SocInfo2011 - Designing For Motivation

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SocInfo2011 - Designing For Motivation

  1. 1. Designing For Motivation Focusing on Motivational Values in Two Case Studies Fahri Yetim, Torben Wiedenhöfer and Markus RohdeInformation Systems and New Media International Institute for Socio- Siegen University Informatics (IISI) Hölderlinstr 3, 57076 Siegen, Bonn, Germany Germany Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  2. 2. Markus RohdeInformation Systems SocInfo2011 –and New Media Session F5 Peer ProductionProf. Dr. Volker Wulf
  3. 3. Markus RohdeInformation Systems SocInfo2011 –and New Media Session F5 Peer ProductionProf. Dr. Volker Wulf
  4. 4. Understanding Social Informatics ,,the interdisciplinary study of the design, uses and consequences of information technologies that takes into account their interaction with institutional and cultural contexts“ (Kling 1999) Socio-Informatics (Rohde/Wulf 2011):  Socio-technical, dual nature of IT artifacts  Design in interaction with social practicesKling, Rob (1999): What is social informatics and why does it matter? D-Lib Mag 5(1).Rohde, Markus and Wulf, Volker (2011): Sozio-Informatik. Informatik-Spektrum, Vol. 34, No. 2, 210-213 Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  5. 5. Markus RohdeInformation Systems SocInfo2011 –and New Media Session F5 Peer ProductionProf. Dr. Volker Wulf
  6. 6. Research Questions What motivates users in different use cases? Are there significant commonalities/ differences between the cases? What mechanism/ design features may support motivational values and thus motivate people to annotate in these use cases? Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  7. 7. Motivational Design Design your App Usable Design your App Enjoyable Design your App for Visibility Design your App Sociable Design your App Valuable Design your App Explorable Design your App Flexible Design your App in a Participatory Way Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  8. 8. Framework Value Sensitive Design VSD approach (Friedman et al., 2006): considering human values throughout the design and deployment of information technologies VSD as an iterative process that integrates conceptual, empirical, and technical investigations.  Conceptual investigations in central value concepts and issues  Empirical investigations focus on the social context and on the particular design  Technical investigations aim at design to support values analyzing current technical mechanisms Friedman, B.; Kahn, P.; and Borning, A.: Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems. In P. Zhang & D. Galletta (eds.), Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Foundations. M.E. Sharpe, New York, 2006, 348-372 Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  9. 9. Exampels/ Related Work Batson et al. (2002) motivation for community involvement:  Egoism (increase one’s own welfare),  Altruism (increase the welfare of another individual or individuals),  Collectivism (increase the welfare of a group),  Principlism (uphold one or more moral principle) Kuznetsov (2006) motivations of Wikipedians: reputation, community, reciprocity, altruism and autonomy Hars and Qu (2002) participation in open source projects: altruism and identification with a community Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  10. 10. Value Sensitive Design Criteria Reputation building: Individuals’ desire to establish their reputation and to gain approval from others in the field (Oreg/Nov 2008) Self-development: The desire for self-development through learning from others in the field, receiving feedback, and enhancing one’s abilities and skills (Oreg/Nov 2008) Autonomy: The freedom of independent decision making (Kuznetsov 2006) Status and Recognition: The desire for social acceptance and appreciation (Fang/Neufeld 2009) Sense of ownership and control: The desire for personal power, prosperity and control (Fang/Neufeld 2009) Free software ideology: Altruistic structure of belief, public good attitude (Fang/Neufeld 2009) Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  11. 11. Telco: Intranet Knowledge Management Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  12. 12. Adfind: Web Services PortalMarkus RohdeInformation Systems SocInfo2011 –and New Media Session F5 Peer ProductionProf. Dr. Volker Wulf
  13. 13. Research Method Telco Corp: 11 semi-structured interviews (1 hr.) and a focus group workshop with 5 participants (2.5 hrs.) Adfind: 8 semi-structured interviews (1 hr.) and a focus group workshop with 14 participants (2 hrs.) Audio-/ Video-Recordings, Transcriptions, Ex-Post-Categorization Design Recommendations Participatory Design Evaluation Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  14. 14. Telco Findings (I) Community support. Users emphasized the relevance of community for them. One stated that the internal network is very strong and people tend to help each other. They emphasized the usefulness of expert allocation support, to locate contact persons to access community knowledge more easily. Reputation. Desire to gain recognition from others in their company. One was interested to build a reputation in a certain area. Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  15. 15. Telco Findings (II) Self development. Learning from the annotations of others was highly valued by several participants: importance of the usefulness of annotations. Annotation would allow to find information from other projects more easily to enhance personal knowledge. Another strived to track the expertise of people for his own area. Self benefit. One stated that without personal benefit it’s as a “waste of time”. Another would only use the tools if annotating would be their main job. Personal enjoyment. Having fun during annotating: “entertaining” side of the tools is very important Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  16. 16. Adfind Findings (I) Self-benefit. Highest importance for motivating participants in this case. All would annotate web services to reach a personal goal, even though their goals differ (commercial interest vs. open source services, personal consumers enhance their own web service retrieval processes, rewards like exclusive access to withhold information or functionalities). Self development. Need for personal development and need for appropriate instruments that may be helpful for the personal development. Value of retrieving expertise from other developers. Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  17. 17. Adfind Findings (II) Reputation. Web service developers need professional reputation. One values the possibility to make his own web services more visible. Another pointed at changing status from “newcomer” to “experienced developer” would motivate. Community. A community would foster motivation to actively contribute to semantic content creation. Users want to bring something back to a community they had profited from. Personal enjoyment. Having fun during the annotation process is also emphasized by some participants. Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  18. 18. Motivational Values Supportive Design Features/MechanismsReputation(-building) Visibility to the community Multiple channels Building reputable online identities (adfind) Points/money (telco) and status reward systems (adfind)Self-benefit Feedback through rating of actions/choices Explaining self-benefits (telco)Self-development Rewarding through access to extra information (adfind) Incentivizing by tagging awareness (telco)Community Promoting reciprocity Explaining community benefits (adfind) Informing about the beneficiaries of contributions (adfind) Incentivizing by goal-setting (telco) Rewarding cooperative behavior Social comparison through visualization of contributionsPersonal Enjoyment Integrating fun features Packaging the task as a game Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  19. 19. Limitations Limited number of participants involved in both empirical studies – due to the method chosen. Lacking generalization – due to case studies and context-based empirical design. User communities can change, there may also be emerging values. Design features need to be implemented and tested/ evaluated in both application contexts – this is ongoing work. Markus Rohde Information Systems SocInfo2011 – and New Media Session F5 Peer Production Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
  20. 20. Thank you for your attention! Markus Rohde markus.rohde@uni-siegen.de http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de http://www.iisi.deMarkus RohdeInformation Systems SocInfo2011 –and New Media Session F5 Peer ProductionProf. Dr. Volker Wulf
  21. 21. Example Video AnnotationMarkus RohdeInformation Systems SocInfo2011 –and New Media Session F5 Peer ProductionProf. Dr. Volker Wulf

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