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DISASTER OF INJUSTICE:Reflections on Disaster RiskReduction in Indonesia           EDITOR         HASRIADI ARY            ...
DISASTER OF INJUSTICE:     Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia     NATIONAL LIBRARY: Cataloging in Publica...
Daftar IsiDaftar Isi							                                                            iiiForeword	Breaking the Ice						 ...
III	     Epilogue	     Disaster of Injustice	 	            	            	           	            	           150     Refer...
Foreword  Breaking the Ice
Breaking the ice          “... Never again teaching us patience. The people are trained    to keep patient for a long time...
In the theory of disaster that we believe, we assume thata threat (hazard) will turn into a disaster when it meets withvul...
a very serious impact on ecosystems in different parts of Indonesia    and has threatened human life in particular. But th...
solve the disaster problems and to work on the policy issues in thisregional autonomy era. The political parties which oft...
a systematic effort to develop and to implement manual of the    Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR). Third, t...
connected by a river. For Panaikang village, it is threaten by       giant floods sent by Kompang village and droughts. Wh...
These diverse experiences are very interesting to learn for    anyone interested in working on disaster risk reduction pro...
We feel obliged to say many thank you to those who involve inthe program implementation, for their assistance, discussion ...
Finally, to the teams of DRR program which engages directly     or indirectly in the field, we also feel obliged to expres...
IPolicy Paper  Disaster is Not Merely  Natural Rage
1 is Not Merely Natural               Disaster               Rage           The desperate assertion that the ’nature is ra...
is still possible to be done is reducing the effect, by avoiding thevurnerable areas, preparing special design for the env...
This fallacy is then, as proven in many cases, very much likely     to prevent us from discussing about the political rage...
of sea surface level. Beside that the change of everage temperature,water pattern (snow/rain) fall from the sky in more in...
the greenhouse gas made the earth temperature is in the level     of habitable for the living being. GGC is also naturally...
number sequence is consistent with the number of income andthe amount of pollution to the atmosphere.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE...
Futhermore, CDIAC data about the per capita emission     contribution also showed striking imbalance. The people of US,   ...
Taking a close look on this injustice what actually happenedis we are facing atmosfer colonization. In the past the Europe...
is estimated will experience approximately 90% of the disasters     that take place because of the climate change.        ...
increase of average temperature for one level will make the riceharvest decrese for 10%.     Climate change also contribut...
Climate change caused the change of seasonal pattern that make it more difficult to     predict. In some parts of the worl...
Poverty Disaster      In accordance with the international standard, those withincome below USD 2 per day are (still) rega...
departments, could be properly targeted and not overlapped each     other. The government has integrated two poverty reduc...
only looking at collective violence, Indonesia has seen 3,608 casesin 14 provinces, out of 33 provinces, from 1999 to 2003...
Therefore, we must review the definition of disaster and what     the impact of the fallacy of that definition.     When H...
In addition, the commoners’ view on disaster perceive humanand natural disasters as a separate entity, so that nature is s...
the earthquake in Yogyakarta, revealed the strong links between     the types of house materials, and level of prosperity ...
distribution of disaster relief is just the tip and a small part of alarger problem, namely the seizure of land, the impli...
A study examined the pattern of ‘social’ conflict in various     places in Indonesia since 1999 revealed disturbing findin...
Bali also went bankrupt. Just in 2003, for example, in Pekalonganthe batik producers were collapse. The same case also exp...
reconstruction process, many community groups were involved in     the conflict of aid and eventually become suspicious wi...
2 Analysis of Disaster               Policy               Management Law     The making of Disaster Management Law (No. 24...
Fifth, the local and national government as well as Badan     Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB – National Body     of...
First, one implementation of this Disaster Management Law isthe establishment of “National Body of Disaster Management “an...
levels, as we have seen in the section above. This possibility will     also be exacerbated by the lack of adequate studie...
rights to the mode of production using the latest technology,saving labor and capital intensive.       Contrary to this pa...
have close ties with the government. In Article 14, concerning     the membership of steering element, for example, only a...
on the other side. It is an unequal division of labor. Article 47 ofthe mitigation process also presents a similar problem...
of knowledge between the people and the technocrats from     the ‘professional’ in an equal manner. Although there are mor...
to foreign parties that receive more specific category, namely:“international institutions” and/or “foreign non-government...
reference. Large scale institutions such as UNDP and Ausaid can     even be a de facto in many ways took the function of t...
3 Community-Based               Towards               Disaster Management     In light of the weaknesses of legislation an...
the solidarity of the people not died yet, that people can take the     initiative and run the initiative immediately, and...
HOW MUCH THE ORDINARY PEOPLE CONTRIBUTE?   This is a not simple question to be answered. The nature of this kind of people...
Involving People Since the provision of early informati­ n,   o     emergency response, until the reconstruction process, ...
In the event of disaster management conflict, Kei Islands isvery suitable to be presented here,12 because most of the solu...
government officials and traditional leaders, have “forgotten their     own customs,” it is time for the costumary law to ...
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
Disaster of Injustice: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
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♦Title: Disaster of Injustice: Reflection on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia ♦Author: Puthut EA dan Nurhady Sirimorok ♦Editor: Hasriadi Ary ♦Publisher: INSISTPress dan LPTP (member of INSIST) ♦Edition: I, Agustus 2010 ♦Detail: 15x21cm, iv+ 168page

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  1. 1. DISASTER OF INJUSTICE:Reflections on Disaster RiskReduction in Indonesia EDITOR HASRIADI ARY WRITERS • NURHADY SIRIMOROK • PUTHUT EA POLICY PAPER SERIES
  2. 2. DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia NATIONAL LIBRARY: Cataloging in Publication (CIP) INSIST Policy Paper Series Editor: Hasriadi Ary Writers: Nurhady Sirimorok, Puthut EA Translator: Mellanie Febrista Design: Eddy Susanto Lay Out: Ronny ©August 2010, first publication publisher: LPTP KANTOR KOMUNITAS LPTP Jl Raya Palur Km 5 Desa NGringo Kecamatan Jaten, Kabupaten Karanganyar. 9876543210 Printed by: INSISTPress Jl. Gandok Tambakan No.85 RT04 RW20, Sinduharjo, Ngaglik, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55581. Tel/Faks: 0274-883452. press@insist.or.id www.insist.or.idii DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  3. 3. Daftar IsiDaftar Isi iiiForeword Breaking the Ice 1I Policy PaperDisaster is Not Merely Natural Rage 111 Disaster is Not Merely Natural Rage 122 Policy Analysis of Disaster Management Law 333 Towards Community-Based Disaster Management 43II Stories from the Field 53 Conservation Ala Saridin 54 Two Hazards in Pondok Kelapa 67 Rations for livestock 77 A Trance Trick to Conquer the Water 86 The Tale of the Whispering Sand 96 Strategies amid the Conflict 104 Many Ways to Survive in Kompang 112 Steep Road To Lembang 124 Working on Two Feet 131 Local Wisdom in Disaster Management 140DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia iii
  4. 4. III Epilogue Disaster of Injustice 150 Reference 153 About the Authors 155iv DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  5. 5. Foreword Breaking the Ice
  6. 6. Breaking the ice “... Never again teaching us patience. The people are trained to keep patient for a long time.. “A cultural activist, Emha Ainun Najib, with his Kyai Kanjeng Community, expressed this statement on a religious gathering or finely called as a cultural dialogue, in a village in Yogyakarta, not long after Yogyakarta and Central Java was hit by a deadly earthquake in 2006. He commented statements of some Indonesian elites that asked the earthquakes survivors to keep their patience in dealing with the disaster. In another place, in another time, a school principal organized the students to perform prayers for tsunami victims in Aceh and Nias. A friend commented this action: “.. Of course, there is nothing wrong to pray. But, by performing such prayer, as well as those who said that the disaster is a fate and a destiny, I am afraid we put the responsibility of human made-disaster to God.. “ There is a line connecting the two statements above: for the majority of people, a disaster is still considered as a matter of destiny. And it turns out that the ruling class, perhaps because lack of understanding and trying hard to hide their incapacity in taking responsibility in disaster emergency, preach the story of patience. Both attitudes are based on a similar behavior: that the issue of disaster should be positioned on “someone else’s responsibility”. And indeed, in many places, this view has deep roots in the society who still views disasters as a warning of God which is unpredictable and unavoidable. Maybe this is what is called the magical consciousness. A serious “thinking fallacy” took place here.2 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  7. 7. In the theory of disaster that we believe, we assume thata threat (hazard) will turn into a disaster when it meets withvulnerability and low capacity. So an earthquake or a tsunamihazard, for instance, will not turn into a disaster if it not meetswith vulnerabilities and weak capacity, which cause casualties anddamages. In other word, the hazard will only turn into a disaster ifit has caused damaging effects and resulting casualties. In Sudan,since years ago, giant floods often hit the area and killed so manypeople. But because its government then took responsibility toprevent the flood from happening again, the annual flood todaydoes not caused significant casualties anymore. Our government, with their entire infrastructures andknowledgeable bureaucrats, suppose understand that this countryis located on the earth’s plates meeting that moves very dynamicand have potential to create earthquake, tsunami and volcaniceruption hazards. And with this awareness, they should take fullresponsibility for disaster prevention by implementing a policythat is integrated in inter-sector related to prevent the emergenceof disaster and to put it into action. Indeed, these are the dutiesand responsibilities of states, governments, politicians and all thecitizens. This is the responsibility of human being! Most part of Indonesia, because it is on the plates meetingmovement in the bowels of the earth, is located on the path ofthe Ring of Fire. The accumulation of the friction dynamics, inthe history of disaster record, Indonesia is vulnerable to be hitby earthquakes and tsunamis. After Mount Krakatau eruptionthat caused a giant tsunami in 1883, at least there were 17 majortsunami disasters in Indonesia within a period of almost a century(1900-1996). This record not includes the data of other disasterssuch as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. In the last ten years, there is a quantitative and qualitative nincrease of disaster in Indonesia.The emergence of such disaster hasDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 3
  8. 8. a very serious impact on ecosystems in different parts of Indonesia and has threatened human life in particular. But the high frequent disaster hazards that hit Indonesia more often these days do not have strong influence to make people think that indeed disaster can be prevented or avoided. This, however, happens because the disaster management models are still working on sporadic style with low coordination and slow emergency response. And the most significant of this model is it fails to put the community as the actor of disaster management. More bizarre and worse, as if it does not want to be outdone by other policy sectors, indication of corruption is rampant in the disaster management. As a result, any disaster management program does not have much positive impact on disaster risk reduction. The ability to minimize the disaster risks at the community level is also still weak. Attempts on disaster risk reduction programs are mostly seen as unpopular programs. From INSIST experiences, it is more likely caused by one of the top vulnerabilities among the communities: poverty. Therefore, disaster risk reduction programs are most likely slowed by the community’s initiative to fulfill their livelihoods. The community seems do not really put into concern about characteristic of areas where they live and earn a living, because the most important thing for them is to meet their daily basic needs. Of course, this is not the community fault and it is merely unjust if we only blame them. Because in accordance with Article 5 of Law No. 24 of 2007 on Disaster Management, the law mandates, “[t]he state government and the local government should be responsible in working on disaster risk management.” But the problem is we often have a sense of government “absence” when we really need its responsibilities. At the local government level, for instance, we still do not see the disaster issues integrated in all development strategies and policies. Although the local governments are the main actors to4 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  9. 9. solve the disaster problems and to work on the policy issues in thisregional autonomy era. The political parties which often crowdedthe country with their flags in providing disaster relief also donot take part in joining the integrated prevention programs eitherdirectly or through their representatives in parliament. Ironically,their emergency assistances turn into a hidden “campaignactivities”. Disaster hazard is still continued to happen in the comingyears. At least it is according to the official prediction based onscientific analysis. And the difficulties mentioned above are stillgoing on quite a long time. And the state (all elements of triaspolitica) still seems so busy taking care the recent porn film caseand working very hard to maintain and strengthen the power withall of their imagery political strategies. This, perhaps, should be therole of other parties such as Non-Government Organizations anduniversities to take more active parts. Although already so many“blue prints” or standards made by official agencies for disastermanagement, but the most important is to conduct a criticaldialogue on text books based methodology or approach with therealities on the community. Disaster analysis or assessment shouldno longer be based on an inventory of problems, but it should bemore emphasized on the mapping of potential, capacity, knowledgeand strength of the community. And from there then begin thework of disaster risk reduction programs with the community asits main actors. Based on various ideas and issues above, the DisasterRisk Reduction Program, the INSIST’s Building CommunityResiliency, runs since 2007 with support from CORDAID. Thisprogram was initiated for: first, to develop an initiative in buildingcommunity alertness along with the other parties to reduce disasterrisks. This also includes efforts to put disaster management inpolicy’s strategy and development implementation. Second, asDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 5
  10. 10. a systematic effort to develop and to implement manual of the Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR). Third, to increase capacity of INSIST’s network field workers who work in prone disaster areas, in order to avoid or to reduce disaster risks. INSIST selected six districts that have high disaster risks. The location’s choice is based on the area’s high level of vulnerability, complex disaster hazard, high poverty level, and regional policy that has yet support disaster risk reduction. The INSIST DRR program areas are:  Pacitan District, East Java Province. There are two villages selected for the pilot project i.e. Ketro village and Kali Kuning village. They are chosen because they have several number of hazards i.e. erosions, floods, droughts and high agricultural pests.  Kediri district, East Java Province. In this region, two villages were chosen as a pilot project. They are Sempu and Sepawon. These two villages are located in the closest position of Mount Kelud’s peak (ring one) that have higher potential hazard of mount eruptions, as well as floods and landslides. Besides, these two villages also have a very serious issue in term of land tenure status/rights.  Ende district, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) Province. Two villages are selected in this region: Tiwutewa and Dungga. The two villages are located in volcanic regions which are the Mount Iya, the Mount Mutubusa, and the Mount Kelimutu. The village’s selection is also based on various hazards such as landslides, droughts, climate change, and giant floods.  Sinjai district, South Sulawesi province. In this province, two villages that have different geographic characteristics are chosen: Panaikang village is located in the coastal area and Kompang lies in mountainous area. These two villages are6 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  11. 11. connected by a river. For Panaikang village, it is threaten by giant floods sent by Kompang village and droughts. While for Kompang, it is threaten by landslides, floods, and tornados. Southeast Maluku district, Maluku province. Two island- villages are selected for DRR program. They are Warbal and Tanimbar Kei. Hazards experienced by these two villages, like most small islands in Indonesia, are droughts that threaten food reserve, tidal waves, earthquakes, tsunamis, and diseases. North Bengkulu district, Bengkulu province. For this region, the selected villages are Pasar Palik and Pondok Kelapa. Hazards in these villages are earthquakes, floods, tidal waves, coastal erosions, and droughts. In implementing the Disaster Risk Reduction program,INSIST and its network members realizes that Disaster RiskReduction (DRR) activities cannot be separated from community’sproblems. This lesson teaches INSIST that disaster risk reductionrequires an increase in community’s capacities to meet their basicneeds. Because INSIST believes that the good community’scapacities is the best way to reduce disaster risk. INSIST and its members have been working in the sixdistricts for 2-3 years. We have learned a lot of lessons in learningprocess together with the community. Of course not all of theworks show rapid progress and bring about change. Some areeven stories of “failure” or slower acceleration. There are even areasthat showed stagnation signs of disaster risk reduction organizingwork, which resulted on a strategy to choose new DRR program’slocation. From various regions, there are different levels of progressin achieving project targets. Some areas even had influenced thedistrict public policy, but there are regions that still work in thevillage policy. These different levels are mostly determined byvarious social dynamics in each area.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 7
  12. 12. These diverse experiences are very interesting to learn for anyone interested in working on disaster risk reduction programs. Meanwhile for INSIST and its network members,these experiences are important for a reflection process. Not a few organizations also wish to study the works of INSIST and its network members in carrying out disaster risk reduction programs. These reasons make us eager to write and to publish this book. This book begins with INSIST’s point of view in perceiving disaster and disaster risk reduction management in Indonesia. This point of view is the result of INSIST critical reflection on various Disaster Risk Reduction activities developed in Indonesia, either conducted by other organizations (national and international) and especially from INSIST own experiences. In paradigm section, INSIST wrote about basic rules which must be held by all INSIST’s activists in disaster risk reduction work. The first part which wrote about INSIST’s paradigm or INSIST’s policy position in the work of disaster risk reduction is a summary of a reflective seminar on disaster risk reduction and climate change organized by INSIST. While the next section displays field stories from six DRR project areas. Stories appeared in this book is selected stories, because it is impossible to write down all the community organizing stories in this book. Stories written here are not only telling us about the success, but also the failure in the community organizing. Because we believe that all forms of success and failure are valuable in learning process. Even though all sources are based on real experiences in the field work, we choose summary approach. The writing of all these field work experiences is by asking writers in INSIST network’s circle who are not involved in the program implementation. And we provide full freedom to the two writers to see firsthand the field reality, to interview and to write the stories.8 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  13. 13. We feel obliged to say many thank you to those who involve inthe program implementation, for their assistance, discussion andreflection, in writing this book.To Kharisma Nugroho, CORDAIDLiaison Officer in the beginning of this join cooperation, we saythank you and appreciation for the refreshing critical discussions.Also to Anath Prag which continues the position of Kharisma,that faithfully become a discussion colleague through her criticalquestions. To Saleh Abdullah, INSIST executive secretary, whichrelentlessly beating the slower process in program implementation.To Ahmad Mahmudi, INSIST president, which constantlymonitors the quality of programs being implemented. To RoemTopatimasang and Toto Raharjo (the chairmen of INSIST’sBoard of Education and Development), the “school teacher oflife” and who are always faithful to accompany the discussion andimprove the methodologies of DRR. Thank you and appreciationof course are certainly not enough for them both. This book also will not present to you all without theinvolvement of our two best young researchers and writers:Nurhady Sirimorok and Puthut EA. They both are not only theresearchers and writers who work in ivory towers, but in manyoccasions they are also very much involved with activities directlyrelated to the community although in different issues. Therefore,the readers can immediately feel all their experience in their everychosen word in this book: a collection of words that are not presentin the “vacuum air.” For writing the book, we finally have to saythank you to a young “militant editor”, one of our “combatants”that always show his loyalty, integrity and professionalism everytime we need him: Hasriadi Ary. He is the one who puts the “finaltouch” in this book. We do not have others rather than words toexpress our gratitude and thank to the three of them: they’re themost excellent and promising that we have today.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 9
  14. 14. Finally, to the teams of DRR program which engages directly or indirectly in the field, we also feel obliged to express our respect and sincere appreciation. To Hambali and Sastro (Mitra Aksi Jambi /Bengkulu), Karno Batiran, Imran Gadabu, Happy, and Dedy (SRP Payo-payo/Sulawesi Selatan), Sulistyo, Untung, and Sapto (SUSDEC-LPTP), Ronny So and Onis (FIRD/ NTT), Pieter Elmas, Fritz Elmas, and Lilly Jamlaen (Nen Mas Il /Southeast Maluku), Heri DK, Rudi, Ipung, and Azhar (Surya Sejahtera/Kediri). We also thank Rahadi as program coordinator, the management team at the Institute of Rural Technology Development (LPTP) Surakarta, and to INSIST Secretariat. Without them, this program will not run. Without them, particularly our field facilitator teams, we as well the readers, will never learn the important and meaningful lessons. What the field facilitators did perhaps is not a big deal to create a change. But they have started their works with the spirit of devotion, both professionally and voluntarily, to do something. And for us, big changes will not occur without small changes. Puthut E.A. once said: “it is always disturbing to see our footprints behind ...” Like other books, this book is meaningless without a reader and if only put in dusty book shelves. And the readers for us are the one who will “write other books”. The readers will give birth to new thoughts after reading this book. That’s our expectation. Happy reading! Happy debating! Thank you.10 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  15. 15. IPolicy Paper Disaster is Not Merely Natural Rage
  16. 16. 1 is Not Merely Natural Disaster Rage The desperate assertion that the ’nature is raging’ often expressed accompanying the growing massive disaster threats attacked many parts of Indonesia, from series of earthquakes to tsunami. Through countless times of repetitions in the arena of public media, this expression is gradually revealing the true nature of mainstream paradigm in this country in examining the incident called ‘disaster’. The way of thinking, or thinking fallacy, like this is very problematic for the following reasons. First, this expression assumed human as passive being that could only desperately welcoming the coming of gigantic flood dan earth seismic without questioning who is the most vurnerable to be hit by this giant overflow and shock, or who is the most forced to settle in these disaster prone areas with or without knowing the vurnerability or the possibility of risks. This view is also impeding the people from the question of who is the most difficult to restore their lives after the disaster. Shortly speaking, disaster is also a political issue that discloses who has the dominant opportunity to avoid and live safe and sound in secure place, and who is marginalized and unavoidably deals with the vurnerability. It’s about who usually being prioritized to get help and who should strive to help themselves. Indeed when the disaster hazard has attacked, human being could not reject it. When earthquake and tsunami are attacking, the gigantic flood and earth earth are unstopable. However what12 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  17. 17. is still possible to be done is reducing the effect, by avoiding thevurnerable areas, preparing special design for the environment andsettlement housings, preparing effective early warning system anddisaster preparedness. All these endeavours required institutionaland technological preparation to prevent and restore the peoplefrom the effects of disaster. This is including establishing socialinstitutions at the community level that has been proven to beeffective and efficient in overcoming this condition. Yet to developa sovereign community’s institution required the political will ofthe ruling elite – that more often not affected by the disaster thusthey lack of sensitivity - to hand over some of their traditionalauthority, either materially or institutionally. Second, the the ‘natural rage’ paradigm also tend to maskthe conversation on the type of disaster that obviously the resultsof human actions, like conflict. This type of disaster was oftenregarded as social conflict, that most of the time accused ‘the cultureof conflict’ as the main cause. Therefore the solution was sendingmore troops to ’secure’ the people who are of keen of conflictingeach other. And this is still happening today although it has beenproven that the cause is not ‘culture’ but the political economicinterest of various parties but the people, and that people’s ‘culture’indeed prevent the people from the escalation of conflict and evenbring it to an end. Third, the believe of ’raging nature’ made most of us to forgetto ask where the ’natural rage’ is coming from, that lately is gettingmore outraged and taking more tolls. Indeed there are types of’natural rage’ that really natural such as earthquake, that the numberof tolls can be reduced through the institutional strengthening ofthe community and the sophistication of tehnological information,but there are also the type of ‘natural rage’ that clearly caused byhuman actions, such as flooding, storm and drought, that actuallycreated by the human themselves.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 13
  18. 18. This fallacy is then, as proven in many cases, very much likely to prevent us from discussing about the political rage that often accompanying every hazards and the process of disaster recovery. Yet by openly discussing it, as performed by many parties, we can reach better understanding, and with this comprehension all parties could develop more comprehensive and just steps, especially for the people who are vurnerable of disaster attack. This policy paper will explain the cause, effect, and various ways and results that left problematic in some aspects. This paper is divided into three parts; the first part will present various causes and effects of disaster either in Indonesia or at the global scale as comparison. The second part discuss various management methods and its results, as well as analyzing the latest policy of the government in disaster management. The last part will offer some solutions and alternatives to the government policy, based on the emerging problems and examples of emerging success stories. At the Beginning is Human One of the most fenomenal and widest scope of disaster causes – spread to the entire earth and the space above it – is climate change because of global warming. This is the reason, among others, and because it strikingly presents the map of global inequality, global warming will be discussed in considerable length in this part. Climate change has melted the glacier and ice in the the Pole in the speed that never imagined before. This has become more broadly discussed as the sea surface if getting higher. Because this danger is attacking the countries adjacent to the poles, which are the developed countries around the north and south poles, it is this effect that grasp biggest attention in the international public fora. However, climate change is not only about the rising14 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  19. 19. of sea surface level. Beside that the change of everage temperature,water pattern (snow/rain) fall from the sky in more intensive leveland in shorter duration also occurred. In tropical countries likeIndonesia, and other developing countries, it means, the rainyseason is shorter, on the other hand the drought dry season isgetting longer. Then what is really interupting the natural work of thenature? And who is really responsible for ’the rage of nature’ thatkeep escalating? The global warming is caused by the increase of greenhousegas concentration (GGC). The GGC is the gas on the air abovethe earth surface (atmosfer) that enables partial heat from thesun kept above the earth surface. Naturally this greenhouse gasesis also reflecting back the sun heat thus nota all absorbed by theearth, yet allowed the earth to absorp some part of it. Therefore,DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 15
  20. 20. the greenhouse gas made the earth temperature is in the level of habitable for the living being. GGC is also naturally keeping the stable climate. It is this temperature and climate adjustment that we have destroyed. The polluting smoke like carbon diokside (CO2), nitrogen ocside (N2O), metan (CH4), troposferic ozone (O3) and steam add this concentration. The increase of GGC, that cause this dramatic climate change, mostly caused by human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel for transportation, industry, electricity, the change of land use, deforestation, and forest fires. Charcoal, or trees remnants, could become emission. Data from World Resources Institute Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) mentioned that the emission resulted from the burn of fossil fuel contributed 2/3 of the total emission released to the air. While the rest 1/3 produced by human activities from forestry and agriculture sector, as well as garbages. In other words, industrial sector beome the biggest contributor for global warming. Undoubtedly since the Industrial Revolution, the average temperature of earth surface increase about 6-8 celcius (IPCC). If we, human being, did not do anything, it is estimated that increase of earth temperature will only reach the level of 1, 4 – 5,8 Celsius. Why human being is so agressive in destructing the globe where they live? One of the answers is because we excessively treated income, and therefore improving access to superficial life comfort, as the parameter of success of a community. Using various kinds of technology to increase income and life comfort turned the developed countries as the biggest contributor of pollution on earth, because they are becoming the biggest users of fossil fuel in the world. Data also mentioned that United States is the energy user number one, followed by a small numbers of developed countries, members of OECD, then far below are most of the countries that often called as developing countries. This16 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  21. 21. number sequence is consistent with the number of income andthe amount of pollution to the atmosphere.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 17
  22. 22. Futhermore, CDIAC data about the per capita emission contribution also showed striking imbalance. The people of US, Australia and Canada are polluting the sky with carbon diocside for more than 15 metric tonnes, compared to the people of China that each citizen only producing emission at the amount of 2,7 metric tonnes, or Indonesia with 1,4 and India that only contributed 1,2 metric tonnes. This data was not considering yet that the factories operating in the developing countries were mostly owned by investors from developed countries, that can go beyond the national borders through economic globalization system such as Foreign Direct Investment, that can easily moving to other places when it is not profitable anymore.18 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  23. 23. Taking a close look on this injustice what actually happenedis we are facing atmosfer colonization. In the past the Europeanssticked the peg of colony in about half of the globe. Now theygo up to the sky and colonize almost entire atmospher layers.The countries of the main beneficiaries of the tehnology, namelythe developed countries, will experiene that smallest effect ofthe destructions that they created. On the contrary, the leastcontributors of pollution, mostly poor peoples from the developingcountries, will experiene the worst impacts of this climate change.They are the countries and communities that are most unpreparedand unable to adapt, because of economic and politial situationvurnerable to manipulation, not ready with the institutional andtehnological infrastruture to overcome this climate change. TimorLeste, for instance, who have limited number of industries, thus itscontribution to the climate change is relatively insignificant, mostlikely will not be ready to cope the impact of climate change. Whilethe countries and communities the biggest contributor to climatechange, like US and Canada in the North Pole, and Australia inthe South Pole, as the highest contributors of emission, are waymore well prepared for any possibilities that might occurred. While in Indonesia, in 2006 only, WALHI recorded 135ecological disasters. More 7,000 lives passed away and more than10 millions forced to be refugees. An estimate even mentioned thatin 2050 the number of refugees can be up to 200 millions people,this number is almost equivalent with the number of populationof Indonesia. Even the World War II, one of the biggest disasteron the globe until today, was not overwhelmed with this numberof refugees. It also means the most serius security threat today isnot terrorism, but climate change. The number of 200 millionsrefugees is definitely not a small amount. If the present process ofclimate change is not significantly altered, these predictions willcertainly come into reality. Indonesia is situated in Asia, where itDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 19
  24. 24. is estimated will experience approximately 90% of the disasters that take place because of the climate change. Even in Bali island – the place where the huge event of climate change conference was held – is predicted to experience abrasion in about 430 shoreline, the height of sea water level will increase up to 6 meters. Therefore according to this prediction, in 2030, Kuta and Sanur will be flooded, Bali Post reported. Moreover, this level of increase is still a conservative estimate. The most recent prediction can reach up to 10 meters. In addition, again according to similar prediction, if the sea water increase that high, then in 2050, there will be many seashore areas in Bali that sink. The historical sites in the Island of Gods will be vanished by the sea. And equivalently frightening, it is not difficult to imagine small islands scattered in the eastern part of Indonesia, like Kupang, Timor, and some islands in Maluku will be flooded. Studying deeper this climate change indicator, in one hand flood will occur more frequent and on the other hand serious drought, in some places the rain drops decrease and increase in other places. Therefore, the hazard is sinking or no water at all. The intensity and duration of season will permanently changed, that means rainy season in many places will be shorter with intensive drop. The time of season is also changing, sometime rainy season stop earlier or coming late. In 2008, for example, just until the first quartal, Jakarta has experienced floods twice. One of them badly humiliated Indonesia with the cut off of acces to largest airport in this country. As an agricultural country of course this change will severely hit the local food production. Just at the global level, an estimate mentioned that 280 million tonnes of cereal potentials, such as rice, corn, maize, in the developing countries will diminish up to 16%. Beside, more important for us, there is a theory that the20 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  25. 25. increase of average temperature for one level will make the riceharvest decrese for 10%. Climate change also contributed negative effect to healthcondition. The extreme climate will hasten the spread of newdisease and can potentially raise old diseases. The World HealthOrganization predicted that the increase of temperature and raindrop because of climate change have caused 150,000 humandeaths every year. Diseases like malaria, diarhea, and dengue areestimated to increase in the tropical countries like Indonesia. All these effects of climate change enhance the vunerabilityof poor people when the disaster hazards are attacking them.People in the developing countries, like Indonesia, who suffermore limited food and water sources and sickness, of course canbe easily be the victim of disaster (see box). But this is merely the hazards caused by climate change, thatmore or less caused by excessive human exploitations at the globallevel. Furthermore, there is another kind of vurnerability causedmore by the imbalance of state governance that lean more onthe ruling-elite, that inside them we can call as disaster, namelystructural poverty. This type of vurnerability is also seriouslythreatening at the global level that some parties were gathered andcreated Millenium Development Goals where the main objectiveis reducing the poverty number up to half of the sum since thelaunching year until 2015. The next part will discuss this type ofvurnerability.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 21
  26. 26. Climate change caused the change of seasonal pattern that make it more difficult to predict. In some parts of the world, it increases the rain drop intensity that potentially triggers flood and landslide. While the other part of the earth can experience prolonged droughth season, because of the increase of temperature and the decrease of moisture. According to Re Swiss Insurance company, 90% of the disaster related to climate took place in Asia. The weather pattern will become extreme – the possibility of excessive heat, hot wave, and heavy rain will be more likely to occur. In addition, the tropical cyclone storm will be more intensive, accompanied with strong wind and heavy rain. Furthermore climate change will affect our lives like this:  Food security threaten – The agricultural production of food and fishery will decrease because of flood, drought, wáter warming and pressure, sea water increase, and strong wind. Climate change also will influence the harvest schedule and duration of cultivation. The 10 celcius temperature increase is estimated to reduce the harvest of rice as much as 10%.  Environmental effect – Many varieties of living being will bound to extinct because of climate change and disruption of ecosystem sustainability (fragmentation of ecosystem). The coral reef will lose its color because of hot climate, being damaged and even dying because of high temperature. The researchers estímate that 15% - 37% of the entire species will extinct in six parts of the globe in 2050. The six regions that they studied represented 20% of earth surface.  Health risk – Extreme climate will hasten the spread of new disease and can raise old diseases. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the increase of temperature and rain fall because of climate change have caused 150,000 deaths every year. Diseases like malaria, diarrhea, and dengue are predicted to increase in tropical country like Indonesia.  Water – Water availabity is reducing 10% - 30% in some regions especially in dry tropical areas. Water scarcity will hit millions of people in Asia Pasific because of long dry season and intrusión of sea wáter to the mainland.  Economy – The loss of productive land for the increase of sea surface and drought, disaster, and health risk have economic impact. Sir Nicolas Stern, the advisor of UK prime minister said in next 10 to 20 years climate change will have huge economic impact. Stern mentioned that the world has to take necessary efforts to reduce emission and help the poor countries to adapt with climate change for the sustainability of economic growth. He explained that it will require 1% of the total global income to prevent the loss of 5% - 20% income in the future as the impact of climate change. Social, cultural and political impact. Climate change related disaster will boost the number of refugees in one country or inter-country. This process make many people impoverished and uprooted from their social and cultural roots, especially the relation with their ancestor and cultural roots. On the other hand, crisis of food, wáter and resources, and the increase of refugee numbers will create horizontal conflict and trigger political conflict in one country or inter-country.22 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  27. 27. Poverty Disaster In accordance with the international standard, those withincome below USD 2 per day are (still) regarded as poor. If we usethat poverty standard, then in Indonesia, the number of peoplewho live like this have reached striking number, namely 59,5%or about 135 millions of people. BPS/Bappenas themselves applylower standard (2.100 kkal; or USD 1,55 USD/day). As the result,the number of poor people in Indonesia in 2007 can be ‘reduced’into 16.6% or 37,17 millions (BPS, 2007). Yet the story is not ended on these figures, as poverty isalways dynamic. We know that there is upper and below level inpoor community that is very vurnerable to shock. In other words,there is a level who is in ’poverty’ line, and the group categorizedas ’very poor’, that should be really fed, and lastly those who arein the level of almost poor. If any shock occurred, for instance therise of fuel price, flood, landslide, or conflict, then they can easilyfall into lower level: those who are almost poor become poor andso on. Poverty alleviation program is also still using problematicparadigm. The poverty alleviation program in Indonesia is stilladhering to the “neo-liberal paradigm” too. Loan, for example, isstill the main source in financing the Program Nasional Pember­dayaan Masyarakat (PNPM - National Program for CommunityEmpowerment). However, the total amount of foreign loans thatare not absorbed into similar scheme are still huge. Based onBappenas data, until Desember 2007 the unspent foreign loanswere up to USD 9 – 10 billion. Moreover, it was indicated thatonly quite a few budget allocation in several offices were actuallyreaching the poor in need. Indeed, in 2008, it was planned that 100 percent of povertyreduction programs were already under one of coordination, so thatthe various poverty reduction programs, spread over 19 technicalDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 23
  28. 28. departments, could be properly targeted and not overlapped each other. The government has integrated two poverty reduction programs, i.e. the Program Pengembangan Kecamatan (PPK – Sub-district Devlopment Program) and Program Penanggulangan Kemiskinan di Perkotaan (P2KP - Urban Poverty Alleviation Program), previously managed respectively by Department of the Interior and the Ministry of Public Works. Both programs, now integrated into the Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM - National Program for Community Empowerment). In 2009, the government was targeting both poverty reduction programs, which until 2006 has covered 39,282 villages/kelurahan in 2,600 sub-districts, could reach all the 5,623 sub-districts in Indonesia. Yet again, PPK and P2KP are poverty reduction programs which aimed at job creation through rural infrastructure develop­ ment programs through labor intensive and capital provision for small and and medium enterprise development models. They targeted to create 250 jobs over three years! So if it could be implemented in 50,000 villages, then for three years it will create 12,5 million jobs. In 2005, the budget allocation for poverty reduction was Rp 23 trillion and in 2006 increased to Rp 43 trillion and Rp 52 trillion in 2007. All these calculations seem to allocate less attention to complication factors outside of economic aspects that obviously occur more often. Neo-liberal paradigm is standing on many very fragile assumptions that the social, political and ecological condition in Indonesia will always be in equilibrium atmosphere. Of course, this assumption is minimally considering the transaction cost of the long and expensive Indonesian bureaucracy. Then, to our current affairs, it is difficult to imagine them to provide space to think about the impact of various disasters, whether caused by natural phenomenon or by human conflict. For example, by24 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  29. 29. only looking at collective violence, Indonesia has seen 3,608 casesin 14 provinces, out of 33 provinces, from 1999 to 20031. Notto mention when bearing in mind that social conflicts are morelikely to occur during the local elections, and when consideringmore frequent disasters will happen with the worsening ecologicalcondition of the world. Since the beginning, the series of failure of these on-the-paper calculations has been presented in front of our eyes. In 2002,the number of poor people was 36,4 million. Until September2006 (with the standard of $ 1,55/day), it was increasing to 39,40million. At the same time, it was reported 25 percent of childrenaged up to five years were suffering from malnutrition. Also,307 maternal deaths per 100,000 births, or three times highercompared to Vietnam and six times than Malaysia or China.While the number of unemployed, one of the numbers that thisambitious program is intending to reduce, according to BPS datain 2007 was 38% of the total work force, close to the poverty ratein 1978 and 1980! Thus, we are still confronted with the worsening povertydynamics and the failure of the assumption (too simplifying)that underlie the solutions to reduce it. This situation makesus wonder how the poor and vulnerable people will face theincreasingly deteriorated natural conditions. Poor people is thegroup who always suffered the most pathetic public services,ranging from packages of food, clothing, shelter, education,health and information. How they can avoid disaster and lessenthe impact they are facing, with all the inadequate facilites? 1 Varshney, et al., 2004 in Lucia Fransisca (2007). The Dialectics of Action inBuilding Community Participation: The Case of Post Yogyakarta Earthquake HousingReconstruction, Indonesia. Research Paper, Insitute of Social Studies, The Hague.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 25
  30. 30. Therefore, we must review the definition of disaster and what the impact of the fallacy of that definition. When Hazard Meet Vulnerability In order to re-build the people-oriented concept of ‘disaster’, there are several other concepts that need to be explained in relation to the concept of disaster. From the literature, there is the concept of disaster hazard (the threat of disaster), risk (the risk) and vulnerability (susceptibility). Hazard or disaster threat can be read as a latent danger or risk factors that constantly threaten human life. It is emerging because of natural or human activity, keeping the destructive power and demanding for losses. But it can only be a ‘disaster’ if a human community that vurnerably affected by the hazard.2 This definition revealed that disaster could only happen if there are vulnerable people affected by disaster threat or danger (hazard), or when losses exceeded the community’s ability to absorb, cope with and recover.3 Disaster is not a ‘naive’ rage of nature phenomenon, but also arises from human action. Nor is it something that necessarily occurs when ‘the nature is raging’ caused by human actions or natural phenomena. It is the convergence of two aspects, on the one hand, there are vulnerable populations, such as those who resided in the territory of the ring of fire or flood- prone riverbanks because there is no more safe places left for them, and/or because it did not receive quality information regarding the hazards haunting them. On the other hand, there is a degrading natural/social condition because, for example, the augmentation of global warming, forest declines, the social class gap, and so on. 2 Hewitt, 1983: 5; Cardona, 2004: 38; UN/ISDR, 2004 (in Thywissen, 2006:463); Kiunsi and Meshack, 2006: 229 in ibid. 3 Blaikie et al., 1994; O’Keefe et al., 1983; Westgate and O’Keefe, 1976 in ibid.26 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  31. 31. In addition, the commoners’ view on disaster perceive humanand natural disasters as a separate entity, so that nature is seen astargets of human domination and control for the convenience ofliving and self-realization through the practice material shaped bythe market exchange.4 They also tend to consider nature as evil andbarbaric, as opposed to orderly and civilized human beings. Thesupporters therefore suggested that nature should be controlledfor the sake of development and progress. In fact, a lot of evidencesshow that it is precisely the pursuit of economic growth throughthe exploitation of nature that placed human beings as a target ofthe disaster hazards, for example by destruction of forests and thesocial cohesion of the surrounding community. Therefore, in line with this thinking, the vulnerability mustbe viewed as a hierarchical layer consisting of a pile class of peoplewho are in the path of disaster hazards in different degrees, bothin terms of the realization of these hazards or in terms of theability of community groups the cope with the threat effects andhow much they can help other community groups to recover aftera disaster.5 If we return to the prospect of disaster in Indonesia, thediscussion above suggests that it is the impoverished people,vulnerable ecology, and weak institutions that potentially make thepoor people, whose numbers more than half of total opulation, astarget of catastrophic hazards. When something like the tsunamiin Aceh and Yogyakarta earthquake are occurring again, then withthe current conditions it is hard to imagine that Indonesia couldreduce the impact of the disaster hazards. Disasters will continueto occur at the same level, or perhaps worse. For example, the Gajah Mada University, who conductedrapid assessment on the phenomenon of houses destruction after 4 Oliver-Smith, 2004: 13; Hewitt, 1983 in ibid. 5 O’Keefe, et al., 1983: 264.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 27
  32. 32. the earthquake in Yogyakarta, revealed the strong links between the types of house materials, and level of prosperity and education. This study showed that 43 percent of houses destroyed (which means 814 houses), the head of the household only attended primary school or below. This figure is higher than households headed by middle-educated household heads and so on, which is 31 percent (542 homes).6 Adding this explanation I Wayan Sengara, from the Research Group on Disaster Mitigation Institute of Technology, supported this study with interesting facts that most of the destroyed houses are located in rural areas where most vilagers work in agriculture and home industry.7 To overcome the vulnerability phenomenon requires the perspective of Disaster Risk Reduction, which saw the threat of disaster as something that can still be avoided by relocating potential victims from places vulnerable to hazards. If the houses were not built in areas identified as prone to earthquakes, when the houses were built to absorb earthquake shocks, or if early monitoring systems could warn citizens to relocate before the earthquake, of course the impacts of these shocks could be mitigated. Because there’s no man-made technology today that can stop an earthquake, as imagined by those who believe of the unlimited human capacity to conquer nature. But on the other hand, there are still much that can, and should, be done to face of the inevitable work of nature. And not just despairingly waiting the giant flood that commonly held as the ‘fury of nature’. Politics of Aid Other hazards to the impoverished people indeed come from the intention and practice of disaster management itself. The mess in the form of corruption cases that occurred during the 6 Bappenas et al., 2006 in Lucia Fransisca 7 Widyanto et al, 2006 in Lucia Fransisca28 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  33. 33. distribution of disaster relief is just the tip and a small part of alarger problem, namely the seizure of land, the implications thatfor disaster victims will take place in the long term, far beyond theperiod of post-disaster rehabilitation. The issue of business that intrude the disaster field is indeedhas become a theory. Naomi Klein, in the “Shock Doctrine” men­tioned, one of the founding theoretician of neoliberalism, MiltonFriedman, suggested that the change of an existing system alwaysrequire crisis. If the crisis comes in form of disaster from naturalphenomenon it would definitely become a pleasant coincidencefor Friedman supporters. If the crises do not happen, than it canbe created, for example through conflict. With the occurrence ofthe crises, the land and social institution will be lost or weakened.Therefore it would be easier to establish new system on the bareland. It means, at this part, at least we can talk about two types ofthreats, firstly related with the seizure of direction and forms of postdisaster reconstruction, and grabbing of land left by the disasterrefugees. Both prevail to the refugees of natural phenomenondisaster, or the one caused by human such as conflict. Basically disaster always cause people to leave their homes,that means vurnerable to lost their land either for living spaceor their place for earning income. Unfortunately the commonphenomenon of losing the land is one of the issues that rarelybeing touched in the policy making or the refugee managementplan, especially if indeed there has been already an intention toremove the community from their homes. This is usually the casein profitable places to start commercial businesses. The studyabout this particular issue is still rare in Indonesia; therefore itis still not become public consumption for wider people. Someexamples could give initial idea about this particular issue.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 29
  34. 34. A study examined the pattern of ‘social’ conflict in various places in Indonesia since 1999 revealed disturbing findings. For example, after the ‘inter-religious’ conflict in Poso, after many Moslems and Christians relocated from their villages, giant companies started to enter the villages left by the people. Multi- national companies like Inco, Freeport, Arta Graha and other big companies could easily enter the ‘empty’ places. Another example, after the murder of religious leaders and community elders in East Java, from Tuban to Bayuwangi in 1998 – 1999 (about 248 people), Monsanto8 could easily procure concession of 100 thousand hectares for soya bean and hybrid corn planting for the period of 25 years.9 Exxon, Santa Fe and Santos obtained concession for oil and natural gas from Tuban to Pasuruan. The north coastal of East Java has changed from fishpond region into five stars hotel region. The same case also occurred after the first conflict in Ambon. The first project constructed after the bloody conflict is an inter­ national airport. As the result, one of the most luxurious airports in Indonesia now already existed in Ambon and Manado. Even in Ngadi Island, the small island in the southeastern of Maluku, an export import port has been constructed; this tiny island has become a host for an international class port. Of course, this port was not constructed to relocate the community to abroad. It was not constructed to meet the urgent need of the post-conflict community. Back to Bali, after Bali Bombing I, the economy of Bali was halted. Most of the production sector that the final market was in 8 When the shooting of farmers by the marines in 2007, general public people merely perceived it as land tenure conflict between the local farmers and the marines. People did not clearly examined that Grati, the place of the shooting, was the candidate location for oil and gas drilling, the second after Sidoarjo by a Santos consortium, in the framework of oil and gas exploitation of the golden triangle of East Java, Madura and Bali. 9 Don K. Marut, “Globalization and Conflicts among the Poor in Indonesia”, Keynote Speech Paper in Groen Links Party Conference, Groningen, October 2003.30 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  35. 35. Bali also went bankrupt. Just in 2003, for example, in Pekalonganthe batik producers were collapse. The same case also experiencedby the artisans of Yogya and Solo. Not long after that, hotel andrestaurant owners were also lamenting, they couldn’t afford to payback the credit. What happened next was a logical consequence, thetransfer of hotel ownership to the parties who could pay the debt.Of course, considering this information, it is not unpeculiar, oneyear after the accident new hotels were built in the most profitableregion in Bali, but the ownership has changed. The Balineseare not the owners anymore. The small hotels have turned intoluxurious hotels. The transfer of property ownership in Bali washappened very fast. The expansion of luxurious hotels and resortswere very quick. At the same time Head of Jembrana District wasplanning to construct new airport and toll road in Bali. Althoughit is not necessary to be an engineer to know that even without tollroad, Bali will not experience serious traffic jam. One of the localfigures even makes a joke, “if Jembrana is eventually success forconstructing the infrastructures, why other surrounding districtsare not following?” It was obvious that the neighboring districtsdid not gain any points to learn from Jembrana. The effects of the aid politic are not only the grabbing of landand direction of reconstruction, but also go deeper to the damagingof social values of the community. Examples that revealed how aidscheme destructed the social system of the people have becomecommon stories in many disaster sites. After the disaster inYogya, for example, the common people got appreciation for thesuccess of their communal strength that made them not passivelywaiting for aid. By counting on what they have around them andthe help from their neighboring communities, they graduallyable to clean up the ruins, started their daily activities, in theprocesses of emergency response to reconstruction. However afterthe involvement of big organizations brought huge fund for theDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 31
  36. 36. reconstruction process, many community groups were involved in the conflict of aid and eventually become suspicious with each other. Similar case, in wider scale, happened during the reconstruction of Aceh. Corruptions were rampant, mis-targeted aid happened everywhere, level of community dependence kept growing, and finally the multi-parties conflict occurred everywhere. If this phenomenon considered in aid politic frame, we can read it as intended actions. It means, if the community members are in conflict, it will be easier to relocate them, and in many examples of social movements so far, the seizure of private properties will happen when a conflict take place within a community. When conflict happened, the social solidarity will be easily to vanish, and all properties of the community will be taken over easier. This is the pattern that prevailed in many places in Indonesia. The players were mostly from multinational companies. To prevent the land grabbing and reconstruction direction, the people need to immediately establish strong institution; therefore they can select the information and programs that come to their place. In addition there should also be strengthening of government apparatus so they are aware about the impacts of mis-directed aid, and be wary of land grabbing that might happen in a very smooth way and will be very harmful for their people.32 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  37. 37. 2 Analysis of Disaster Policy Management Law The making of Disaster Management Law (No. 24/2007)has been performed. This legal product is promising enough forsome reasons. Firstly it includes some principles that can giveopportunities for wider public to take parts in disaster management.Second, it seems that the law is quite conceptually precise, thus itwill prevent mis-interpretation during the disaster management. Third, the disaster vocabulary is accurately defined, so it willenable people to differentiate disaster and disaster hazard andthe relation with vulnerability. As in the conceptualization above(see part 1), the hazard should meet the vurnerability to presentdisaster. In other word, if the vurnerability decrease the impact ofdisaster can be reduced. This concept is already in line with theconcept of disaster risk reduction that now aclamatically acceptedeverywhere. Fourth, this Law is also revealing the governmtent willingnessto be fully responsible on disaster management. Article 55 forexample mentions that national and local governments becomethe responsible institutions in the implementation of disastermanagement. Among others they will work on disaster riskreduction, community protection, guarantee the provision ofpeople’s and refugees’ right to restore the condition of disastereffect, and allocate fund in APBN (State Budget), and ready touse financial allocation.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 33
  38. 38. Fifth, the local and national government as well as Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB – National Body of Disaster Management) at the local and national level will implement the management of disaster aid resource (Article 66). And Article 78, stipulate the sanction for misuse of the disaster aid resource management. These regulations are very important to solve this problem that has frequently occurred in the past. Sixth, although it is not specifically mentioned in the preamble about the relation of government policy and geographical character of Indonesia as archipelagic country, Permendagri No. 27/2007 (about the preparation of infrastructure and facility for disaster management), in Article 3, has mentioned about refugee management. This is important because according to some studies, the impact of climate change and environmental damage, the influence will be more intensive to happen in small islands rather than in continental region. Although Indonesia is archipelagic country, the development policy tends to follow the development direction of the geographically continental landscape countries. The disaster risk in our country even threatens the most populated areas, the seashore areas. We can clearly see the impact of climate change that the geographical areas of Indonesia will decrease, especially in coastal line. That is only one of the effects. In addition, rain will come late; dry season will be longer and drier. And the impacts are, among others, rice and corn production will decrease, it will definitely weaken the food security (see part 1). Therefore the budget proportion supposes to be taken out from refugee fund. Yet behind all the good potentials of the legal product above, there are still some things that should be noted that need to be sharpened here and there, either through public test or by variety of derivative legislations that follow.34 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  39. 39. First, one implementation of this Disaster Management Law isthe establishment of “National Body of Disaster Management “and “Regional Body of Disaster Management” (Article 10 and18 of Law No. 24 of 2007). This legal product still shows theimpression that the government intentionally or not has createdan arena for the vested interests of political elites. It is very possiblebecause the position is a ministerial-level agency on a nationallevel and a level below Governor or Regent/Mayor at the locallevel. These positions must be very strategic and “seductive” in theeyes of political elites. This attraction can be difficult in variouslevels of implementation of this legal product. Secondly, the fact that most of the derivative implementingregulations contained the bureaucratic job descriptions from theplanning to the implementation of disaster management programsneed to be critically examined. This government regulation isdominated with the establishment of management structures,rather than describing in detail how the disaster managementworks will be carried out together with people, who are oftenthe main victims. This is also reflected in its derivative regulationnamely PP no. 21/2008, concerning the implementation of disastermanagement. In Article 11, for example, disaster risk analysesprepared and determined by the head of BNPB, by involving the‘relevant institutions’ only. However it is this analysis that will beused to “prepare the environmental impact assessment, spatialplanning and take disaster prevention and mitigation measures”(Article 3). Third, the factor of climate change due to global warming andhigh level of poverty are not clearly articulated in this Law. And itturns out after reading all of PP 21/2008 on disaster management,none of these articles that specifically talk about this issue. In fact,the vulnerability of a community because these two factors has beena latent danger that threatens us all the time at a very troublingDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 35
  40. 40. levels, as we have seen in the section above. This possibility will also be exacerbated by the lack of adequate studies that follow the associated policy formulation, as is often the case. Ministry of Environment, for example, prior to December 2007 has issued a document of national action plans for coping with disasters. Though this effort has not been supported with comprehensive data that contains predictions about the impact of climate change, it has become a lively debate. This makes the maze of information about disaster risks and hazards are still sporadically spread. Of course it will inhibit us to prepare to compehensively handle disaster. This also explains why the regulation issued by the government looks very simple, only about a bureaucratic division of labor, and ignoring the many elements that contribute to the vulnerability of the communities. For example, the capacity and environmental buffers that have been damaged and getting more damaged, which makes us more vulnerable to disasters and the impact of disasters, could be missing from the observations of policymakers when they are preoccupied with the purely “natural” disaster hazards like an earthquake and tsunami. Fourth, linking this policy with the poverty reduction in Indonesia, first we have to deal with the way of thinking that shape poverty alleviation policy. In government’s poverty eradication programs, the disturbing fallacy worried many people. There are two paradigms which exactly the opposite in terms of how to achieve them. First, the assumption that economic growth is the best prescription to eradicate poverty because it will absorb a lot of labor. Although empirically shows completely different reality. One of the main causes is the rise of capital intensive and labor-saving industrial production modes. Nevertheless, the acceleration of globalization provides new arguments to the proponents of growth. Global competition, reportedly, only giving36 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  41. 41. rights to the mode of production using the latest technology,saving labor and capital intensive. Contrary to this paradigm is the belief that the poor shouldbe helped to earn income. Small businesses, believed to be the mainsupporter of people’s economy, though usually underestimatedby the government. In fact, when equal opportunity is availablecompared with a capital intensive business, small businessesbelieved to be able to increase investment, innovation, businessdevelopment and income. Unfortunately, not yet found convincingempirical evidence that these assumptions may be true. Besides,the success or failure of an effort defined by the availability ofmarket for them.10 Well, if the two mainstream thoughts about poverty reductionalone is negligent of the reality on the ground, it was difficultto imagine these two problematic thinking could contribute toreduce the vulnerability of the poor. In other words, if povertyis the vulnerability, then the alleviation is an effort to reduce theimpact of this vulnerability. And if the rationale for the alleviationstill problematic how can it be used to reduce the impact ofdisasters? Here we have not talked about how to alleviate poverty(which, when properly conceived and executed) can be effectivetools to reduce disaster impacts. Fifth, the product of government regulation also makesthe public wonder about the accessibility of various elements ofsociety (mainly the people and non-governmental organizations)to control the application of this law. In other words, people stillhave to work hard to ensure all the rights of participation andaccess stipulated in this law come to reality. In the articles mentioning about the membership of ‘steering’and ‘implementation’ elements in both national and regional level,there is no element outside the group who had been indeed already 10 Ivan A. Hadar, Media Indonesia, 4/1/2006DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 37
  42. 42. have close ties with the government. In Article 14, concerning the membership of steering element, for example, only assigning officers and ‘professional community’ as the candidates. About the last element, the criteria are not described further, making it difficult to identify who ‘professional community’ is, referred to in this legislation. Something similar occurs in Article 15 of the membership of ‘executive element’. When mentioning about the design of national and regional policy, hardly any public participation required for this strategic work. Meanwhile, community participation is mentioned only when the planning was conducted at the community level itself (Article 26). Here we see the dualism of design which is, of course, hierarchical. The design done from below will be difficult to apply when the community-level design is conflicted with the draft produced at higher levels. In addition, it is not difficult to imagine this design would be difficult to be adapted, making it very easy to guess which design will come into reality. Sixth, despite the community’s rights guaranteed in this Law (referred to in Article 6 section C), but after reading the entire manuscript, these rights still need to be adjusted to what has been defined by the steering element’ and ‘executive element’ at national and regional levels, with very little opportunity for the community to influence them. By only mentioning ‘participation’ does not mean people have the power to determine the direction of planning and implementation of disaster management. The notion about the meagre opportunities for public participation are also seen when the law makes no mention about the use of traditional knowledge in every step. Analysis of disaster risks, for example, does not mention the use of traditional knowledge as one important element. This is also the case to Article 45 on preparedness that even mentioning, “the decision making by the government,” on one side, and “taking action by the community,”38 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  43. 43. on the other side. It is an unequal division of labor. Article 47 ofthe mitigation process also presents a similar problem. Paragraph2 of this article which explains about how the mitigation workperformed, not a single word mentioned the use of people’straditional knowledge. In other words, in this section an exchangeof knowledge will not likely to take place. Point C of this section,for example, mentions “providing education, counseling andtraining, both in conventional and modern methods.” (See box)  Article 47 Point 2 Mitigation activities referred to in paragraph (1) is done through: a. implementation of spatial planning; b. regulation of development, infrastructure development, building layout, and c. providing education, counseling, and training in both conventional and modern. The portion that includes ‘education’ is strongly stressed,which could mean that the government is still not convinced oftraditional knowledge, so that citizens still have to be ‘educated’.Concerning this problem, the legislation was even necessaryto place it in a special article, namely Article 43, in addition toappearing in a few paragraphs in other chapters. And to ensurethe centrality of the role of government in the work of ‘education’,this article mentions that, “Education, training, technical standardsand requirements for disaster management .... implemented andadopted by the Government .... “Here, shows the government is notsimply holding regulatory function of ‘stipulating’, but also willingto perform the implementation function, that they supposed toshare. Impeding the meaning of this folk knowledge is potentiallygiving a much larger space for a ‘professional society’ to handledisaster management. Thus it is difficult to imagine an exchangeDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 39
  44. 44. of knowledge between the people and the technocrats from the ‘professional’ in an equal manner. Although there are more evidences to demonstrate how local knowledge can lead people to avoid the impact of a major disaster. Seventh, the lack of explanation about the ‘community institutions and organizations’ that is written in Article 59 (1) part e, leaving a problem of conceptualization. This section merely states: ‘[1] institutions and civil society organizations, [2] the business world, and the [3] community’ as an element that can participate in the reconstruction process. From the use of vague concepts in this article we do not know who exactly is meant by the first party and third. ‘Institutions and civil society organizations’ and ‘society’ can mean anyone, whether it is employers who claim as a society, political parties, and onwards. Here the involvement of the community, outside of political society and economic society, is still half-heartedly, so that people outside those two types mentioned above were not detailed. In addition, also in PP No.21/2008, showed that the contribution of the community did not get proper recognition in terms of providing basic needs assistance immediately after disasters occur. The stunting of this community contribution for example is reflected in Article 52 paragraph (2) which states that: “The fulfillment of basic needs as referred to in paragraph (1) conducted by the Government, local government, community, business organizations, international institutions and/or foreign nongovernmental organizations, in accordance with minimum standards as stipulated in laws and regulations” Here the “community” is perceived only as a single entity without specified further, so it does not reflect the many sides of the “community” that had been directly involved in the fulfillment of basic needs. Especially when we see the treatment of this Law40 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  45. 45. to foreign parties that receive more specific category, namely:“international institutions” and/or “foreign non-governmentalinstitutions.” And the government is divided into “Government”(center) and “the regional government.” Various cracks in the legislation is demonstrating the lack ofsocialization of different perspectives that in fact already widelyknown in many disaster management. Factors of poverty, aid politic,local knowledge, participation to empowerment, independence,is still part of the marginalized issues, although its capability toreduce the impact of disasters has been demonstrated, things thatactually have to be explained at the beginning of this law. Consequently, it is difficult to avoid the impression that thebasic concepts and principles of this Law prepared by the expertswith full comprehension on disaster issues, but the part on theimplementation of the concepts and basic principles done byexperts with poor perspectives, so that when writing it they wereisolated by the picture of disaster as something that has happened,that the result is physically visible, or worse, is limited to eventswith high media coverage. The hazards still to come due to globalwarming, hailed with poverty and weakness of state institutionsto face the political invasion and reconstruction assistance, has notbeen an important element in shaping the Disaster ManagementLaw. Furthermore, if we observe the weak points, this legislationproduct still reflects the flaws of disaster management in the past.Important things like community involvement, concern for thevulnerability that caused climate change, poverty, political aid,meet with the government’s plan to be the sole executor (with alow level of public participation), reminiscent of what happenedin the past in disaster management. In Aceh, for example, what after the tsunami happened wasthe government’s paralysis. Nobody saw the government as aDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 41
  46. 46. reference. Large scale institutions such as UNDP and Ausaid can even be a de facto in many ways took the function of the government in the first three months. At the same time governments and donors establish new government institconstructution, namely the Badan Rekonstruksi dan Rehabilitasi (BRR, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Body), which had no branches in districts, subdistricts and villages, but only in the provincial capital. This phenomenon kept potential conflict. The problem that now arises is how to divert BRR into the governance of local authorities at various levels. In fact, in any disaster situation, the main reference should be to the government, and non-governmental actors have to refer to them. In other words, in this kind of cristical situations, the regulation and coordination functions of government are absolutely necessary. The fact is, most disasters occur in the district and the main reference of affected residents is usually the local government. When local governments do not yet have an institutional framework that is ready for all this, the emergency response will be hard to achieve. Not to mention when we talk about a whole series of disaster response, ranging from emergency response, reconstruction to rehabilitation. For this reason, other than having ready-to-wear institutional framework, the government should not act as executor, because they will not be able to do it alone, and should position themselves as arbiters of direction for many stakeholders who are working in a state of crisis. They receive inputs from the public and process them to be good policies either for ad hoc or long term. So what do they do remain contextual and not overlooking the fairly diverse people’s knowledge and work.  42 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  47. 47. 3 Community-Based Towards Disaster Management In light of the weaknesses of legislation and planning andimplementation of disaster management in the past, and givenexamples of the successful handling of a cultivated varietyof parties, this section will review some basic principles thatcould be the basis of the principles and approach to disastermanagement. After that, it will discuss the principle andapproach of people centered disaster management, who usuallybecomes the most vulnerable disaster-affected. Then based onthe principles and approaches, presented several proposals forthe improvement of existing policy, either as proposed changinglegislation, and to improve the implementation of those policies.Basic Aspects The fundamental aspects that are not sufficiently touchedin the existing legal product are: believe in self-reliance, theinvolvement of the people as the basis for implementation, andtransformation of the role of government. Believe in self-reliance In Yogyakarta, assistance from neigh­boring districts flowing into the disaster areas a few weeksafter the earthquake. The amount of this aid, in quan­ ity alone tis staggering (see box). Not to mention when calculating thepsychological effects of neighbor support. And the awakeningof people solidarity is very important factor in building disasterpreparedness that likely to occur in the future. It also proves thatDISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 43
  48. 48. the solidarity of the people not died yet, that people can take the initiative and run the initiative immediately, and uses all existing social communication tool, which they strongly identify, to implement the right target. This proves that the residents have a variety of resources and can cooperate with the government to jointly carry out disaster management. When all the stakeholders are willing to see further the strength of this people, by doing more in-depth assessment to prepare action plan, the result might be able to change the orientation of foreign aid, which in many cases actually make things more chaotic. The conflict of vested interest that potentially harmful for the people. And the government can continue with the mindset of begging for foreign aid. For example, one study states that in the early months after the tsunami in Aceh in 2004 and early 2005, the World Bank issued a proposal based on the results of their assessment in the agricultural sector in Aceh. The proposal mentioned that agriculture in Aceh had to be diverted to the cash crop. The reason was: food crops were not productive enough to restore the income of the farmers of Aceh. This proposal obviously wanted to encourage the farmers of Aceh to enter the global market economy. Not to mention this proposal clearly lead to conversion of rice field to palm oil to the export market.11 At the other end, if this proposal be realized, food insecurity and vulnerability to global market prices have been waiting for the Acehnese. 11 Donatus K. Marut, paper for “Natural Disaster and Climate Chang”, a seminar organized byINSIST, Yogyakarta, 16 February 2008.44 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  49. 49. HOW MUCH THE ORDINARY PEOPLE CONTRIBUTE? This is a not simple question to be answered. The nature of this kind of peoples spontaneous actions, totally based on trust and almost without written documents, was made it difficult to figure out its exact numbers. However, based on our direct experiences and observation in the field in the last two weeks, we can approximately made a general calculation as follows: (1) Simply say that there are 30 initiatives (organized group of actions) that happened every week both in Bantul and Klaten areas. Actually, more than that but let us use this figure as a base of calculation. Set the number lower than the real one is, of course, make sense then the vice versa. (2) Say that each initiative have sent 3 trucks of materials and 1 truck of volunteers. To make it easier, we can simply divided the trucks of materials into three different loadings: 1 truck fully loaded with woods (average capacity is 4 meter cubics); 1 truck fully loaded with raw bamboos (average capacity is 600 trunks); and 1 truck fully loaded with ready-made gedhek (average capacity is 200 pieces). The current price of those materials in Jogyakarta and surrounding today are IDR 800,000 (about USD 87) per cubic of woods (light and soft kind, grade- 2, commonly found and used in this area); IDR 7,000 (about USD 0.9) per trunk of raw bamboos; and IDR 50,000 (about USD 5.2) per piece of ready-made gedhek (the best quality one, made from the outer hard-skin, not from the soften inner-skin, of bamboos). So, the value of the peoples contribution in term of this kind of materials is: 30 initiatives x 4 cubics of woods x IDR 800,000 = IDR 96,000,000 (USD 10.4 thousand); 30 initiatives x 600 trunks of bamboos x IDR 7,000 = IDR 226,000,000 (USD 24.5 thousand); and 30 initiatives x 200 pieces of gedhek x IDR 50,000 = IDR 300,000,000 (USD 32.6 thousand). (2) Another 1 truck fully loaded with 40 volunteers. Of course, they are not paid but we should calculate the value of their voluntary labours. So, we can use the current average price of daily payment of a construction worker and carpenter in Jogyakarta today, that is IDR 25,000 (about USD 3.0) per day. For their meals, we can simply put IDR 15,000 (about USD 2.0) per person per day (Jogyakarta is the cheapest place all over Indonesia). So, the value of the peoples contribution in term of their labours and meal expenses is: 30 initiatives x 40 persons x IDR 25,000 = IDR 30,000,000 (USD 3.2 thousand); and 30 initiatives x 40 persons x IDR 15,000 = IDR 18,000,000 (USD 1.9 thousand). (3) All of those 4 trucks were rented for the whole day operation. The current rental price in Jogyakarta today is IDR 300,000 (USD 33) per day. So the value of peples contribution in term of this transportation costs is: 30 initiatives x 4 trucks x IDR 300,000 = Rp 36,000,000 (USD 3.2 thousand). (4) Hence, the total value of peoples contribution is: IDR 522,000,000 (amount of all materials) + IDR 84,000,000 (amount of labours, meals, and transportation expenses) = IDR 606.000.000 (USD 65.8 thousand) per week. Once again, this is not including yet other contributions in form of non construction material and labours. Let say that those kind of contributions are in the same of amount too. So, the total value of local people to peoples spontaneous aid in Bantul and Klaten areas is about USD 1.2 billion (about USD 140.6 thousand) per week. Since already happened in the last two weeks, its total value to date is IDR 3.6 billion (USD 390.2 thousand or almost half a million). There is another way to calculate it easier based on the unit cost of simple temporary houses that are helped to construct by those local volunteers. There are some different model but let us here to use a prototype which is now socialized by our volunteers both in Bantul and Klaten areas. The prototype --a quake-proof construction made from woods and bamboos-- was designed by Mr. Eko Prawoto, an architect of Yayasan Pondok Rakyat (The Peoples Hut Foundation). With the size of 4 x 6 meter, the unit cost is IDR 9 million (about USD 978). From our field observation in the last two weeks, we can estimate about 600 unit of this kind of simple temporary houses were already constructed by the local people themselves all over disaster areas in Bantul and Klaten. It means that the local people themselves, through their spontaneuos actions of solidarity, have contributed about IDR 5.4 billion (about USD 0.5 million) to the reconstruction processes of earthquake affected areas in Jogyakarta and Central Java! That is for rebuilding simple temporary houses, not including yet another kind of spontaneous aid and donations. So, why some government officers still thinking to beg new loans from international financial institutions and foreign donors? Source: Insist News, June 27, 2006, accessed May 4, 2008, http://www.insist.or.id/index.php?lang=en&page=article&artid=27DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 45
  50. 50. Involving People Since the provision of early informati­ n, o emergency response, until the reconstruction process, the people are able to function properly. With the traditional knowledge, for example with the ability to read signs of nature, this problem can be solved directly on the spot. They do not necessarily depend on sophisticated they can not control. The highly expensive experts who can operate the sophisticate technology do not have to be stationed all the time in that place; the government certainly had no sufficient fund to operate it continuously. In addition, information transmission system that tells the coming of hazard, which sometimes delayed could be covered with traditional knowledge. For a more comprehensive prevention, such as reducing emissions that cause global warming, the popular traditions are also able to function appropriately. In Bali, for example, a thousand of people were amazed at the Opening of the Conference on Climate Change. At that time they watched the coverage of the tradition of Nyepi in Bali, where one day in a year most of the inhabitants of this island performed the ritual of Nyepi, a self- contemplation ritual. On that day, there is no passing vehicles and electricity turned off. Once calculated, thanks to this ritual, it turns out that CO2 emissions released by all kinds of machines, reduced to 20,000 tonnes. While many people think about how much it cost and technology needed to overcome the problem of climate change, in Bali, just by not doing anything all the people already contributed emissions reductions in large numbers. This is certainly in contrast to the hustle and bustle of development, those who strongly believed income generation as the main aim, which turned out to be a contributing factor in the largest emissions of our earth.46 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
  51. 51. In the event of disaster management conflict, Kei Islands isvery suitable to be presented here,12 because most of the solutionsdone by civil society organizations, namely the traditionalorganization of indigenous peoples who assisted by local NGOs.And the root of this conflict, according to the belief of many Keipeople, precisely because of community dissatisfaction against thegovernment. In April to June 1999, the Kei Islands witnessed conflict inthe scale they had never imagined before. Violence’s spilling fromthe western part of Maluku was claimed 5000 lives and forcedhalf a million people evacuated from their homes. In Tual aloneabout 200 people died and 30,000 refugees displaced from theirhomes. More people died in the camps for the emergency andinsufficient, due to the brunt of diarrhea and vomiting, fever andmalaria. A combination of factors between resources control andbenefit sharing, and common property issue, which are all rooted inthe centralization government during the New Order period, havedeteriorated the customary laws of Kei people. These conditions,and weakening of traditional arbitration institutions, are a timebomb than can easily provokeda conflict that is difficult to belocalized and ceased. Specifically this situation sparked peoplediscontent against state institutions deemed to have created andmaintain this disparity, and intentionally or not has ruined thecostumary law on communal resource management. One of themost obvious evidence is that when conflict occurs, the villagesthat highly involved in this ‘disaster’, both as an attacker or targetof the attack, were the villages where many employees or officialsof local government. In short, political leaders in Kei, both local 12 This section is excerpted from Craig Thorburn, Accidents: Control of resources, violence,and the rediscovery of a tradition in the Kei Islands, in the PM Laksono and Roem Topatimasang(ed.) (2004) Ken Sa Faak: The seeds of peace from the Kei Islands, Nen Mas Il-Insist Press, Tual-Yogyakarta.DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia 47
  52. 52. government officials and traditional leaders, have “forgotten their own customs,” it is time for the costumary law to ‘payback’. This conflict can only be extinguished; according to the belief of Kei people, when they revived the tradition of ‘golden era after the dark age’. How to ‘revive the tradition’ that is when some influential indigenous leaders and elders in Kei called to evoke the historical roots and traditions of the Kei people. One of the appeal that is often echoed: “Wuut ainmehe, obedient ainmehe tilor,” (We all come from the same eggs of a fish and a bird). With peaceful statements from indigenous elders like this, all parties finally admitted that “we are all guilty” (ken sa faak), and begin the resolution process with a variety of traditional rituals to ‘revive the custom’. It is the people’s social capital, and not the security apparatus, which halted the conflict in a relatively short time compared to other places in Maluku. Role of Government Transformation Both social, political and economic disaster (conflict, economic crisis, conflict of ideologies, and so on) as well as natural disaster, should be a vital moment to unite governments, peoples and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to build resilience and strengthen community resilience with the most vulnerable groups (children, women and the elderly, and poor groups) in the community. Considering the trend that even the state apparatus was used by the business power to take over the role of the state in disaster situations and prevention, it is required to create decisive institutional arrangements to protect the government, the civil society orgaizatins and of course protect the most vulnerable people based on susceptibility scale (as in disaster situations anyone can categorize themselves as vulnerable group). Included in this institutional arrangement is the law, organizations,48 DISASTER OF INJUSTICE: Reflections on Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia

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