, but it can be installed without any
programming skills. Users are required to embed a piece of HTML code into their site,
and the application automatically generates a slideshow using local images or a Flickr
photo stream. The look of the application is customizable via an XML file.
C# (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE) The substitution or omission of the # sign is
because of technical restrictions. C# is a multi-paradigm programming language
encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented
(class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by
Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by (ECMA-334) and
ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the
Common Language Infrastructure.
C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented
programming language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most
recent version is C# 5.0, which was released on August 15, 2012.
C# language is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented
The language, and implementations thereof, should provide support for software
engineering principles such as strong type checking, array bounds checking,
detection of attempts to use uninitialized variables, and automatic garbage
collection. Software robustness, durability, and programmer productivity are
The language is intended for use in developing software components suitable for
deployment in distributed environments.
Source code portability is very important, as is programmer portability, especially
for those programmers already familiar with C and C++.
Support for internationalization is very important.
C# is intended to be suitable for writing applications for both hosted and
embedded systems, ranging from the very large that use sophisticated operating
systems, down to the very small having dedicated functions.
Although C# applications are intended to be economical with regard to memory
and processing power requirements, the language was not intended to compete
directly on performance and size with C or assembly language.
STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL) is a special-purpose programming
language designed for managing data in relational database management systems
Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus,
includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification,
and data access control.
SQL was one of the first commercial languages for Edgar F. Codd's relational
model, as described in his influential 1970 paper, "A Relational Model of Data for
Large Shared Data Banks‖. Despite not adhering to the relational model as
described by Codd, it became the most widely used database language. Although
SQL is often described as, and to a great extent is, a declarative language, it also
includes procedural elements. SQL became a standard of the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1986, and of the International Organization for
Standards (ISO) in 1987. Since then, the standard has been enhanced several
times with added features. However, issues of SQL code portability between
major RDBMS products still exist due to lack of full compliance with, or different
interpretations of, the standard. Among the reasons mentioned are the large size
and incomplete specification of the standard, as well as vendor lock-in.
WINDOWS SERVER 2008 is built from the same code base as Windows Vista;
therefore, it shares much of the same architecture and functionality. Since the code base
is common, it automatically comes with most of the technical, security, management and
administrativefeatures new to Windows Vista such as the rewritten networking stack
(native IPv6, native wireless, speed and security improvements); improved image-based
installation, deployment and recovery; improved diagnostics, monitoring, event logging
and reporting tools; new security features such as Bit Locker and ASLR (address space
layout randomization); improved Windows Firewall with secure default configuration;
.NET Framework 3.0 technologies, specifically Windows Communication Foundation,
Microsoft Message Queuing and Windows Workflow Foundation; and the core kernel,
memory and file system improvements. Processors and memory devices are modeled as
Plug and Play devices, to allow hot-plugging of these devices. This allows the system
resources to be partitioned dynamically using Dynamic Hardware Partitioning; each
partition has its own memory, processor and I/O host bridge devices independent of other
Windows Server 2008 includes a variation of installation called Server Core.
Server Core is a significantly scaled-back installation where no Windows Explorer shell
is installed. All configuration and maintenance is done entirely through command line
interface windows, or by connecting to the machine remotely using Microsoft
Management Console. However, Notepad and some control panel applets, such as
Regional Settings, are available.
Server Core does not include the .NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows
PowerShell or many other features not related to core server features. A Server Core
machine can be configured for several basic roles: Domain controller/Active Directory
Domain Services, ADLDS (ADAM), DNS Server, DHCP Server, file server, print server,
Windows Media Server, IIS 7Web server and Hyper-V virtual server. Server Core can
also be used to create a cluster with high availability using failover clustering or network
Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Windows Server team, noted that a
primary motivation for producing a Server Core variant of Windows Server 2008 was to
reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and that about 70% of the security
vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the prior five years would not have affected
Active Directory roles
Active Directory roles are expanded with identity, certificate, and rights management
services. Active Directory, until Windows Server 2003, allowed network administrators
to centrally manage connected computers, to set policies for groups of users, and to
centrally deploy new applications to multiple computers. This role of Active Directory is
being renamed as Active Directory Domain Services (ADDS). A number of other
additional services are being introduced, including Active Directory Federation Services
(ADFS), Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), (formerly Active
Directory Application Mode, or ADAM), Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS),
and Active Directory Rights Management Services (ADRMS). Identity and certificate
services allow administrators to manage user accounts and the digital certificates that
allow them to access certain services and systems. Federation management services
enable enterprises to share credentials with trusted partners and customers, allowing a
consultant to use his company user name and password to log in on a client's network.
Identity Integration Feature Pack is included as Active Directory Metadirectory Services.
Each of these services represents a server role.
Windows Server 2008 offers high-availability to services and applications through
Failover Clustering. Most server features and roles can be kept running with little to no
In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the way clusters are
qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard.The
cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows
Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. With the cluster validation wizard, an
administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to
use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware
and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well
failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration.
Note: This feature is only available in Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows
In Windows versions prior to Windows Vista, if the operating system detected
corruption in the file system of an NTFS volume, it marked the volume "dirty"; to correct
errors on the volume, it had to be taken offline. With self-healing NTFS, an NTFS worker
thread is spawned in the background which performs a localized fix-up of damaged data
structures, with only the corrupted files/folders remaining unavailable without locking
out the entire volume and needing the server to be taken down. The operating system now
features S.M.A.R.T. detection techniques to help determine when a hard disk may fail.
Hyper-V is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of
Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel
layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small
computational partitions. Hyper-V includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization
hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized. A beta
version of Hyper-V shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server 2008, prior
to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V on 26 June 2008 as a free
download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V exists; this version supports only x86-
64 architecture. While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server 2008 cannot run or install
Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V.
Windows System Resource Manager
Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) is integrated into Windows Server
2008. It provides resource management and can be used to control the amount of
resources a process or a user can use based on business priorities. Process Matching
Criteria, which is defined by the name, type or owner of the process, enforces restrictions
on the resource usage by a process that matches the criteria. CPU time, bandwidth that it
can use, number of processors it can be run on, and allocated to a process can be
restricted. Restrictions can be set to be imposed only on certain dates as well.
Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008.It is
a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard SCW from
Windows Server 2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server
dialog that launches by default on Windows Server 2003 machines. However, rather than
serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together
all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote
deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc., and provides a consolidated,
portal-like view about the status of each role.
Other new or enhanced features include:
Core OS improvements
Fully multi-componentized operating system.
Improved hot patching, a feature that allows non-kernel patches to occur
without the need for a reboot.
Support for being booted from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant
firmware on x86-64 systems.
Dynamic Hardware Partitioning
o Support for the hot-addition or replacement of processors and memory,
on capable hardware.
Active Directory improvements
Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) in Active Directory, intended for use
in branch office or other scenarios where a domain controller may reside in a
low physical security environment. The RODC holds a non-writeable copy of
Active Directory, and redirects all write attempts to a Full Domain Controller.
It replicates all accounts except sensitive ones. In RODC mode, credentials
are not cached by default. Moreover, only the replication partner of the RODC
needs to run Windows Server 2008. Also, local administrators can log on to
the machine to perform maintenance tasks without requiring administrative
rights on the domain.
Restartable Active Directory allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted from
the Management Console or the command-line without rebooting the domain
controller. This reduces downtime for offline operations and reduces overall
DC servicing requirements with Server Core. ADDS is implemented as a
Domain Controller Service in Windows Server 2008.
Policy related improvements
All of the Group Policyimprovements from Windows Vista are included.
Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) is built-in. The Group Policy
objects are indexed for search and can be commented on.
Policy-based networking with Network Access Protection, improved branch
management and enhanced end user collaboration. Policies can be created to
ensure greater Quality of Service for certain applications or services that
require prioritization of network bandwidth between client and server.
Granular password settings within a single domain - ability to implement
different password policies for administrative accounts on a "group" and
"user" basis, instead of a single set of password settings to the whole domain.
Disk management and file storage improvements
The ability to resize hard disk partitions without stopping the server, even the
system partition. This applies only to simple and spanned volumes, not to
Shadow Copy based block-level backup which supports optical media,
network shares and Windows Recovery Environment.
DFS enhancements - SYSVOL on DFS-R, Read-only Folder Replication
Member. There is also support for domain-based DFS namespaces that exceed
the previous size recommendation of 5,000 folders with targets in a
Several improvements to Failover Clustering (High-availability clusters).
Internet Storage Naming Server (iSNS) enables central registration,
deregistration and queries for iSCSI hard drives.
Protocol and cryptography improvements
Support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption for the Kerberos authentication
New cryptography (CNG) API which supports elliptic curve cryptography and
improved certificate management.
Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a new Microsoft proprietaryVPN protocol.
AuthIP, a Microsoft proprietary extension of the IKEcryptographic protocol
used in IPsecVPN networks.
Server Message Block 2.0 protocol in the new TCP/IP stack provides a
number of communication enhancements, including greater performance
when connecting to file shares over high-latency links and better security
through the use of mutual authentication and message signing.
Improvements due to client-side (Windows Vista) enhancements
Searching Windows Server 2008 servers from Windows Vista clients
delegates the query to the server, which uses the Windows Search technology
to search and transfer the results back to the client.
In a networked environment with a print server running Windows Vista,
clients can render print jobs locally before sending them to print servers to
reduce the load on the server and increase its availability.
Event forwarding aggregates and forwards logs of subscribed Windows Vista
client computers back to a central console. Event forwarding can be enabled
on the client subscribers from the central server directly from the event
3.4 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
OPERATING SYSTEM- WINDOWS 7, WINDOWS SERVER 2008 R2
BROWSER- ANY HTTP BROWSER MOZZILLA 5.0x OR MORE
SERVER SIDE SCRIPTING- C#, ASP .NET
CONNECTION PROTOCOL- TCP/IP, HTTP, WAP
3.5 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
PROCESSOR : PENTIUM IV
CLOCK SPEED : 2 GHZ
SYSTEM BUS : 32 BIT
RAM : 128 MB
HDD : 40GB
MONITOR : VGA COLOR
KEY BOARD : 108 KEYS
MODEM : 56 KBPS
MOUSE : PS/2
FDD : 1.44 MB
System design is the solution to the creation of a new system. This phase is
composed of several systems. This phase focuses on the detailed implementation of the
feasible system. It emphasis on translating design specifications to performance
specification. System design has two phases of development logical and physical design.
During logical design phase the analyst describes inputs (sources), out puts
(destinations), databases (data sores) and procedures (data flows) all in a format that
meats the uses requirements. The analyst also specifies the user needs and at a level that
virtually determines the information flow into and out of the system and the data
resources. Here the logical design is done through data flow diagrams and database
The physical design is followed by physical design or coding. Physical design
produces the working system by defining the design specifications, which tell the
programmers exactly what the candidate system must do. The programmers write the
necessary programs that accept input from the user, perform necessary processing on
accepted data through call and produce the required report on a hard copy or display it on
4.1 LIBRARY PRELIMANARY DESIGN
System design involves transformation of the user implementation model into software
design. The design specification of the proposed system consists of the following:
Develop the modules structure for the software.
Develop the specification for each module.
Design the file layout or the database.
4.3 DATABASE SCHEMA DESIGN
The overall objective in the development of database technology has been to treat
data as an organizational resource and as an integrated whole. DBMS allow data to be
protected and organized separately from other resources. Database is an integrated
collection of data. The most significant form of data as seen by the programmers is data
as stored on the direct access storage devices. This is the difference between logical and
Database files are the key source of information into the system. It is the process
of designing database files, which are the key source of information to the system. The
files should be properly designed and planned for collection, accumulation, editing and
retrieving the required information.
The organization of data in database aims to achieve three major objectives: -
• Data integration.
• Data integrity.
• Data independence.
The proposed system stores the information relevant for processing in the MS
SQL SERVER database. This database contains tables, where each table corresponds to
one particular type of information. Each piece of information in table is called a field or
column. A table also contains records, which is a set of fields. All records in a table have
the same set of fields with different information. There are primary key fields that
uniquely identify a record in a table. There are also fields that contain primary key from
another table called foreign keys.
Normalization is a technique of separating redundant fields and braking up a large
table in to a smaller one. It is also used to avoid insertion, deletion and updating
anomalies. All the tables have been normalized up to the third normal form. In short the
rules for each of the three normal forms are as below.
• First normal form
A relation is said to be in 1NF if all the under lying domain of attributes contain
simple individual values.
• Second normal form
The 2NF is based on the concept of full functional dependency. A relation said to
be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non-key attribute is fully functionally
dependent on candidate key of the table.
• Third normal form
The 3NF is based on the concept of transitive dependency. A relation in 2NF is
said to be in 3NF if every non-key attribute is non-transitively.
4.4 WEB FORM DESIGN
Web Forms are based on ASP.NET. Working with Web Forms is similar to
working with Windows Forms. But the difference is that we will create Web pages with
Web forms that will be accessible by a Web browser. Web Forms are Web pages that
serve as the user interface for a Web application. A Web Forms page presents
information to the user in any browser or client device and implements application logic
using server-side code. Web Forms are based on the System.Web.UI.Page class. The
class hierarchy for the page class is shown below.
• Template Control
4.4.1 COMPONENTS OF WEB FORMS
In Web Forms pages, the user interface programming is divided into two parts:
the visual component (design page) and the logic (code behind page).
The visual element is the Web Forms page. The page consists of a file with static
HTML, or ASP.NET server controls, or both simultaneously. The Web Forms page
works as a container for the static text and the controls we want to display. Using the
Visual Studio Web Forms Designer and ASP.NET server controls, we can design the
form just like in any Visual Studio application.
The logic for the Web Forms page consists of code that we create to interact with
the form. The programming logic is in a separate file from the user interface file. This file
is the "code-behind" file and has an ".aspx.vb" (VB) or ".aspx.cs" (C-Sharp) extension.
The logic we write in the code-behind file can be written in Visual Basic or Visual C#.
The code-behind class files for all Web Forms pages in a project are compiled
into the project dynamic-link library (.dll) file. The .aspx page file is also compiled, but
differently. The first time a user loads the aspx page, ASP.NET automatically generates a
.NET class file that represents the page, and compiles it to a second .dll file. The
generated class for the aspx page inherits from the code-behind class that was compiled
into the project .dll file. When the user requests the Web page URL, the .dll files run on
the server and dynamically produce the HTML output for your page.
SNAPSHOTS OF PROJECT
HOME PAGE this is the main page of our college website. Header consists of a flash
banner, marquee on both sides, quick links etc. A pre-recorded message by our principal
is placed here. The design & User-Interface is designed using different Style sheets
(CSS) and that Principal message (when clicked, open in a dialog box) is made using
T & P This is the Training & Placement Cell page. It is designed in a very attractive
way showing corporate linkages of our college with various companies.
STUDENT ACTIVITY CENTRE This page is designed for showing videos and snaps
of various activities by students like Fresher Parties, our Technical Fest etc. That Banner
in the top is made using ADOBE FLASH ULTIMATE.
VIDEO GALLERY This page is fully made with Flash. It consists of videos of our
college activities. Flash Factory is used here to make this.
CAMPUS TOUR This page is made for showing our college campus to the visitors.
This page is designed using FLASH FACTORY in which Flash coding is used to make
STARTING This is the main starting view of the designed application.
LOGIN AS This is where the worker @ library has to choose to login as either
Administrator or Checker.
LOGIN PANEL This form is a login form for Administrators @ the Library/Book
Bank/Library Manager etc.
STUDENT REGISTRATION This form is made for the registration of Students of
every year/branch in the Library. This is done separately and act as an Online Library
Card which is stored in the database so students don’t need to carry cards/worry about
them (if missing/stolen).
ISSUING OF BOOKSThis form is made to issue the books to students. It first verifies
the book, if found in the database, issue that to the student.
BOOK DETAILS This form shows the details of books issued to a particular student
(student id is entered previously). Further, you can issue/return books.
BOOK/MAGAZINES ENTRY This form is only visible to the Library Manager.
She/he can add books or periodicals etc. to the library.
ENTRY FORMThis form is made to enter the details of particulars books/periodicals
which has to be stored in the database of library.
GROUP POLICY MANAGEMENT
IMPLEMENTING GROUP POLICY OBJECTS
6.1 SYSTEM TESTING
Testing is a set activity that can be planned and conducted systematically. Testing
begins at the module level and work towards the integration of entire computers based
system. Nothing is complete without testing, as it is vital success of the system.
• Testing Objectives:
There are several rules that can serve as testing objectives, they are
1. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error
2. A good test case is one that has high probability of finding an undiscovered
3. A successful test is one that uncovers an undiscovered error.
If testing is conducted successfully according to the objectives as stated above, it
would uncover errors in the software. Also testing demonstrates that software functions
appear to the working according to the specification, that performance requirements
appear to have been met.
There are three ways to test a program
1. For Correctness
2. For Implementation efficiency
3. For Computational Complexity.
Tests for correctness are supposed to verify that a program does exactly what it
was designed to do. This is much more difficult than it may at first appear, especially for
Tests for implementation efficiency attempt to find ways to make a correct
program faster or use less storage. It is a code-refining process, which reexamines the
implementation phase of algorithm development.
Tests for computational complexity amount to an experimental analysis of the
complexity of an algorithm or an experimental comparison of two or more algorithms,
which solve the same problem.
• Testing Correctness
The following ideas should be a part of any testing plan:
1. Preventive Measures
2. Spot checks
3. Testing all parts of the program
4. Test Data
5. Looking for trouble
6. Time for testing
7. Re Testing
The data is entered in all forms separately and whenever an error occurred, it is
corrected immediately. A quality team deputed by the management verified all the
necessary documents and tested the Software while entering the data at all levels. The
entire testing process can be divided into 3 phases
1. Unit Testing
2. Integrated Testing
3. Final/ System testing
6.1.1 UNIT TESTING
As this system was partially GUI based WINDOWS application, the following
were tested in this phase
1. Tab Order
2. Reverse Tab Order
3. Fie ld len gth
4. Front end validations
In our system, Unit testing has been successfully handled. The test data was given
to each and every module in all respects and got the desired output. Each module has
been tested found working properly.
6.1.2 INTEGRATION TESTING
Test data should be prepared carefully since the data only determines the
efficiency and accuracy of the system. Artificial data are prepared solely for testing.
Every program validates the input data.
6.1.3 VALIDATION TESTING
In this, all the Code Modules were tested individually one after the other. The
following were tested in all the modules
1. Loop testing
2. Boundary Value analysis
3. Equivalence Partitioning Testing
In our case all the modules were combined and given the test data. The combined
module works successfully with out any side effect on other programs. Everything was
found fine working.
6.1.4 OUTPUT TESTING
This is the final step in testing. In this the entire system was tested as a whole
with all forms, code, modules and class modules. This form of testing is popularly known
as Black Box testing or system testing.
Black Box testing methods focus on the functional requirement of the software.
That is, Black Box testing enables the software engineer to derive sets of input conditions
that will fully exercise all functional requirements for a program. Black Box testing
attempts to find errors in the following categories; incorrect or missing functions,
interface errors, errors in data structures or external database access, performance errors
and initialization errors and termination errors.
CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE
Finally I would like to conclude that in the 8 weeks while i was working on this
project we learned many new technologies, concepts and have also learn about working
in a team.
This insulates the application from technical implementation and enhancement to
support future technologies in a transparent manner without having the major impact on
the application. This also enables the easy portability of application to other operating
system and databases.
This project followed the maintenance SDLC, which involved the steps of the
Thus we were able to understand in greater details the various software engineering
processes, and were able to apply them to our live project.
The project module entitled "COLLEGE WEBSITE CREATION" has come to its
final stage. The system has been developed with much care that it is free of errors and at
the same time it is efficient and less time consuming. The important thing is that the
system is robust. We have tried our level best to make the site as dynamic as possible.
Also provision is provided for future developments in the system. The entire system is
secured. This website will be approved and implemented soon.
The project module entitled ―LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM‖ deals with
an effort to reduce the human efforts in maintaining piles of books manually which is
highly tedious, inefficient, time-consuming and very error prone, because the overloaded
work can lead to misplacing the collected information in papers. Thus the objective of the
system is to maintain data properly.
The main objective of the system is to locate the exact transaction of the system
being taken place without any errors in a well-computerized system. Master Reports with
summary are generated which the management for taking quick decisions can view.
Hence the computer system is ideal for maintaining and locating information of
any volume related to the system at any time.
The s/w can be enhanced in lot many ways in future to make it more scalable and
1.We can make links so that the users can see the books they have issued to their record.
2. We can include the issue and return dates in the records.
REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY
A wide variety of information sources are available on the internet. It is a great pleasure
for me to write foreword for this project.
1. Imar Spaanjaars, ―Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 with Visual C# and .NET‖, Wiley
Publishing, Inc., 2008.
2. K.K.Agarwal and Yogesh Singh, ―Software Engineering‖, New Age International
3. Henry F. Korth, ―Database Management System‖, 4th
4. Java Script – referring from www.w3schools.com.
5. Student guide, ―Designing and Creating a website‖
6. SQL Server2000 - Jeffrey R. Shapiro